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Full text of "Foods and food adulterants"

A A 5 ; o 



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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 

BULLETIN No. 13. 




FOOD ADUL 



RANTS 



INVESTIGATIONS MADE I'NDEl! DIRECTION OF 

i I . W. WILEY, 

Chikf Chemist, 

WITH THE COLLABORATION OF II. A. HUSTON, H. II. NICHOLS 
W. B. RISING, M. A. SCOVELL, S. P. SHARPLES, W. c. STUB 
8HIPPEN WALLACE, F. G. WIKCILMAW, II. A. WEBER, 

and k. p. Mcelroy. 



part sixth. 

Sugar, Molasses and Sirup, Confections, 
Honey and Beeswax. - j » Jg 




PUBLISHED BY AUTHORITY OF T 



:;£-J 



WASHINGTON: 
KENT PRIN CING OFFl( B. 
L892. * 



U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE. 

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 

BULLETIN No. 13. 



FOODS 



AND 



FOOD ADULTEKANTS 



[INVESTIGATIONS MADE UNDER DIRECTION OF 

H. AV r . AVI LEY, 

Chief Chemist, 

WITH THE COLLABORATION OF II. A. HUSTON, II. II. NICHOLSON, 

\V. B. RISING, M. A. SCOVELL, S. P. SHARPLES, W. C. STUBBS 

8HIPPEN WALLACE, F. <;. WIECHMANN, II. A. WEBER, 

AND K. P. McELKOY. 



PART SIXTH. 

Sugar, Molasses and Sirup, Confections, 
Honey and Beeswax. 



IMIU.lsMKIi HV AUTHORITY OF Nil. SEI K1.IAKV nK AGRICULTURE 



WASHINGTON : 

OOVERNMEti I PRINTING OFFICE. 
1 892. 



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL. 



U. S. Department of Agriculture, 

Division of Chemistry, 
Washington, J). C, February 23, 1892. 
Sir: I have the lienor to submit, for your inspection and approval 
the manuscript of Part (» of Bulletin Xo. 13, embracing- the subjects 
of sugars, molasses and sirups, confections, and honeys and beeswax, 
and their adulterations. 
Respectfully, 

H. W. Wiley, 

Chemist. 

Hon. J. M. Busk, 

Secretary of Agriculture 

631 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/fulterOOusde 



United States Department of Agriculture, 

DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY. 

CORRECTIONS FOR BULLETIN 13— PART SIXTH. 



Page 744, line 23 from bottom, read " not " after " artificial comb- 
honey has." 

Page 865, line 11 from bottom, read " which lacks but little of being 
the full depth of the natural cell." 



FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



PART VI.-SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY, AND THEIR 

ADULTERATIONS, 



SCOPE AND CHARACTER OF THE WORK. 

In the study of the adulteration of these common articles of table 
use an attempt has been made to determine not only the character of 
the adulterant used, but to a certain extent the scope and extent of the 
adulteration. In this respect a Blight departure has been made from 
the rule adopted at the beginning of this work, viz, to restrict the in- 
vestigations chiefly to the study of the character of the adulterants 
and the methods of detecting them. In the cases under consideration 
it has been thought wiser to devote less time to the methods of detect- 
ing adulteration, which for the most part are simple operations and 
well understood, and to give greater attention to the extent of the 
practice of the adulteration. This idea has been followed out except 
in the case of beeswax, with which a complete study has been given of 
the methods proposed for analysis and the detection of adulterations. 
To this end the cooperation of chemists in different parts of the conn- 
try was secured and a general scheme of investigation adopted, which 
it was proposed to carry into effect simultaneously in different parts of 
the country. As collaborators in the work there were secured the fol- 
lowing-named geutlemeu: In Boston, Dr. Stephen P. Sharpies j in 
New York, Dr. F. (i. Wiechmann j in Philadelphia, Dr. Shippen Wal- 
lace; in New Orleans, Dr. W. 0, Stubbs; in San Fran CISCO, Prof, W. B. 
Rising; in Lincoln, Nebr., Trot". H. II. Nicholson; m Lexington, Kv.. 
Prof. M. A. Scovell ; in Columbus, Ohio. Prof. H. A. Webei : in La 1 \i\ 
ette, Ind.j I 'rot. II. A. I Inst on. Alter s« curing the cooperation of these 
gentlemen the following instructions were sent them, under date of 

December !», 1890: 

I 8. Dl PAH i mi N i "l' A.GRICU1 n RE, 

Division <>i Chemistry, 
Watkington, l> | .. Deomber '.'. 1890. 
Drab Sir: In continuation of the work of the chemical division relating to the 
adulteration <>t" foods, 1 am authorized by the Secretary to secure the aid of enalyste 
interested in such work in different parts of tin- country. 

033 



634 POODS AM) FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

I therefore :isk your cooperation in this work in the examination of one hundred 
and seventy-five samples of saccharine products, as follows : 

Fifty samples of molasses : Polarization hefore and after inversion; sucrose: re- 
ducing sugar before inversion ; qualitative test for tin : water; ash. 
Fifty samples of liquid honey: Polarization before and after inversion ; sucrose; 
reducing sugar before inversion : water: ash : fermentation ; polarisation of 
residue after ferine utation. 
Fifty samjAes low-yradc sugars: Polarization ; water : ash. 

Twenty-five samples of cheap confections (candies, etc.): Sucrose before and after 
inversion ; reducing sugars ; matters insoluble in water ; water, ash, and col- 
oring matters (mineral or non-mineral). Get a few highly colored samples. 
You will be authorized to purchase the samples in open market and without indi- 
cating the purpose for which they are to be used. 

The molasses should be purchased in packages of about 1 quart, the honey and 
sugar in about 1 pound lots. 

The sugar when purchased is to be immediately put in air-tight packages, so as to 
avoid loss of moisture. 

In every case the name of the dealer from whom the purchase is made is to be 
entered, together with the name of the tirm manufacturing the product, and labels or 
descriptions on the package, and such other descriptions as will give any information 
concerning the sample. 

The itemized bill for the samples is to be sent to the Department, and you will bo 
compensated therefor. 

It is not required that the whole of the analytical work is to be performed by you 
personally, but it must be under your personal direction and responsibility. Full 
directions for conducting the analyses will be sent. The work is to be finished and 
reported to me by March 1, 1891. 
Respectfully, 

H. W. Wiley, 

Chemist, 

DIRECTIONS FOR ANALYSIS OF SUGARS, HONEYS, AND CONFECTIONS. 

It was thought proper to leave to each analysist as large a degree of independent 
action as possible in carrying <>n the work, and therefore only a general outline of the 
method of conducting the work was supplied. 

The reading of tin; polariscope employed is to he given lor the 200mm and LOO mm 
tubes, with the sample of sugar sent, weighing 26.048 g. in the air, and making up to 
100 cc in a flask graduated at that mark to hold LOO g distilled water at l?.r> for instru- 
ments with a Ventzke scale, or L6.19 g sugar weighed in air in Mask graduated ;it LOO 
OC, with 100 g water at 1 for Laurent Male These readings of the instrument are 
io accompany the analytical data. 

The direct polarizal ions are to he mad*' in the usual w ay, using lead subacetate for 
clarifying the solutions, neutralizing with acel io acid, and rejecting firs! pari of the 
filtrate. Bone black is onlj to be used in extreme cases. If dried at LOO to 105 it 
can be added direetly to the solution after the volume is completed. If moist, it must 
be placed <»n the filter paper and the first halt" of the filtrate refected. 

For inversion 60 oc of the normal solution are to be heated for ten minutes to 6ti 

with 5 CC Strong hydrochloric acid, cooled quickly to constant temporal ure, and polar- 
ized. The percentage of sucrose is calculated from Clerget's formula. The polariza* 

tion should be made at the >ame temperature as the direct polarization of the same 

sample. 

Reducing sugars. The alkaline copper solution should be set bj the sample oi (prac- 
tically) pure sugar sent. The operations should be conducted on solutions containing 

about 1 percent Of reducing SUgar, and under precisely Similar conditions as those 

used in setting the copper solution. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 635 

Water. — The substance is to be dried in quantities of about 1 gram for each 5 
square centimeters of bottom, in llat dishes, first at lower temperature, and, when 
nearly dry, for one hour at 102° to 103°. 

Ash. — By incineration of residue from above at low redness until all carbon is con- 
sumed. 

Tin. — Incinerate 25 to 50 g of the molasses iu a porcelain dish, and extract ash with hot 
HC1. Filter aud test for tin in filtrate with HgS. 

Coloring matters. — Incinerate aud examine ash for Cu, Pb, etc. If arsenic is sus- 
pected, test with Marsh apparatus in original sample, after treatment withHCl and 
KC10 3 . 

Coloring matters destroyed by incineration are of vegetable or animal origin or coal- 
tar colors. It will be sufficient to discriminate between the two great classes of colors 
as indicated above. 

Fermentation. — Make a 10 per cent solution of the honey (25 to 50 g) and treat with 
yeast; keep at temperature of about 30° until evolution of CO* ceases. 

Treatment of fermentation residue.* — Filter the residue after fermentation, evapo- 
rate to a thin sirup, measure volume, filter through bone black if necessary, take 
half of the total volume, and, polarize. Give polarization iu degrees, s«gar scale, and 
calculate to a basis of 26.048 (10.19) g of the original honey to 100 cc. 

Matter insoluble in cold water. — Dry :;r 100° to 103°, weigh and examine for starch, 
terra alba, etc. 

At the same time a similar examination was undertaken in the chemi- 
cal laboratory of the Department of Agriculture and the work of car- 
rying on these investigations was chiefly done by Mr. K. P. McElroy 
and Mr. E. G. Runyan. Thus in all, ten sets of samples were secured 
at practically the same time in ten localities representing pretty well 
the general distribution of these articles of diet over the United States. 

In regard to the examination of honey, in addition to the work of a 
routine character mentioned before, extensive researches were under- 
taken in the laboratory of the Department in regard to additional 
methods of detecting honey adulterants, and also of the methods of ex- 
amination of the wax, both natural and commercial. It was thought 
that it would be of great interest to consumers of honey in general to 
have a careful study made of the wax as well as of the honey contained 
therein. The detailed results of this examination will be found in the 
following pages. 

The chief points to be considered in respect of molasses were the use 
of glucose as an adulterant in so-called cane molasses ami the occur- 
rence of tin. This latter substance is introduced into the molasses in 
brightening sugar crystals in the centrifugals and in making \ ellow 
(Demerara) crystals. Stannous chloride in some form is the salt of tin 
generally employed for this purpose, and this is sold in the trade under 
various misleading names. 

Ill confections the chief points to be considered were the presence 

of adulterating agents such as chalk, terra alba, glucose, etc., and espe- 
cially the character of the pigments used in coloring candies. 
Many confections arc quite as liighlj regarded for their delicate and 

The »'\aininai iun \>\ the method of fermentation wrae rautequentlj omitted. 



C)3C) FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

pleasing tints as for the taste of the sweets which they contain, and 
therefore it becomes a matter of sanitary importance to determine the 
character of the coloring matters used. 

It is a matter of regret that other and more insistent duties have 
prevented an earlier arrangement and study of the results, but their 
value depends rather in the patient and painstaking labors of those en- 
gaged in the investigations than on their chronological appearance. 
This part of Bulletin No. 13 is preeminently one of data rather than of 
deductions. 

LETTERS OF TRANSMITTAL FROM THE ANALYSTS ENGAGED IN THE 

WORK. 

A general idea of the character of the examinations made and the 
methods employed therein can be had from a perusal of the letters from 
the several analysts transmitting the results of the analyses. 

Purdue University, 
La Fayette, hid., March 19, 1891. 

Dear Sir : I have to-day forwarded to you report on honey, sirup, sugar, and can- 
dies. I have made out the report as I understood from directions furnished. Should 
any changes be required of course I shall take pleasure in making the same. 

The information regarding the origin of the samples -was very difficult to obtain. 
This is particularly true of the sugars which are usually removed from the packages 
and sold from bins in the stores. 

In addition to the work reported 1 have tested lifteen samples of the honey, ami 
find that nine out of fifteen contain tin or some metal precipitated by H : S and having 
the same general appearance as the tin precipitate found in the molasses. 

I have also examined the soda test for molasses, bat find that a mixture of molasses 
and glucose will also give tests. 

The best informed honey man that I met stated that every genuine strained honey 
would granulate if left open and exposed to the air for eight days. 1 have not yet 
had an opportunity to test this matter. 

In regard to candies 1 am informed by manufacturers thai there are now very few 
boilers of Candy who can make candy without the addition of a small amount ofglu- 
abont 10 per cent is the amount mentioned. I understand this to mean a mini- 
mum amount. 

The itemized bill for samples will follow. 

Very truly yours. 

II. A. FTUSTON. 

Dr. H. w. Wiley, 

Chief Chemist U. S. Department <</' Agriculture, Washington, />. C, 



[Jnivermit* of Nebraska, Drpartmbni of Chemistry, 

Lincoln, Xthr. March ?. 1801. 
My Dear Doctor: i inclose to yon to-day reports of analyses of sugars, simps, 

honeys, and candies, together with vouchers for purchase n ey. 1 inclose also bills for 

expenses incurred in making purchases outside of this city. If these hist oan not be 
allowed I will l).' out just thai amount. I am verj sorrj for the delay, but it has 
been absolutely unavoidable. 

since .January I wc have hem iu the midst of a legislative session, and tjie on tside 
drafts on my time have been considerable. This, with the hundred and one things 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY, 637 

that have the faculty of precipitating themselves on one whenhe is in apiuch, is the 
reason for not being more prompt. 

Mr. Horton, who has made all of the polarizations and the reducing sugar deter- 
minations, has had considerable difficulty in bringing some of these substances into 
a proper condition for examination. This, as you well know, brings vexatious delays. 
Should you wish any of these determinations repeated we will gladly do it for you at 
any time. 

The methods of analyses employed follow. 

Hoping that our delay has not seriously incommoded you, I am, yours, very truly, 

H. H. Nicholson. 

H. W. Wiley, 

Chief Chemist, Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 

METHODS <>F ANALYSIS EMPLOYED. 

Clarification. — Very light products use Ala (OH) e . Dark products tannic acid in 
excess and exact precipitation with a solution of normal lead acetate as in the method 
proposed by Scheibler. 

Headings. — With one or two exceptions all readings made in 2 dcm tube. 

Inversion. — oO cc of solution used for direct polarization, 5 cc HC1 (sp. g. 1. 18). 
Heated slowly to 70°, and kept at this point for ten to twelve minutes, when cooled in 
stream of water to 17* and tilled, to mark. Polarized in 22 dcm jacketed tube to 
control temperature. 

Reducing sugar. — 5 g in 100 cc, thereby giving burette reading of over 13 cc. 

The inversion work was carefully conducted but the results are not satisfactory. 
Formerly 1 heated for tifteen minutes and allowed solution to cool slowly to near the 
proper temperature, but ten minutes or twelve have been recommended and so I 
adopted this time limit. You will notice that Dr. Spencer has given this time as 
ten minutes. 

1 have made the following experiments to determine the effect of time: 

I. T>0 cc of Sol. 
5cc HC1 (1. 18). 

LOmin.atTO Reading «**** 



lvUO 12.10 



II. 50 cc of Sol. 

f.cc HCl (I. 18). 

15 min. at 70°. 



Beading " 

8 L1.52 1 1.4 — 

Difference 0.58 0.62 

I am at present carrying through Bamples giving fifteen minutes as recommended 
and hope to find some interesting results. 

simp*, molaBMt.- Clarification, inversion, readings, reduciug Bugars as with Bugars. 

1 have been amazed at the high right-hand polarization of these Birnps. The num- 
ber obtained are to a certain extent inaccurate, as we had the Schmidt d Ha< 
instrument to work with, [n every case v» here the high polarization was found the two 

halves of lie Id of virion in infttrumi nt were tinted and not light and shadow . pointing 

conclusively to presence of substances Laving different power of refrangibility from 
quartz or sugar. In inversion these solutions did not color :1 -, did solution having 
approximately -f •"' ,, polarization, but could be read without any preparation. 

The color and viscosity of these ultra right -ha ml sirups are characteii-t ic. 

Prom a few observations l think that dextrin in the sirups is the cause of the high 
numbers. 

H>>i,i r . lu examining the honeys I liave used 26,04ti g to ion cc, and have ob- 
tained perfect clarification with Al. «>ll 



63S Foods AXD FOOD AOTLTEkANTS. 

I w:is greatly surprised at the high right-hand polarization of the honeys. The 

percentage of reducing sugars from those samples looks interesting, there being a 
marked difference between (-(-) honeys and ( — ) honeys. 

I have become interested in the honey question and I have arranged for several 
••swarms "of Italians, and you bay expect to hear of my discomfort before many weeks. 
I have collected a number of samples of* straight " honey, some from my own place in 
Massachusetts and some from this State, and when at leisure shall work out some- 
thing. Will you make some suggestions for mo to look up in connection with honeys I 

Candies. — I never saw more fluorescent solutions than some of the candies gave, one 
in particular I should think was colored with fluorescein. Several samples nothing 
could be done with — they were gums coated with sugar. 

The names given to the molasses and sirups are misleading, e. g., a very dark 
"black strap" is labeled c< N. O. molasses." The maple sirups are a surprise to me 
and will doubtless be to you. 



Office of State Analyst, 
Berkeley, Cal, April 17, 1891. 
Dear Sir: Accompanying this note please find report of examination of sugar, mo- 
lasses, sirup, honeys, and candies. 

A supplement containing the examination for tin, etc., will follow soon. 
Very truly yours, 

W. B. Rising. 
Prof. H. W. Wiley. 



Kentucky Agricultural Experiment station, 

Lexington, Ky., April 18, 1891. 
My Dear Sir: I send you herewith my report containing the results of the 
analysis of 50 samples of sirups, 50 samples of sugars, 50 samples of honeys, ami 25 
samples of candies. 

The samples were collected from retail houses in Lexington and Louisville. Ky., 
and Cincinnati, Ohio. A few samples of honeys were obtained in Bowling Green, 
and one in Franklin, Ky. 

It was difficult to get low-grade sugars at the time I was collecting them, in the 
first part of March, as buyers were holding oft' until April on account of the tariff 
reduction. 

strained hom-y seemed to he obtained as readily in March as it was in December, 
when I made the fust collection. In collecting the samples of sirups I endeavored 
to get a fair average of the different brands sold in the three markets named above, 
I append a statement on test of apparatus and chemioals. 
Yours very truly, 

.M. A. BCOVBLL, Pirti'or. 

Dr. 11. w. Wiley, 

Department of Agriculture, Washington, Ik C 

test of apparatus am> chemicals. 

It, l. Ion oe flask. — The LOO CC naSB was graduated in the usual manner with 
loo grama distilled water at 17..". ('. 

• ltd. I'olai iscopt- tubes used were tested by :i normal solution of the test sn^ar 

He nt for the purpose. Temporal lire of i he solution at t ho time of testing being &?4.fl 

The readings were as follows: 

First, '-''Hi mm metal tube, 99.8. 
Second, 100 mm glass t ube, 19.9. 
Third. 220 mm -lass tube. lit). 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONPEGTlOKS, AND HONEY. 639 

Tests in each case were made in triplicate. From the above results it will be seen 
that the 2*20 mm tube is a trifle long. No correction was made for this, however, in 
the readings of the inverts. Most of invert readings were made in the 220 mm tube. 
Third. The Fehling Solution.— Violette's formula was used. To test it, 0.95 grams of 
tho test sugar was dissolved in 50 cc of water and inverted with 5 cc of hydrochloric 
acid at 68° C. This solution was diluted to IdO cc. After neutralizing, 10 cc of 
Fehling's solution was put in a small Erlenrueyer Hash, and to this 30 cc of water 
was added and the solution boiled. The diluttd sugar solution was gradually added 
to the copper solution until the copper was entirely reduced as indicated by ferroey- 
anide of potash in the acetic acid solution. The following are the results obtained: 

4.9 cc sugar solutiou added to copper solution ; copper not all reduced. 

5 cc sugar solution added ; copper all reduced. 

4.9 cc sugar solution added ; reaction for copper. 

50 cc sugar solution added ; no copper in solution. 

METHODS. 

The instructions sent out by you were strictly followed. 

The detailed method for detection of tin was sent in a former letter. 

The sucrose was calculated by the following formula: 

-d™ -«.«.* „„ .~~ ^ *♦ Direct reading— indirect reading ? inn 

Jrer cent sucroso = < %- J? > 100. 

I 142 A — T_ S 

2 
The direct readings were all made approximately at 25° C. 



Boston, March 5, 1891. 
Dear Sir: I herewith transmit the report on the sugars, simps, honeys, and candies 
examined at your request. 

I have endeavored, in making my selections, to get as fair a representation of the 
market as possible, except in the case of the candies. In these the articles most 
likely to be adulterated were examined. As a result of the investigation, with the 
exception of tin in Bomeofthe samples of molasses, 1 have failed to find any injurious 
adulteration. 

My thanks are duo to my assistant, F. W. Bennet, lor the able manner in which 
he has assisted mo during this investigation. 
Respectfully, 

s. P, Sharples. 
Dr. H. W. Wiley, 

Washington, J). ('. 



New Orleans, La., March 82, 1891. 

Dkar Sir: I semi yon herewith analyses of 50 molasses, 50 low-grade and white 
pulverized sugars, 50 honeys, and 25 Low-grade candies. These samples were pur- 
chased in this citj according to your instructions. Great difficulty was encountered 
in the collection of these samples, and, in many instances, either from ignorance or 
from an indisposition to accommodate, the wholesale or manufacturers' names could 
oot be obtained. Seven days were spent in trying to obtain samples with a Known 
history, but at last man} had to be taken with onlj the name of the dealer. 

In the analyses performed your instructions have been followed, with two slight 
modifical ions ■. 

First, as to clarification for pnlariseopic readings; and second, in giviug a greater 
superficial area to the amount required for determination of moisture in the dishes 
used. 



640 FOODS AND POOD ADULTERANTS. 

It was found difficult to prepare some samples of honeys, candies, etc., for the 
polariscopio readings by the method prescribed. Resort was had to a 10 per cent 
sodic sulphate solution and basic acetate lead and acetic acid. Sometimes a drop or 
two of alumiuic hydrate cream was used. No bone black was used. Whenever pos- 
sible, basic acetate of lead, neutralized with acetic acid, was used. 

Great difficulty was experienced in properly determining the moisture, especially 
with molasses and honeys. This was enhanced by the weather, as it has rained 
here almost continuously since January 1, and the hygroscopic tendencies of our 
samples have not been completely prevented even though every sample has been kept 
in stoppered bottles. In fact, the determination of moisture has required more time 
and labor than all of the other constituents. As many as five or six determinations 
iu some instances had to be made before we could feel sure of their correctness. I 
now have every reason to believe that they are correct. 

The sugar sent us by you read in 200 mm tube exactly 100-, and in 100 mm tube ex- 
actly Hi) . We have two excellent Schmidt & Haensch polariscopes, and upon these 
all the readings were made. 

The molasses analyzed represented every form sold in this city; syrop de batterie, 
open keltic molasses, centrifugal molasses from small three-roller mills, from large 
live roller mills, from diffusion houses; mixed goods, i. c, when Louisiana molasses 
lias been mixed with corn glucose sirup ; and doctored goods, i. e., when very dark 
centrifugal molasses have been brightened by artificial processes. I learn that there 
are many houses in this city where the mixing of Louisiana molasses and corn glu- 
cose sirup is made. I also learn that there are several houses where dark centrifu- 
gal molasses is brightened. Bach bouse (hums to have a special method (of course 
secret) by which this brightening is performed. In conversation with a gentleman 
engaged in this business, a few days since, he said that he was contracting to 
brighten :'0,000 barrels of centrifugal molasses next year. These practices are gener- 
ally known and no attempt 18 made to cover them with secrecy, save the process 
peculiar to each house performing tin' bleaching. 

The sugars examined are all pure goods. Several samples of white pulverized 
sugar were examined to determine whether they contained any appreciable amount 
of starch sugar, but in every instance with negative results. 

Not BO with the candies and honeys. The latter, as you will see, were, as a rule, 
very impure. The people of this city must eat very little honey, judging from the 
absence <>i' this article from nearly every grocery. They had to be procured from the 
drug stons and, in some instances, were believed to have been compounded after be- 
ing called for. Some of these honeys are. 1 OWOVOr, pure goods. 

Only Low-grade candies were purchased. Since nearly every manufacturer i^\' can- 
dies in this city has a retail department attached to the works, it was deemed best 
to go there and buy Largely of the samples used. It is found that starch sugar enters 

largely into the composition of low-grade candies, and 1 am told that by the use of 
a vacuum pan, a-, high as lid per cent of dextrose or starch su-ar may be ad\ anta- 
geOUSly mixed iii the candies. Of coloring matter copper and ultramarine were 
found. Other coloring matter found was organic. 

This work lias been performed with ureal care, agisted bj two chemists. Mr. \V. 
Wipprecht and Mr. T. P. 1 1 utchinso:, . both of whom have had considerable experi- 
ence iu sugar work. 

I trust it. may be acceptable lo yon. 
Vuiits i rnl\ . 

W'.m. ('. Sunns 

Dr. II. w. Wiley, 

II ash titi/ton, I >. < . 



641 

Philadelphia, Fa., February 25, 1801, 
My Dear Sir : I hereby submit my report on the analyses of molasses, honey, low- 
grade sugars aud cheap confections, agreeable to your request of December 9, 1890. 
Of the 50 samples of low-grade sugars which I have analyzed no adulteration was 
detected. By reference to the tables, it will be found that the polarization is quite 
uniform, varying not more than 4 per cent. The greatest difference is in the amount 
of ash. This is caused undoubtedly by the sugars being in a number of instances 
made from raw beet as it is well known that the ash of raw beet sugars is greater 
than that from raw sugars from cane. In some instances there can be but little 
doubt that the sugars are made from raw cane alone. There is one refinery in this 
city which claims not to use any raw beet in the making of its product, while 
other refineries use both raw beet and cane. The soft sugars are made from the 
sirup resulting from the making of the centrifugal or granulated sugars, as they are 
commercially known. Consequently, there is more or less invert sugar present, and 
for all practical purposes I think the amount can be asserted to be the difference be- 
tween the sum of cane sugar, water, and ash, and 100. A few years since an attempt 
was made to adulterate soft sugars with glucose sugar. This, however, did not prove 
to be a commercial success. When the glucose sugar was mixed with the soft, the 
product absorbed moisture and in only a short time after the barrel was opened it 
was more or less in a " mushy" condition and could not be sold. It was impossible, 
as a rule, to obtain the name of the makers of the sugars, since wholesale dealers 
when they purchase from refineries, have their names stenciled on the head of the 
barrel as being sugar refiuers, which they are not. I have consequently only noted 
the names of the persons from whom the sugar was purchased, together with, in 
some instances, the name of a sugar, such as "Keystone," '-Continental," etc. These 
names, however, will indicate more or Less the refinery, since the different refineries 
have their own names for the different grades of soft sugar. 
The table will also show the price per pound. 

MOLASSES. 

Of the 50 samples of molasses analyzed there were only 19 pure; all the others were 
adulterated with more or less glucose sirup. There was no tin detected in any of the 
samples; the only adulteration besides glucose sirup being the fact that they 
had been bleached by means of sulphurous acid or a sulphite, some of the samples 
smelling very strongly of sulphurous acid, and a sediment in the bottle on examina- 
tion being shown to he a sulphite. At the same time the molasses had an acid reac- 
tion, indicating that in all probability this resulted from an acid being made use of to 
liberate t he sulphurous acid from the sulphite, there being in the market a prepara- 
tion which is sold with directions how to use it, with the objecl of bleaching dark- 
eoiored sirups. 

All of these samples when bought were sold under the name of •New Orleai 
"sirup"' or " mixed goods," but in only a tew instances <lid the seller Bell them fox 
'•mixed - ' goods. By reference, howeyer, to the table i< will be noticed thai a large 

number of those which were sold for .New Orleans molasSCS were really glucose mi up- 
One reason, I think, for t he lew samples of pui e molasses which I obtained was owing 

to the fa'd thai a linn in this city makes a business of manufacturing mixed goods, 
and they naturally sell the greatest bulk ol their product in this ciiv and vicinity. 
There is no trouble in detecting the addition of glucose sirup to molasses. The po- 
lari/ation will indicate this, if it exceed-, 66, without the necessity of inversion, and 

while I have met with molasses, polarizing about ->^. winch contained glucose sirup, 
it is a vei \ rare <•. ,s.-, the polarisation being, when glucose simp is added, from ::» up. 

In case Of molasses it was not possible to Obtain the name of the maker, and only 

the name of the seller is given. The table will show polarisation before and 
inversion, reduoing ingai before inversion, sucrose calculated bj means of Clei 

formulas and the amount id' ash. 



G42 ODS AND Fool) ADULTERANTS. 

A^ tin result of the investigation as well as the experience we have met with in 
New Jersey, I consider that it is difficult to find in the market a sample of pure no- 
- Bach as could have been obtained some years since. If it is not adulterated 
with glucose sirup, it has been treated with chemicals in order to lighten its color. 
This latter method is quite as much an adulteration as the former, and is, in my 
opinion, to be protested against much more than the use of glucose sirup. There is 
nothing deleterious in glucose and its object is simply to make a sirup not only pleas- 
ing to the eye but more pleasant, in i\\<- opinion oi' many, to the taste. 

CHEAP CONFECTIONS. 

Of the 25 samples of candies bought they were all purchased from stands on the 
Btreet or from small stores, the object being to obtain candies which would be more 
likely to be adulterated than if purchased from larger stores. All the samples were 
more or less colored, Bome very highly, but in no instance was any mineral coloring 
matter detected, the coloring agent in all cases being an aniline color. This was 
determined by dissolving some of the sandy 1 in water and noting the absorption bands 
as show n by a small pocket spectroscope. There was no terra alba detected, the can- 
dies being composed of cane sugar, glucose, starch, or llour. 

The candies purchased consisted of sticks, broken candy, caramels, and such as are 
usually seen on stands or in small stores. It will be seen on reference to the table 
that there was a very small amount of " matters insoluble in water."' this fact show- 
ing that they were much purer than one would anticipate from the various state- 
ments which have been published. Where the matters insoluble in water have been 
large, it has been in cases where the candies have been composed of an admixture of 
starch or Hour or cocoanut, or some similar material, but not from the addition of any 
mineral substances'. From the fact that the coloring agent used was aniline, I ex- 
amined very carefully for the presence of arsenic, but failed to obtain any reaction. 
While a few years since aniline colors contained arsenic, at the present time there is 
no difficulty in obtaining them perfectly free; in fact thoy are sold with the guaran- 
tee to this effect. 

It will be noticed from the price which was paid for these candies that they must 
have been, as they were, of a low grade. They were all more or less flavored, the 
flavoring agent being artificial and not natural and consisting of the higher ethers. 

LIQUID HONEY. 

This substance can be classed with molasses in the difficulty of obtaining the pure 
article. The effort was made to obtain as many different brands as possible, and I 
succeeded in obtaining 31 samples from as many different makers and 19 unknown 

makers. In doing this t her.- were 132 stores visited, of which 108 sold a brand which 
was shown to be adulterated. The adulterant used is cane sugar or glucose, or both, 
while in some instances it appears as it a solution of invert sugar had been used. I 

not been able to Learn whether such an article is manufactured, although it 

would be a simph matter for B maker to produce it. Jndging from the labels on the 
various bottles, 006 is Btrock with the fad f hat t hose samples which claim to be of the 
greatest purity are as a rule adulterated, and a sample which lays no claim to purity, 

but Is simply marked '-honey," is as often pure. All the Bamples obtained were 
liquid hooey, although there are t ■ . i><- found in the market jars containing portions 

Of Comb These, however, as is well know n, ai<- adultei ated. the only honey being the 

small pi in' of com i». The makers of the adulterated honej d«> not always use the same 

formula. This fact is shown from the analysis Of different samples bearing the same 

brand. Makers also have different brands for different grades oft beir|honey, all being 
adulterated, one manufacturer in this oity producing lour and perhaps more dif- 
ferent brands, thej varying from pure glucose sirup, with a flavor, t<> a mixture of 
glucose ami cane sugar in varying proportions— none of them containing a particle 

of honey. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



643 



The result of this examination has been to show that there is quite as much adul- 
terated honey in the market as there was in 1886, when I made a very extensive in- 
vestigation for the New Jersey dairy commissioner, and that the adulteration is now 
the same as it was then. The manufacturer in this city of mixed sirups also makes 
a honey. The flavor and taste are very similar to the pure article, and a number can 
not detect the difference. How ho makes it, or how the flavoring is obtained, is of 
course known only to him. The substance consists of a mixture of cane sugar, sirup, 
and glucose sirup, and he has quite an extensive sale for it. 

The method of analyses for determining whether the sample is pure or not is the 
same as that for molasses. Pure honey will seldom on a direct polarization indicate 
more than -f :5 in my experience, although i' has been stated that there are honeys 
which have indicated as much as -f- 7. All the adulterated honeys on the direct 
polarization indicate from -f- 25 to over 100, according to the amount of cane sugar 
or glucose which has been used. On inversion if only cane sugar has been used the 
polarization will be to the left, whereas if glucose is used it will be to the right. 

The following are the nani9s and the marks on the bottle : 
Pure California White Clover Honey, P. California Honey, E.T. Coudouey Com- 



J. Kitter Company, Philadelphia. 

XX White Clover Honey, no maker. 

White Clover Honey, Sleeper, Wells & 
Aldrich. 

Honey, Arthur Todd, Philadelphia. 

Virgin Honey, Philadelphia Pickling 
Company. 

Pure Extracted Honey, T. S. Borden, Bur- 
lington. 

Honey, Phildelphia Pickling Company. 

Pure Honey, Philadelphia Pickling Com- 
pany. 

Pure Honey, W. G. Griffiths. 

Pure Honey, Anderson & Co. 

Pure Honey, Henry Bassett, Salem, X.J. 

California Honey, no maker. 

White Rose Honey, New Jersey Preserv- 
ing Company. 

Choice Extracted Northern Honey, Geo. 
D.Powell. 

Superior Extracted Honey, Walker, Mc- 
Cord X Co. 

XXX White Clover California, J. O'Sehim- 
mel Company. 

Pure I loney, Stevenson )'>i "-. 

strath Pure Extracted, Austin Nichols 

X Co. 

The method of analysis lias been as directed in your letter of instructions. The 
polariscope made use of i^ a Soleil-Ventzke, made bj Dr, <". Soheibler, of Berlin. 
The sample of sugar received from yon polarized 99.8 i" a 200mm tube. The half 
tali.- polarized 19.9. I have a quartz plate indicating 99 with which it ismj cus- 
tom to test the instrument. All readings which I have given have been hawed on 
the basis of loo and not 99.8. The determinations of the amount of reducing Mi^ar 
wen- mad.- with a Folding's solution, i<» cc equaling 0.05 dextrose. The amount 
of sii.-n.se u as calculated by Clerget's formula, the temperature being 'Jo t . 

By an examination of the amount of reduoing sugar in the molasses, some ourious 
results are shown, which can only be aeoounted for b j the fad that the glucose which 
hat been made use of as an adulterant contained varying amount of dextrin. This 



pany. 

Choice Honey, Win. Collins, Xew York. 

Los Angeles California Honey, John Long, 
Xew York. 

Ritter's Pure California Honey, Ritter & 
Co., Philadelphia. 

Old Virginia Pure Honey, Geo. K. Mc- 
Mechen. 

Pure Clover Honey, no maker. 

XX White Clover Honey, G. & R. 

Honey, Chas. G. F. Denk. 

Golden Rod Honey, Wm. Thompson, New- 
York. 

Superior Honey, "Witimaus Bros., Phila- 
delphia. 

Pure California Honey, Thos. Marti ndale 
X Co., Philadelphia. 

Extracted Honey, C. H. Luttgens, Ham- 
monton, X. J. 

Pure Honey, P. A. Garretson, Hillshoro, 
X..I. 

old Virginia Honey, Geo. ILMcMechen 
X Hon. 

Strained Honey. Francis EL Leggetl x 

Co. 

Pure Honey, Max Ams. New York. 



644 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



fact is well known to me, as I have been called on to examine the commercial glucose 
and have found that frequently there is a quantity of dextrin present. The same 
specific gravity of two glucoses will frequently show as much as 40 points difference 
on the polariscope. The numbers given on the table of the various samples will 
show by reference to the numbers on the tables of soft sugars from whom they were 
obtained, since, in the purchase of the samples the effort was made to obtain from 
the same person a sample of sugar, molasses, and honey. Consequently, I have not 
repeated the name of the seller on the tables giving the result of the molasses and 
honey analyses. The determination of the amount of ash was, as a rule, mule be- 
taking ihree grammes of substance in a platinum dish of about 2.5 iuchesin diameter. 
The reducing sugar has in all cases been calculated as dextrose. In giving the re- 
sults of the honey analyses I have given one table containing them all, and a subse- 
quent one where 1 have separated and classified tbe honeys as to their purity and the 
adulterant made use of. 

List of those from whom purchased: 



C. II. Rambo, Gloucester, N. J. 
L. Fowler. Gloucester, N. J. 
James McLaughlin, Gloucester, X. J. 
R. K. Jester, Burlington, N. J. 
Samuel Burr, Burlington, X. J. 
George F. Worth, Burlington, N. J. 
Sherman Iros., Burlington, N. J. 
G. F. Fort, Burlington, X. J. 
William Sherwood, Burlington, N. J. 
George W. Kimball, Burlington, N. J. 
Samuel Emmons, Burlington, N. J. 
Shinn & Son. Burlington, N. J. 
Ivins, Pettit, Burlington, X. J. 
< ;. W. Swanev, Camden, X. J. 
Charles Warner, Camden, X. J. 
Horner & Son, Camden, X. J. 
C. K. Morris, Camden, N. J. 
\. McAllister, Ninth and Dickinson, Phil- 
adelphia. 



J. Murriel, 1345 South Eighth street. Phil- 
adelphia. 

Samuel P. Hehuer, 7*23 Dickinson street, 
Philadelphia. 

C. J. Rollins, 716 Tasker street. Philadel- 
phia. 

John McDonnell, Eighth and Wharton. 
Philadelphia. 

Purdy Bros., Fifth and Dickinson, Phila- 
delphia. 

( . 11. Wescott, Philadelphia. 

John Wilson, Philadelphia. 

Cousty East End Grocery, Philadelphia. 

Deacon *V Frey, Philadelphia. 

Callowhill Street Market. 

G.W.Jenkins. 

A. Houget. 

L. Bin 

Shengle & Smuil. 



From some of the above there were two samples obtained, and samples of sirup ob- 
tained from all. 

The accompanying tables give the result of the analyses, and in the case of honeys 
I have separated those which appear to be pure from those which are adulterated. 
The nnmbei a of the different samples indicate by reference to the list of samples what 
the brand or mark was, as well as from whom purchased. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

smiTi \ Wai.lack. Chemist, 

Dr. II. v\ . Win v 

Chemist, i ■ 8, Department of Agrioulture, Washington, IK c. 



I <>i i MBUS, I »lilo. March I, 1891. 

si i; : The undersigned baa I he honor t<> Bubtnil the following report of tbe investi- 
gation of saccharine products, made under your direction for the U. 8. Department of 
Agrionll ore. 

Verj respectfully, 



Dr. II. w. w ii bi . 

I . 8. Department of Agriculture! Washington, 



\\. A. Wbber. 



Ik C. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 645 

rOLAIJIZATION OF SA.MPLK OF SUGAR BENT BY DR. H. W. WILEY. 

26.048 grams of the sugar were dissolved in a llask holding 100 grams of water at 
17.5° C. when filled to the mark : 

Polarization of 200 mm tuhe DO. 4 

Polarization of 100 mm tube 40. 7 

TKST FOR COMMERCIAL GLUCOSE. 

It is convenient in the examination of sirups, honeys, etc., to have an easy prelimi- 
nary test for the presence of commercial glucose. As commercial glucose always con- 
tains about f>0 per cent of dextrin, the writer has employed the dextrin reaction with 
iodine for this purpose. The test is applied in the following manner : A watch glass, 
placed upon white paper, is half filled with sirup, etc., to be tested. Eight or ten 
drops of a saturated solution of iodine in 50 per cent alcohol are allowed to fall upon 
the surface. If no glucose is present the iodine will dissipate in a short time and the 
original color of the sirup will be restored. If glucose is present a permanent brown 
color or precipitate will remain. In the case of thick honeys it is best to add a few 
drops of water and mix before the tincture of iodine is applied. Candies and sugars 
may be tested in the same way after dissolving a portion to the consistency of sirup. 

SUGARS. 

The 50 samples of low-grade sugars were collected in the city of Columbus, and 
fairly represent the quality of sugars as sold on this market. As the analyses show, 
none of these sugars was adulterated. 

SIRUPS. 

The 50 samples of sirups collected in the city of Columbus, Ohio, embrace New 
Orleans molasses, maple molasses, and table sirups. Of the IT samples of New Or- 
leans niolasses examined, :\ were found to be adulterated with commercial gluoose. 

Among the 17 samples of maple molasses 6 wen' found to be adulterated with com- 
mercial glucose. This fact was a surprise to the writer, since two years ago the 
dairy and food, commission of Ohio had succeeded in driving allot these spurious 
brands of maple sirup from the State. By referring to tin' analyses of the remain- 
ing 11 samples of maple Birup it will be Been that somo of the samples have a con- 
siderable proportion of reducing sugars, and at the same time a low content of ash. 
In the manufacture of maple sirup and SUgar, the salts contained in the sap are not 
separated from the finished product. The writer has never found the ash of genuine 

maple sirups to fall below <>."» per cent. It would seem, therefore, that some of the 
samples not adulterated with glucose were contaminated with cane sugar or sirup 
having a low content of ash. 

HONEYS. 

As t he itemized bill sent with this report will show, the price paid foi the 50 Bain- 
pies of honey purchased in various parte of the State was uniformly that of pure 
honey, or 20 cents per pound. The immense fraud perpetrated upon the consumer in 
the sale of i ins one artiole is evident from the f,i. i, as shown bj the analyses, that of 
the 50 samples examined 20 wore found to be adulterated with commercial gluoose 
costing about 3 cents per pound. <>nl> two of the samples, Nos. 14 and 16, contained 
an exceptional amount <»i cane sugar, This would suggest a contamination with 
lugar or Birup, 

< AM HI 8. 

\<n ,i single sample of the 25 candies ex i mined consisted of pure cane mi^.h. I 
were all mixtures of cane sugar with commercial glin barch, or both. v- 

mineral contamination, either tor bulk or oolor, was present. All of the oo 
the exception of cochineal, turmeric, and lampblack, were auiline il 
L8808— 28o. L3 L* 



646 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

METHOD FOB DETERMINATION OF BUCR06E IN PRESENCE <»1 GRAFS SUGAR, AND 
DEXTRIN OR SOLUBl l BTARCH. 

(1) For sirups and honeys. — Five grams are weighed and diluted to 500 ec, grape 
orredocing sugar, determined by Folding's solution; '250 cc of the solution are boiled 
in sand bath for one hour with 5 cc commercial acetic aeid. allowed to cool neutral- 
ized with sodium carbonate, and again diluted to 250 ee. The total reducing sugar 
is now determined and the Bucrose calculated in the usual manner. 

(2) For candies. — Five grams are weighed, dissolved in water and diluted to 200 
ee ; 100 ce of this solution are diluted to 250 ec and boiled on sand bath for one hour 
with 5 cc commercial acetic acid. Total reducing sugar determined by Folding's 
method. In the other portion the reducing sugar is determined if the solution is of 
the proper strength; if not, 5 to 20 grams, as maybe necessary, arc weighed and 
diluted to 100 cc for this purpose. From the data obtained the percentage of sucrose 
is calculated. That the dextrin is not converted into reducing sugar by this process 
may be seen from the analyses of honey, No. 17, 19, etc. That the cane sugar is 
inverted will be seen by the examination of the analyses of candy, all of which were 
made by this method. 



New York, March 1, 1891. 

8lR : Herewith please find my report on 175 samples of sugars, confections, honeys, 
sirups, and molasses, purchased in New York City and its immediate vicinity, and 
examined at your request aud by authority of the Secretary of Agriculture. 

Allow me to tako this opportunity of acknowledging my obligations to Mr. Theo- 
dore; A. Havemeyer, New York, for his kindness and courtesy in granting the facili- 
ties of one of the laboratories of the American Sugar Refining Company for the pros- 
ecution of this work. I append a statement on collection of samples, etc. 
Respectfully, 

Ferdinand G. Wiechmann. 
Prof. II. W. Wiley, 

Washington, 1). C. 

COLLECTION OF SAMPLES. 

All samples were purchased by myself. My efforts were directed to procuring 
them from the different districts of New York City in order to make the collection a 
fairly representative one. Some samples were obtained in Brooklyn, eastern divi- 
sion. 

Sttfjarx. — In buying these i generally asked for " brown n sugar in order to secure 
the lowest grade in the market. En only one or two instances, however, was I suc- 
cessful in obtaining the article desired, as there is apparently DO longer a demand 
for this quality. A few samples of powdered sugar were selected, in some of the 
poorer quarters of New York, as popular belief holds this grade especially liable to 

adulteration. 

nfeotions. — With fe* exceptions these were bought directly from the manufac- 
turers. Brightly colored samples were preferred ; specimens, red, blue, green, and 
yellow in color, are i.-pi. tented in the series analysed. 

Honeys.— In selecting these I aimed to secure as many different brands as possible. 
The 50 samples secured represent 17 different tnanufaol orers. 

Molasses and simps. — New Orleans and Porto Rico molasses, aud sirups, varying 

from a dark brown to a bright yellow, constitute" the series. 

lOrTHODfl 01 an a i vsis. 

Treatment of samples. The sugars and oonfections were thoroughly crushed and 
mixed and preserved in air-tight jars; the honeys, molasses, and sirups were kept in 
the bottle- in which they were purchased, and tin. roughly mixed before analysis. 

Examination of polarisoopi Hie polariseope need, a balf-sbade Instrument made 
h\ Schmidt A Haensch. was examined with the test sugar furnished by the Depart- 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 647 

ment. The weighing of the sugar, 20. 04b grams, was made on a balance indicating 
tenths of a milligram. The sample was dissolved in distilled water at 17.5 C C. and 
made up to 100 cc in a flask graduated to contain 100 05 grams of pure water at 17.5 
C. The polariscope having been correctly set at zero, the above sugar solution polar- 
ized in— 

The 100 mm tube 49. 

The 200 mm tube 99. '.» 

Composition and standardizing of Fehling's solution. — The Fehlin^'s solution used was 
prepared according to the following formula : 

Sulphate of copper, cryst m.639 g in 500 cc of water. 

Kochelle salts 173.000 g in 400 cc of water. 

Sodium hydrate 50.000 g in 100 cc of water. 

To standardize this solution the test sugar sent by the Department was used. 
Of this there was weighed out 0.9500 gram. This was dissolved in about 75 cc of 
distilled water, 2.5 cc. concentrated C. P. hydrochloric acid were added, the mixture 
warmed up to 68° C. and kept for five minutes at between 68° and 70° C. 

The llask with its contents was then quickly cooled, the solution was neutralized 
with sodium carbonare, and then made up to 100 cc. Of this solution exactly 5.0 cc 
were required to precipitate all of the copper in 10 cc of the above Fehling solution. 
10 cc Fehling solution contain 0.0877 copper. 

5 cc of the above invert sugar solution contain 0.050 grams invert sugar." 
As 0.0877 copper were precipitated by 0.050 invert sugar, 

0.0877 — 0.05 = 1.754 
that is, the ratio of invert sugar to copper is as 1 : 1.754 with a 1 per cent solution of 
inveit sugar. 

PREPARATION OF SOLUTIONS FOR POLARIZATION. 

Polarizations. — Whenever possible the solutions were prepared for polarization 
solely by addition of basic acetate of lead, together with a few drops of acetic acid. 
In numerous instances, however, in the analysis of confectious — honeys and molasses — 
the addition of two to three cubic centimeters of alumina cream was found to be 
indispensable. 

With many of the confections, sirup, and molasses samples, dry blood carbon had 
also to be used in order to effect decolorization. This carbon was perfectly dry and 
always added after making the solution up to 100 cc. All readings in the polarisoope 
were made at 20 C, and the observations were in most instances made by two 
observers. 

Polarization after inversion. — The inversion was made on 50 cc of the solution used 
for the direct polarization. The inversion was effected by the addition of 5 cc of 
concentrated hydrochloric acid ; the solution, about 75 cc in volume, was heated to 
between 67 and 0- and kept at that temperature for live minutes. It was then 
quickly cooled, made up to 100 cc, ami some of this solution was placed in an ol>>-er- 
vat ion tube provided with a thermometer and the reading taken at 9 

Sucrose. — The following is the calculation by which the sucrose was found w her- 
ever recorded. 

Km S 
Sooroae 14*66 W. 

8 sum of the two polarizations of the normal freight solution, before and after 
inversion, the minus siga being neglected. 

t=z temperature in degrees C. at which the polarisation of the iuverted solution 

was observed. In all of the analyses here reported, / ^o ('. 

orrespond to 100 invert sugar. I , 8. Department of agriculture, 
Division of Chemistry, Bulletin No. 24, p. 199.) [f 0.9500 mams morose are dis- 
solved up to 100 oc, l onbio centimeter 0.01 grams [nverl sugar, and •"> cubic centi- 
meters 0.05 gi ams invert sugar. 



648 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Reducing sugar. — This was determined by dissolving 1 gram of the sample in 100 
cc of water. Each cc of the solution contains therefore 0.01 gram of substance. 
This test was carried out in the usual manner by allowing so much of this solu- 
tion to flow into 10 cc of the Fehling solution, kept at the boiling-point, until all 
of the copper had been precipitated as cuprous oxide. 

The end of the test was determined by aid of a ferrocyanide of potassium and 
acetic acid solution ; the amount of invert sugar present is found by dividing 500 by 
the number of cubic centimeters of saccharine solution used to precipitate all of the 
copper. This value obtained records the amount of reducing sugar in percentage. 

Water. — On the sugar and confection samples the water determinations were made 
on 5 grams; in the honey, the sirup, and molasses samples 2 grams were used. 

With all of the confection, honey, sirup, and molasses samples sand had to be 
mixed, in order to insure a perfect desiccation. The drying was accomplished in a 
water-jacketed air bath, the water in which was cold at the start, and which was 
gradually raised to the boiling point. 

The sugars and confections were dried from three and a half to four hours ; the 
honey, sirup, and molasses samples received ninety-oue consecutive hours' drying in 
a fresh-water bath, and were then placed for two to four hours more in a salt-water 
bath, there being maintained at a constant temperature of between 102° and 103 C. 

Ash. — For the determination of the ash there were used of all samples 2.5 grams. 
These were burned off with ether and sulphuric acid, and from the weight found 
one-tenth was deducted. The incineration was in every instance made at dull-red 
heat in platinum dishes placed within a platinum muffle. 

Coloring matters. — The test for coloring matters was applied to the confections. 
Five grams were dissolved in distilled water, made up to 100 cc, and filtered through 
paper or through asbestos. 

In nearly all of the samples the coloring matter was completely soluble in water. 
A portion of the filtrate was evaporated, the residue incinerated, and the ash taken 
Dp with distilled water. 

In the very few instances where the coloring matter was not completely soluble in 
water it was removed from the filter and examined. In some oases copper, lead, and 
iron weie looked for. 

Matter insoluble in cold water. — Five grams of the confection samples were dis- 
solved in cold distilled water, and the solution made up to 100 cc. The samples were 
left in tie- water for two and a quarter hours, being frequently stirred. The insolu- 
ble matter was then removed by filtration through weighed filters of paper or ashes* 
These, with their contents, were then thoroughly dried at the temperature of 
boiling water, reweighed, anil the amount of insoluble matter calculated and re- 
corded in percentage. 

7V//.—This metal was tested for in all of the sirup and molasses samples, About 50 

grams of the sample were inoinerated, the ash was boiled with hydrochloric acid, 
and sulphuretted hydrogen was passed into the solution. When a precipitate was 

formed this was separated by filtration and further examined for tin by attempted 
reduction to the metallic state. 

i:i « ORD "i ANALl 8K8. 

The total number of samples analysed was 178 
i ij.i e were required ! 

Samples. 

Gfaoup I. Sugars 50 

II. Sirups and molasses .">(> 

III. Honeys 50 

I \ . ( 'on feet ions 25 

In addition to these, two samples of undoubtedly genuine honej ami oue sample 
ol ■■ ■ ommeroial dextrin" were examined tor comparison with the samples purch a s ed . 

Special tests, whenever made, and such comments as seemed called for, will bo 
found appended to the full record of analysis of each group. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 649 



EXAMINATION OF SUGARS. 

A sample of pure granulated sugar, of a polarimetric value of ap- 
proximately 99.7, was sent to the analysts, in order that they might use 
it ill testing their polariscopes and setting their solutions of copper. 
Thus the same sample was used by all the analysts, and a comparison 
of the polariscopes used can be easily made. 

The polarizations obtained by the several analysts were as follows : 





In 200 mm 
tube. 


In 100 mm 
tube. 


Iii220 mm 
ta be. 




99.7 

100.0 

100.0 

99.8 

99.9 

100.0 

99.8 

99.4 

99.9 

99.73 


49.9 
50.0 




II. Fl. Nicholson 




W.B. RisiDg 

M. A.Scovell 

S. P. Sharpies 




49.9 
50.0 
50.0 
49. !) 
49.7 
49.9 




110.0 


W. C. St abbs 








H. A. Weber 




F. G. Wiechmami 




Chemical division, Department of Agriculture 





The reading, 99.73, was obtained by the examination of two solutions 
of sugar, weighed separately. These solutions were read independently 
by three skilled observers, and thirty-six readings were made. The 
mean of the^e closely agreeing readings was 93.93. 

Checked with a standard quartz plate it was found that the instru- 
ment read 0.2° too high. The true polarization of the sample sugar was 
therefore 99.73 for the 200 mm tube. 

Comparing this number with the results obtained, the following ob- 
servations may be made : 

Mr. Huston — instrument 0.03 too low. 

Mr. Nicholson — instrument O.'JT too high. 

Mr. Rising— instrument 0.27 too high. 

Mr. Scovell — instrument 0.07 too high. 

Mr. Sharpies— instrument 0.17 too high. 

Mr. Stnbhs — iustrumt nt 0.37 too high. 

Mr. Wallace— instrument 0.07 too high. 

Mr. Weber — instrument 0.33 too low. 

Mr. Wireh man li— instrument 0.17 too high. 

The data of all the analyses following have been carefully examined 

and in some instances appear to bo anomalous. An attempt lias been 
made to Lave these anomalous results corrected by the several anal] 

but not always with success. For those that are still uncorrected the 
editor disclaims responsibility 



ANALYSIS OF SUGARS 



ANALYSES BY H. A. HUSTON. 
Description of samples. 



No. 



101 

102 

103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 

103 

110 

111 

112 

113 

114 

115 

116 

117 

118 

119 

120 

121 

122 

123 

124 

125 I 

120 

127 

128 

129 

130 

131 

132 

133 

134 

135 

136 

137 



Bought of. 



Cbas. H. Slack, Chicago 
do 



W. G. Brown, La Fayette. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

A. B. Braden, La Fayette. 



do 



139 
140 
141 
142 
143 
144 
145 

146 

147 
148 
14!> 
150 



Sch warm &, Heinmiller 

Beck & Frascb, La Fayette . .. 

do 

do 

P. Feeley,LaFayetto 

do 

do 

Erasing Brothers 

do 

do 

do 

C. Jevne & Co., Chicago 

do 

do 

do 

Kockwood Brothers, Chicago . 

do 

Joyce &. Co. , Chicago 

do 

do 

do 

Hassett's, Chicago 

do . 

do 

do ■ 

If. EL Leo & Co., Indianapolis. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

J. W. I'ower, Indianapolis 

... do 

do 

If. iii Swain In.li.ui.'ipoli.H 



Manufacturer or brand. 



Description. 



Armelise X D C. 



Standard Sugar He- 
nnery, Boston. 



New Orleans sugar, open 

kettle. 
Extra Yellow C : Dakota C 



Mailer, Serrick &. Co., 

New York. 
Sugar Trust 



Yellow C 

A sugar 

New Orleans sugar. . 
Pressed Loaf sugar . . 

Powdered sugar 

Confectioners' sugar 



Haveraeyer <fc Elder 
do 



L Kiimue], [ndlanapolif 

do 

Joseph Keck I. i 1 

do 

. .do 



.! ii Bai lea 

Rutland. 



YellowC 

Powdered sugar 

do 

A sugar 

YellowC 

do 

IdealC 

Powdered sugar 

Extra C 

Kidgewood A 

Powdered sugar 

DaikC 

New Orleans sugar . 

Powdered sugar 

C sugar 

Deraerara sugar 

Maple sugar 

Powdered sugar ..... 

do 

A sugar 

YellowC 

Maple sugar 

Powdered sugar 

Light C sugar 

Dark C sugar 

a sugar 

"Windsor C sugar 
Confectioner*' sugar. 
New Orleans sugar .- 
Ridgewood A sugar . 
Kmpii e a sugar .... 
■i \ powdered sugar . 
Powdered sugar . . , 

a sugat 

Extra I ' sugar 

Powdered sugar 

Maple Hii^ar 



Powdered sugar 
A sugar , 

sugar 

a sugar 

Powdered ragu 



Price 
per 

pound. 

$0. 0600 
.0600 

. ocoo 

.0650 
.0600 
.0800 
.0800 
.1250 

.0600 
.1000 
.1000 
.0700 
. 060 

• 06i0 

• 0710 
.0850 

• 06:5 
.0700 
.1000 
.0500 
.0600 
.0750 
.0600 
.0600 
.2200 
.0750 
.0800 
. 0700 
.0600 
.1300 
.0800 
.0600 
. 0600 
.0600 
.0600 
.0800 
.0600 
. 0700 
. 07U0 

. L00C 

. 1000 
.0800 
. OriOO 
. 1000 
.2000 

. Kiilii 
.0700 
. 0700 
. 0600 
. luoo 



650 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

Analytical data. 



651 



No. 



Direct 
polariza- 



Indirect 
polariza- 
tion. 



Tempera- Sncroaebv w , 
ture ° C. factor 144. N> aier> 



101 
102 
103 
104 
105 
106 
107 
108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 
131 
132 
133 
134 
135 
136 
137 
138 
139 
140 
141 
142 

141 

11-. 

L40 

147 

1-lh 

150 



88.40 
90.80 
94.11 
93.54 



100. 
99. 



99.00 



86.97 
81.45 
93.11 
99.00 
74.56 
89.94 
99.00 



M 

10 
40 

11 
B0 
00 
M 
11 
21 
99.20 
88.30 
86.44 
10 
40 
70 
4-i 
11 

M 

00 



97.10 

W. in 
00. in 



4. 4-JO 
3. 980 

3. e2o 
4.630 
1.230 
0.004 
0.004 
0.108 
2.130 
0.012 
0.036 
5.436 
3.160 
5.568 
4.440 
0.260 
4.400 

4. 328 
0.024 
3.316 
3.304 
0.008 
8.150 
1.506 
4.344 
0.092 
0.300 
0.005 
0.664 
0.080 
0.120 
0.060 
4.370 
3. 144 
4.286 

•j. 564 

1.400 

4.064 

0.001 

0.001 
1. 040 



Ash. 



0.004 



0.44G 
0.890 
0.700 
0. 220 
0.740 
0.004 
0.004 
0.024 
1.028 
0.001 
0. 004 
0.140 
4.280 
0.566 
0.380 
0.134 
2.076 
0.424 
0.002 
2.048 
0.123 
0. 002 
0.936 
0.764 
3.876 
0.092 
0.008 
0.306 
0.101 
0.612 
0.044 
1.260 
3.552 
0.028 
0.840 
0.004 
0.864 
1.404 
0. 312 

0. oot; 

0, 060 

0. 001 

0.130 

o.oo J 

0. 304 



652 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY H. If. NICHOLSON. 

Description of samples. 



No. 



3 
4 
5 
C 
7 
8 
9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

1G 

17 

18 

18 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

2f, 

20 

27 

28 

29 
30 
31 
32 
83 
34 
85 
88 
37 
B8 
88 
40 
41 
42 

43 
It 

46 

47 
48 
40 
88 



Name of dealer. 



Manufacturer. 



Label. 



"Win. Fleming, Omaha, X'ebr Iiaverneyer.. 

do do 

Miner Bros , Ked Cloud, X'ebr 

Gladstone Bros., Omaha, Xebr Havemeyer.. 

Little & Williams, Omaha, Xebr 

B. F. Mizner, Red Cloud, Xebr j New Orleans 

Joins ft Evans, Red Cloud, Xebr 

Thompson ft Pettinger, Beatrice, Xebr New Orleans 

do 



Long ft Moschel, Beatrice, Xebr New Orleans 

Anderson ft Co., Beatrice, X'ebr 

<;. ... Bosselmann, Lincoln, Xebr Xew Orleans 

S. P. Stevens ft Co., Lincoln, X'ebr do 

Sparrett Bros., Lincoln, X'ebr 

11. R. Nisslej & Co., Lincoln, Xebr Now Orleans 

Jas. Miller, Lincoln, Nebr do 

ossclmann, Lincoln, Nebr 

McShane ft Benner, Lincoln, Nebr Xew Orleans , 

Cook & Johnson, Lincoln, Nebr Spreckels 

Scott, Ashland, Xebr 

Win. Hotaling, Lincoln, Xebr 

do Xew Orleans 

James Brit ton, Lincoln, Xebr 



.do 



Xew Orleans 



(',. W. Cloason, Lincoln, Xebr , Spreckels 

Maxwell ft Co., Lincoln, Xebr do 

J. Monroe, Omaha, Nebr j Ilavomeyer 

Henry Billin &. Co., Omaha, Xebr .. — do 

I). L. Carpenter, Omaha, Xebr 

1I< nry Billin ft Co., Omaha, Xebr Xew Orleans 

A.L. Root, Omaha, Xebr Havemeyer & Elder 

J. Monroe, Omaha, X'ebr Havemeyer 

William Gentleman, Omaha, Xebr Havemeyer .t Elder 

do do 



John Swoboda, Omaha, Xebr Havemeyer 

EL Bin m stan, Omaha, X'ebr Sprecklcs. . . 

do do 

H. Mueller, Omaha, Xebr do 

Henry Billin ft Co., Omaha, Xebr Havemeyer 

II ri in nul & Co., Omaha, Xebr do . 

J. Slatter, Omaha, Nebr 

Spot Cash Grocery, Omaha Nebr 

.J. Slatter, Omaha, Nebr . 

Heimrod & Co., Omaha, Xebr 

J. X i- ii in a ii, Omaha, Xebr 

Tiers Bros , Omaha, Nebr 

i. \ Brown, Omaha. Nebr 

J. w. p.-iuieii, Omaha, Nebr 

Qeimrod 8 Hi oaon, I taiaha, Nebi 

do 



i) m. si. tele a Co. 

1 M leans 

do 

Havemeyer 

do 

Spreoklea 

do 

do 

Eavemeyei 

do 



Extra C. 

Brown C. 

Do. 
Light brown. 
Brown C. 
X'. O. 

Light brown C. 
X.O. 
C. 

X.O. 
Extra O. 
X. 0. 
X.O. 

Pure cane 
X.O. 
X.O. 
Extra C. 
X.O. 
Extra C. 
Blown C. 
Extra C. 
N.O. 
C. 

X.O. 
C. 

Extra C. 
C. 
C. 
C. 

X.O. 
X.O. 
Extra C. 

1 o. 
Light Brown O. 
C. 

c. 

Lighl Brown 0. 
Extra C. 
C. 
Extra O. 

Do. 

X.O. 

Brown C. 

x.o. 

Extra O. 

0. 

0. 

O. 

Light Brown <'. 

0. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

Analytical data. 



653 



i No. 


Direct Indirect _. 
polariza- polariza- "™p ' '. l " 
tion. tion. rare ' u - 


Sucrose by- 
factor 144. 


Water. 


Ash. 


1 
o 
3 
4 
5 
G 
7 
8 
9 
10 

U 
12 
18 

14 
15 

16 

: 7 

18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
20 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 

36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 

4:i 
u 

M 

18 
49 
50 


90.1 
85.6 
85. 3 
89.9 

82.8 
87.7 
89.1 
89.1 
87.8 
77.15 
89.8 
88.6 
83.9 
88.6 
-t. I 
88.2 
91.2 

8a 6 

89.6 
93.4 
88.8 
88.1 
88.2 
89.2 
100.0 
90.7 
86.3 
93.2 




2.06 
2.26 
2.95 
1.68 

3.16 
3.03 
2.58 
4.44 
2.96 
3.73 
3.21 
1.55 
4.23 
3.16 
4.33 
3.49 
2.50 
3. 43 
4.40 
1.77 
4.68 
4.24 
3.83 
4.28 
0.13 
2. 05 


0.54 
1.27 
1.46 

0.7:; 

3.63 

2.47 

2.33 

0.97 

1.98 

1.95 

1.14 

0.63 

1.43 

0.99 

1.59 

0.89 

0.79 

1.33 

0.84 

0.72 

0.74 

1.38 

1.43 

0.91 

0.06 

1.06 

0.66 
57 

0.68 
0.84 
1.09 
1.05 
0.56 
1.52 
1. 02 
2.03 
0.87 
0.05 
1.53 

0.57 

-■ 

0. n 

1 . 01 

1.10 




| ....... 








































:::::::::::::: 









































































3.68 
3.71 
2. 21 

0.76 
1.63 
4. 17 
3.58 
3.22 
3.59 
2. 72 
3.20 
3.85 
3.01 

1.05 

1.07 

1.31 

I.'.*;. 

I K 

1 ('7 








93.5 
95.3 
86.7 
84.1 
89.6 
80.8 
90. - 
84.4 
91.1 
88.3 
86.7 
90.1 
02.3 
100.2 
89.8 




























































i 















03. 1 

















. .. 



654 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



ANALYSES BY W. B. RISING 
Description of samples. 



No. 

4 
5 

47 



Label. 



Where bought. 



Color. 



Extra C, California Refinery 

Granulated, California Refinery 
Extra C, American Refinery 



McLaiu &. Co., Berkeley 

do 

P. Banne, 15th and Mission, San Fran- 







cisco. 


48 Extra C 


P. A. Hoist, 17th and Howard, San 




Francisco. 


49 


Golden C 


Shotwell and 16th, San Francisco 


r>n 




51 




17th and Howard, San Francisco \ 


•")•> 


Golden C 






cisco. 


53 


Extra 


Kattleman <fe Rippe, Howard and 16th, 
San Francisco. 






54 Extra, f! . . . 


W. W. Buckmann, Mission and 15th, San 
Francisco. 






96 




J.O.Holst, Minna and 1st, San Francisco. ! 
Clementina and Mission, San Francisco. ! 


91 




•2 




Natoma and 1st, San Francisco 

D. Tietjen, San Francisco 


93 




M 




. 


^ 




C. Giese, San Francisco, Pacific and 
Battery. 






96 




217 2d j 


97 


Extra C 


Pacific and Front, San Francisco ; 


98 


Golden C 


Davis and Pacific, San Francisco 


99 




100 


American Refinery 


Hayes and Dwyer, Mission and 2d 


101 


American Refinery 




10? 


Mission and 3d 


103 


American 




101 




105 


American Refinery 


Kunder <fc Westphal, corner Jackson and 
Dramm, San Francisco. 


106 
107 










141 




Geary and Larkin streets, San Francisco 
A. Buttelman, Howard and 11th streets. 


li r < 


do 


146 


do 


147 


do 


Ellis and Larkin Street*, San Francisco 


148 


California Kctiiniy 




149 






150 


do 


M. Ollcit, Howard and Kolsoin itfl 


16] 


do 


11. Kayser, IMh and l'olsom streets 

ftioViokex A <'<>., 27 6th, Ban Fraud 

A \ uliiiian, (lr;u\ and Larkin strei tfl 

i'. BJeoke, Eddy and Larkin street • 


162 




iv 




154 




168 





San Francisco. 
KoIhoiii and llth.San Francisco 


l M 






167 


A niencaii \l< lini l \ 


Golden C.ilc Avenue and l.aikin San 






Frandeoo, 


r b 


do 




160 


do 


m.sLch, 1406 Poltooi, Saa Fraaeiaoo — 



White. 
Do. 

Light. 

Do. 

Yellow. 
Dark brown. 

Do. 
Yellow. 

Light. 

Do. 

Light yellow. 
Yellow brown. 
Light 

Dark yellow . 
Light yellow. 
Yellow. 

Brown. 
Light. 
Yellow. 
Brown. 
Very light. 

Do. 
Light. 
Yellow. 

Do. 
Light. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Bl OH a yellow . 

Light yellow. 
Light 

Light yellow. 
Fellow. 

Do. 
< ir.i\ oi \ atalllne 

Light 

Do. 

Fallow 

V.I \ Wllilr. 

Do. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 655 

Description of samples — Continued. 



No. 


Label. 


"Where bought. 


Color. 


160 
161 


California Refinery 


J. S. Phillips, Folsom and 10th 


Yellow 
Do. 


16? 






Very light. 
Brown. 
Very light 


163 
164 




O.J. Shehan, 9th and Clementina 

La Frenze and Wrage, San Francisco.. . 
68 9th, San Francisco 


165 






lfifi 


do 


IT. Holting, Port and Larkin, San Fran- 


Very light. 

Light. 

Yellow. 

Do. 


1G7 
168 

169 


do 

GoldenC 

do 


cisco. 
J. Lane, 9th and Mission, San Francisco 
H. Rothschild, 9th and Howard, San 

Francisco. 


170 




Light yellow. 


171 







172 




Bceckelruau &. Co., Mission and 5th 




173 






174 






Light brown. 
Light yellow. 


175 


Golden C 


J. "W. Ryan, Minna and 5th 







Analytical data. 



No. 


Direct 
polariza- 
tion. 


Indirect 
polariza- 
tion. 


rr Sucrose 

atu™e P oC bv Water - 
ature ' C - Factor 144. 


Ash. 


4 
5 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
90 
91 
92 
93 
N 
95 
90 
97 
H 
99 
100 
101 
102 

103 
104 

106 
LM 

107 


85.70 
98.10 
91.40 
89.00 
82.60 
86.24 
87.10 
82.90 
86.80 
82.70 
86.30 
85.80 
90.20 
84.64 
84.60 
.-j 70 
85.20 
87.90 
84.15 
82.50 
87.70 

8a h 

83. 27 








4.07 


5.03 
0.02 
0.96 
1.68 
2.70 
098 
1.82 
1.81 
1.30 
1.78 
1.16 








0.15 

. 3.52 

3.88 




















5.33 








4.34 
4.13 














4.03 
4.28 














4.98 
4.41 














3. 63 

4.40 

4. J4 
3. 60 
5.31 


1 . B0 








1.54 
1.96 

1 . 88 

•J. 42 
1 41 

<> 77 

LSI 

o 76 

1.23 






























3.10 









































































656 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical data — Continued. 



Sample 

Sample, 

Sample 

Sample 

Sample 
Sample 



No. 


Direct Indirect 
polariza- polariza- 
tion, tiou. 


Temper- 
ature, °C. 


Sucrose 

l>v Factor 
144. 


Water. 


Ash. 


144 
145 
146 
147 
148 
149 
150 
151 
152 
153 
154 
155 
150 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
102 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 


82.72 
81.50 
83. 60 
85.80 
82.50 
86.10 
85.00 
86.00 
86.00 
82.90 
98.50 
86.80 
86.20 
82. 40 
87.80 
90. 00 
84.20 
80.50 
85.50 
81.50 
90.00 
84.00 
88.60 
88.60 
84.60 
83.90 
84.30 
79.60 
86.80 
87.60 
82. t;o 
93.20 








4. 02 
4.61 
4.78 
5.11 
0.51 
5.25 

4. 89 
4.34 
4.42 
5.6G 
0.39 
4.12 
4.57 
5.32 
3.82 
3.25 

5. 53 
5.82 
4.53 
6.57 
3.94 
5.07 
3. 82 
<l.G8 
4.46 
4.18 

6. 70 
6.32 
3.95 
i. Bfl 
2.16 


3.93 
1.15 

1.91 
1.29 
1.30 
0.97 
1.31 
1.31 
1.50 
0. 15 
1.04 
1.15 
I. 70 
0.88 
0.82 
1.08 
1.97 
2.10 
2.10 
1.03 
1.48 
1.10 
1.00 
1.59 
0.85 
1.73 
2.65 
1.32 
1.11 
3.47 
1.76 



































































































































































































ANALYSES BY M. A. SCOVELL 

Description of samples. 

51. Powdered sugar. Sold by " Griffith," Cincinnati. Made by the Franalin 

Sngar Refinery, Philadelphia, Pa. 

52. Coffee Crushed. A li^lit (' Bugar, soft grained. Made by P. O. Mat- 

thiessen A Weiobers. Sold by Hamilton Grocery Company, Cincin- 
nati, ()lii<». 
63. Havemeyer a Elder's v. C, a straw-colored soft sugar. Sold by EL J, 

Mi ( lombs, ( 'liicinnat i, < >liio. 

54. Havemeyer a Elder's v. C, a soft-grained yellow sugar, brighter col- 
ored than 53, Sold by the Hamilton Grocery Company, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

. :». Prairie C. Made by r. O. MatthiesseD a Weiobers. Sold by Henry 
Vogt, Lexington. A light soft-grained sngar. 

56. Powdered XXX. Havemeyer a Elder. Sold by Joseph K. Poeble's 
Son's Co., Cinoinnal i, ( )hi<>. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 657 

Sample 57. Dark C. Havemeyer & Elder. Sold by R. J. McCombs, Cinciunati, 
Ohio. A dark soft-grained sugar. The sample taken from a sugar bin 
and brand given by the seller. 

Sample 58. Y. C. Red Star Brand sugar. Spreckel's Sugar Refinery, Philadelphia, 
Pa. Sold by Joseph R. Peeble's Son's Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. Taken 
from bin ; brand given by seller. 

Sample 59. New Orleans. Open kettle. Sold by Hamilton Grocery Company, Cin- 
ciunati, Ohio. A dark, fairly well-grained sugar having a greenish tint. 

Sample 60. Y. C. Havemeyer & Elder. Sold by the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea 
Company, 663 Pearl street, Cincinnati, Ohio. Sample taken from bin. 

Sample 61. Crescent C. P. O. Matthiessen & Weichers. Sold by D. H. B. Cof- 
fin, Cincinnati, Ohio. A soft-grained, light straw-colored sugar. From 
barrel. 

Sample 62. Y. C. New Orleans Sugar Refinery Company, New Orleans. A dark-yel- 
low soft-grained sugar. Sold by ThomasFoster, Cincinnati, Ohio. From 
bin. Description given by seller. 

Sample 63. Green Star Brand C. Spreckel's Sugar Refinery, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Sold by D. H. B. Coffin, Cincinnati, Ohio. From bin. A dark, wet 
sugar. 

Sample 64. Extra C. Havemeyer &, Elder. Sold by the Joseph Peeble's Son's Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio. From the bin. 

Sample 65. Y. C. Havemeyer & Elder. Sold by A. " Barnes," Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Soft grained, straw colored. From the bin. 

Sample 66. New Orleans. Open kettle sugar. Sold by Henry Hiineke Company, 
Cinciunati, Ohio, through Heitmeyer & Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
In barrel. 

Sample 67. Orange Yellow. Louisiana Refinery, American Sugar Refining Com- 
pany, New Orleans. Sold by John Hutchinson, Lexington, Ky. In 
sacks. 

Sample 68. Ridgewood B. Havemeyer & Elder. Sold by C. \V. Jefferson, Louis- 
ville Ky. A very light, soft sugar. In barrel. 

Sample 69. New Orleans. Open kettle. Sold by Sterritt, Cincinnati, Ohio. In barrel. 
A fine-grained greenish straw color. 

Sample 70. Dark ('. From Thurber, Whyland & Co., New York. Sold by ('. Sack, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. A hard, lumpy, dark eu 

Sample 71. Traders' Brand. F. 0. Matthiessen & Weichers. Sold as " Black- 
berry " sugar. Ii\ Gr. II. Kinnear, Lexington, K \ . A very dark, soft 
sugar. In barrel. 

Sample 72. Extra C. Franklin Sugar Refinerj Company, Philadelphia, Pa. Sold 
by Colter A- Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. A light, straw colored, Bofl 

Sample 73. New Orleans. Open kettle. Saidia Plantation. Sold by John Hutchin- 
son, Lexington. Ky. 

Bample74. Prairie C. I'. <>. Matthiesseu & Weichers. Sold by 6. II. Kinnear, 
Lexington, Ky. In barrel. 

Sample 75. Crescent C. F. I ». Matthiessen & Weichers. Sold by Scully <Si Yates, 
Lexington, K > . In barrel. Lighi uud 

Sample 76. Crescent C. F. O. Matthiessen a Weichers. Sold by John Hutchinson, 
Lexington, Kj . In bin. Light, soft. 

Sample 77, Extra C. Havemeyer A Elder. Sold bj Colter a Co., Cincinnati, 
< >hio. Light and soft, in barrel. 

Sample 78, ExtraC. Havemeyei a Elder. Sold bj \v. II. May, Lexington, Ky, 
In barrel. 

Sample 79. New Orleans. Open kettle. A (Yet dark brown crystallized sugar, Sold 
by C. W.Jefferson, Louisville, Ky. Wholesaler, Torbitt d Castlei 
Louisville, Ky, 



658 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Sample BO. Off A. Havemeyer & Elder. Sold by G. T. Sterritt, Cincinnati. Ohio. 

A white soft sugar. 
Sample 81. New Orleans. Open kettle. A light straw-colored crystallized sugar, 

wet. Sold l>y M. J. Doyle, Louisville, Ky. 
Sample 8*2. Metropolitan Extra C. F. O. Matthiessen A: Weichers. Sold by Eise- 

nian & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. A sort light sugar, in barrel. 
Sample 83. Extra (' Coffee sugar. Havemeyer & Elder. Sold by T. J. Cassell, 

Lexington, Ky. A light soft sugar, in barrel. 
Sample 84. Maple sugar. Manufactured for Joseph K. Peebles' Sons' Co., Cincinnati, 

and sold by Joseph R. Peebles' Sous' Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. A light- 
colored cake. 
Sample B5. Maple sugar. Made by G. G. Ehrmann & Son, Louisville, Ky. Sold by 

T. N. McClelland, Lexington, Ky. A dark-colored cake. 
Sample 80. Caramel sugar. From Thurber, Whyland A Co., New York. Sold by 
T. X. McClelland, Lexington, Ky. A very dark lumpy sugar, in barrel. 
Sample 87. New Orleans. Open kettle. Through Torbitt <fc Castleman, Louisville. 

Ky. Sold by Lindsay & Nugent, Lexington, Ky. In barrel. 
Sample 88. New Orleans. Open kettle. Sold by Isaac Hutchinson, Lexington, Ky. 

A well-grained open-kettle sugar, in barrel. 
Sample 89. Green Star C. Spreckels. Sold by C. W. Jefferson, Louisville, Ky. 

From bin. 
Sample 90. Extra C. Knight Sugar Refinery. Sold by M. J. Doyle, Louisville, 

Ky. 
Sample 91. Y. C. New Orleans Sugar Refinery Co. Sold by T. Meuamara, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. In bin. 
Sample 92. Red Star A. Spreckels. Sold by Montgomery & Bailey, Louisville, Ky. 

In barrel. 
Sample 93. Demerara sugar. Sold by T. H. Watkius, Louisville, Ky. Wholesaler, 
Creele & Co., Louisville, Ky. A very large-grained yellow sugar. 

Looks like first centrifugal Louisiana sugars. In bin. 
Sample 94. Y. C. New Orleans "Homestead Plantation, J. N. Hill." Sold by C. 

W. Jefferson, Louisville, Ky. In barrel. 
Sample 95. New Orleans sugar. " Glencoo Plantation W. R. K." First centrifugal. 

Sold by Montgomery &, Bailey, Louisville, Ky. 
Sample 96. Extra C. Havemeyer & Elder. Sold by "Frank," Cincinnati, Ohio. 

In bin. 
Sample 97. New Orleans. Open kettle. Sold by " Barnes," Cincinnati, Ohio. In 

barrel. 
Sample 98. Y. C. Spreokles. Sold by Berry d Shelby, Lexington, Ky. In barrel. 

No head. Brand given by sellers. 
Sample 99. New Orleans. Open kettle. Sold by J. P. rtanahan, Lexington, Ky., 

through Torbitt A Castleman, Louisville, Ky. In barrel. 
Sample 100. Traders' Brand, V. 0. Matthiessen & Weiohera. Sold by J. C. Ber- 

ryman, L< Kington, Ky. A very dark sugar. In barrel. 



Analytical data. 



659 



No. 


Direct 

X>olariz.i 
tion. 


51 


99.75 


52 


89.5 


53 


89.2 


54 


86.7 


55 


87.3 


5C 


99.7 


57 


88.1 


58 


88.3 


59 


92.6 


CO 


88.5 


61 


89.6 


62 


88.7 


63 


88.4 


64 


85.9 


65 


91.2 


C6 


93.0 


67 


86.4 


68 


84.8 


69 


92.9 


70 


88.0 


71 


85. 5 


72 


85.6 


73 


90.0 


74 


85.8 


75 


86.3 


76 


85.7 


77 


84.8 


78 


87.0 


79 


86.4 


80 


87.7 


81 


93.1 


82 


90.7 


83 


85. 8 


84 


74.1 


85 


79.0 


86 


85.2 


87 


92.1 


88 


82. 8 


89 


84. 1 


90 


88.2 


91 


N : 


92 


98.0 


K 


90. 2 


M 


98. 9 




W. 1 


M 


90. l 


97 


91.9 






99 


02.0 


LOO 





DolK Tempera- Sucrose b.v 
1 t • , l ,u «-' c c • : Factor 144. 



Water. 



Ash. 



0.02 


0.02 


4.87 


0.64 


3.42 


0.88 


4.72 


1.87 


5.04 


1.11 


0.03 


Trace 


2. 01 


1.21 


3.24 


0.75 


4.18 


1.19 


2.96 


0.61 


3.38 


0.96 


2.73 


0.86 


3.77 


3.32 


4.95 


0.64 


3.03 


1.85 


1.89 


0. 53 


3.47 


1.00 


6.00 


0.66 


1.73 


0.65 


3.81 


1.11 


4.61 


1.84 


5.25 


0.66 


5.01 


0.65 


4.C4 


0.50 


5.54 


0.98 


4.64 


0.58 


4.45 


0.70 


5.14 


0.93 


5. 85 


0.96 


5.70 


0.44 


4.26 


0.61 


4.59 


0.79 


3.83 


0.63 


4.88 


0.67 


4.46 


1.03 


4.98 


1.58 




0.97 


3.99 


0.70 


6.10 


L34 


3.88 




2. 58 


0.63 


0.91 


0. 24 


0.20 


0.11 


0.15 


(i. 09 






3.36 


0.M 


1.00 




IN. 


0.64 




0. t) 







660 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



ANALYSES BY S. P. SHARPLES. 
Description of samples. 



No. 



Color. 



Price 

per 

pound. 



Bon jih t froru- 



9302 
9303 
9304 
9305 
9306 
9307 
9308 
9308 
9310 
9311 
9312 
9313 
9314 

9315 
9316 
9317 

9318 
9319 
9320 
9321 
9322 
9323 
9324 
9325 
9326 
9327 



9333 

9334 

9336 
9337 





$0. 060 
0.060 
0.055 
0.055 
0.060 
0.060 
0.070 
0. 060 
0.100 
0.075 
0. 060 
0. 065 
0.070 

0.070 
0.065 


Robert MoCuBagh, Boston Highlands. 
Do. 




do 

do 


B. W. Favor, Cambridge street, Boston, Mass. 
Charles Smith, Cambridge street, Boston, Mass. 
Cobb, Bates & Terxa. Dock square, Boston, Mass. 


Dark brown 




Bollard, Broadway, South Boston. 






: Broadway Market, South BostOu. 


White 


do 




Very light brown 

Dark brown 


C. I). Swain. Boxbury, Mass. 
i Cobb, Aldrich «fc Co., 2233 Washington street, Boxbury, 
Ma--. 
DTariow & Gledden, Cambridgeport, Mass. 






Cobb, Aldrich & Co., 2233 Washington street, Roxbury, 

Mass. 
■I. B. Hampton, Boxbury, Mass. 




0.065 
0. 060 
0.060 
0.060 
0. 065 
0.070 
0.070 
0. 065 
0.065 
0. 065 


do 


Medium brown 


S. F. Band, 208 Washington street, Boxbury, Mass. 




C. F. Swain, 2364 Washington street, Boston, Mass. 


Light brown 


F. O. White, 135 Dndiev street, Boxbury, Mass. 


Dark brown 

Very light brown 


S. D. Ware, Eliot square, Boxbury, Mass. 

E. F. Sibley, 1339 Tremont street, Boston, Mass. 

B. F. Ansart, 1408 Tremont street, Boxbury, Mass. 




Cobb's, 1249 Tremont street, Boston, Mass. 


Dark brown 

do 


B. F. Ansart, 1408 Tremont street, Boxbury, Mass. 

B. F. Jerome &. Co., 1447 Tremont street, Boxbury, M i^ 


... do 

.... do 

... do 


0.060 
0.060 
0.066 
0. 060 
0. 055 
ii 060 
0. 066 
0. 060 
0. 065 
0.065 
(t. DCO 
0.060 

a 066 
0. 068 


E. D. Wood, 1265 Tremont street, Boxbury, Ma--. 
Cobb's, 1249 Tremont street, Boston, afass. 




Cobb's, 1249 Tremont street Boston. Mass. 


Dark brown 


Do. 
Eighland Flour Store, 1267 Tremont street, Boston, Mass. 
E. F. Sibley, 1339 Tremonl street, Boston, Mass. 




do 

White (damp sugar) 

Medium brown 


Win. ilogbes, 21 1 Main street. ( "barb-stow n, Mass. 
B. S. Gilmore, 29 Main street, Charleston D, Mass. 
Do. 


Dark brown 


Do. 


o 


a. v Swallow, 12 1 it.\ Square, Charleston d, Mass. 

c. D.Cobb & Co., l Thompson Square, Charlestown 


light blown 


Do. 


White a 

Gray 6 

Whiteo 

White d 


Mr Porter, Spreokles' granulated, made in Philadelphia. 
Shu Ting Tans \ Co., is Harrison avenue, Boston, Mass. 
Rever< Sngai Refinery, Boston, Mass. 

Do. 


Yellow/' 




Do. 


White/ 

Whiter'/ 




American Sugai Refining Company, Boston, Mass. 


White A 




Do 


d.i i k yellow 4 













9340 
9341 

9342 
934:: 
9344 

9346 

o:;i7 

9866 
9351 

i v handsome sugar, but rery irregular \ 
fr Chinese augai . Verj sour odor and unli'te an> oth u on the ma 

oDruggisti granulated: This sugar ia tuado bxpreaslj i"' tusking sirups fa druggists, isd is ei 
tii.K free from coloring. 

dBelmonl a a aoftwbifc injtat nsedtosoi ixtenl bj confectioners. 

a Bevere yellow: Only a small amount ol tld made. 

/Granulated Hils is the principal sugar used In this market. 

a Diamond A: Pure white sugar made expreasl] for confectioner*' " si 

ft Standard A Made in 

4 Made In Now JToi k. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
Analytical data. 



661 



So. 



1 Direct 
polariza- 
tion. 



Indirect 
polariza- 
tion. 



9302 
9303 
9301 
9305 
9306 
9307 



9310 
9311 
9312 
9313 
9314 
9315 
9316 
9317 
9318 
9319 
9320 
9321 
9322 
9323 
9324 
9325 
9326 
9327 
9328 
9329 
9330 
9331 
9332 
9333 
9334 
9335 
9336 
9337 
9338 
9339 
9340 
8341 
9312 
9313 

o:;»4 
M45 
9340 
0847 
0348 



87.2 
89.3 
91.1 
88.1 
87.2 
94.6 
86.0 
99.7 
83.5 
99.9 
99.7 
87.4 
83.9 
88.4 
87.1 
87.0 
8G.6 
87.2 
85.4 
86.9 
83.4 
82. 7 
89.3 
82.2 
86.4 
83.3 
85.0 
87.0 
81.5 
88.0 
85. 5 
86.0 
85. 
86.0 
87.8 
82.2 
83.6 
87.0 
88 l 
88.7 
67.7 
88. 9 
89.8 
88. D 

85. 6 
88. '.» 

86. 8 

-l : 



Tempera- Sucrose by 
tare °U. factor, 144. 



Water. 



Ask. 



4. 50 


0.47 


2.74 


1.84 


2.18 


0.60 


3.24 


2.55 


3.44 


2.65 


1.52 


0.94 


4.60 


1.24 


none. 


none 


4.25 


1.67 


none. 


none. 


none. 


none. 


4.67 


0.96 


3.34 


1.88 


3.14 


2.38 


5.02 


1.08 


5.50 


1.10 


3.68 


2.60 


3.38 


2.68 


4.64 


1.20 


3.25 


0.81 


3.58 


1.16 


4.04 


1.60 


4. 95 


0.66 


4.96 


1.06 


4.63 


0.32 


5.18 


2.16 


3.68 


2.13 


3.76 


1.74 


4.10 


1.44 


3.46 


2.22 


4.78 


2.30 


3.86 


2.76 


4.42 


1.78 


3.92 


2.89 


3.32 


2.36 


4.50 


0.18 


4.32 


1. 62 


3.83 


2.28 


3.52 


2.92 


2.80 


l.o2 


3.02 


1..8 


none. 


DODO. 


B.13 


0.41 


DOHA. 


Done. 


X 4fl 


0. 82 


l.'.u 






Don 


o. 15< 


nunc. 


5 U 




6. •-'-• 





18808— No, 1. 



G62 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY \Y. C. STUBBS. 

Dt acription of samples. 



No. 

1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



9 

10 ' 

11 J 

n 

13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 

: 

29 
30 
31 

,2 

33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
il 
i ■ 
4, 
4, 

u 

46 
47 
1- 
19 



Bought at— 



Mrs. Rapp, Magazine street, New Orleans. I.a 

Christ Hoppe, Magazine Btreet, New Orleans, La 

M. Smith, 1360 Magazine street, New Orleans, La 

J.J. Hecker, 1352 Magazine street. New Orleans, La 

Mrs. Murphy, Dufossat street, New Orleans, La 

Du Mont's grocery, Magazine street, New Orleans, La . 
Prank J. Marone, 441 Drvades street, New Orleans, La. 

Patrick Egan, Villere street, New Orleans, La 

I'. Martin, Couti street, New Orleans, La 

Jules O. Lalarain, Perdido street, New Orleans, La 



.do. 



_.- Klimert, Rampart street, New Orleans, La 

C. Redersheimer, 141 South Rampart street, New Orleans, La 

C. Feahnay, Pojdraa street, New Orleans, La 

John J. Driscoll, 227 South Rampart street, New Orleans, La 

William Cunningham, 271 South Rampart street, New Orleans, La 

M. II. Riddle, South Rampart street, New Orleans, La 

do 

Noel Paunental, Jackson street, New Orleans, La 

, Erato street, New Orleans, La 

P. W. Theisman, 301 Magazine street, Now Orleans, La 

II. Ilamiuet, 552 Magazine street, New Orleans, La 

A. J. Reman, 578 Magazine street, New Orleans La 

G. F. Stanfield, St. Andrew street, New Orleans, La 

Flenry Butner, Arahella street, New Orleans, La. 

do 

John D. K : ng, Laurel street. New Orleans, La 

John W. Frank, Soniah street, New Orleans, La 

do 



Description. 



II. B. Gttson, Valence street, New Orleans, La 

•J. I'. Schmidt, 1091 Magazine street, New Orleans, La 

Fred. Denny, 1093 Magazine Btreet, New Orleans, La 

do 

do 

i: a. Zataim, 1071 Magazine street, x.w Orleans, La 

Charles Worth, 894 Ifagazine street, New Orleans, La 

do 

.1 Meckel dk liagnetzky, Third street, New Orleans, La 

Joseph Vigo, Laurel street, New Orleans, La 

do 

Philip M< nendez, Jackson street, New Orleans, I a 

i .1 a Win Byrnes, 899 Drya< New Orleans, Ls 

do 

Pitchcloup's grocery, Waahin New Orleans, Ls 

P. A. Volktnann, Washington street) Ne* Orleans, Ls 

J. Pentat, Dauphini street New Orleans, Ls 

a. ftfarechal st. An m Orleans, La 

Dwyer. 8t Charles street, Ne* Orh ••■ La 

i Wilson Si Co., Pi 

L. Sillers, Laurel and Calboun street La 



Centrifugal seconds. 
I ►pen kettle. 
Centrifugal seconds. 
Open kettle. 
Centrifugal seconds. 

Do. 
Open kettle. 
Centrifugal seconds. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Open kettle. 

Do. 

Do. 
Centrifugal seconds. 
Open kettle. 

Do. 
Centrifugal seconds. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Open kettle. 

Do. 

Do. 
White powdered. 
Centrifugal seconds. 

Do. 
White powd< 1 1 d 
Centi ifugal seconds. 

Do. 
White powdered. 
Yellow clarified. 
White powdered. 

Do. 

Do. 
open kettle. 
White powdered. 
Centrifugal seconds 
White powdered. 

Do. 

Do 

< Ipen kettle. 

White powdered. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do 

Do 

nil while. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY 



G63 



Analytical data. 



No. 



Direct 
polariza- 
tion. 



Indirect Tftninpr 
polariza- 
tion. 



ature ° C. 



Sucrose 
by 

Factor 144. 



Water. 



Ash. 



10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
3C 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
87 
38 
89 
10 
11 

4:j 

41 
4.'. 

IT 

a 
u 

50 



85.60 








83.60 







90.80 






88.85 






80. 10 




91.05 




80.20 
91.60 
86.40 
96.10 
90. 50 
87.90 
83.80 
90.30 
80.20 



























87.40 






86.60 






86.60 








88.50 








89.50 








88.20 








93.50 








79.40 






89.30 








90.50 








99.90 








90.50 








87.30 









99.80 




89.70 






90.80 






99. 10 






97. 30 
99.00 
99.40 
90. 50 
89.00 
99. 40 
89.30 

100. 00 



















■ 















88.90 






















100.00 






99. 70 


























7.18 
6.64 
0.16 
1. 26 
0.07 
0.16 
0.12 
7 '_'."> 
0.13 

0.09 

0. 18 
0. M 

ii. hi 

0. VI 

0. 18 



6.07 


0.?4 


6.96 


0.58 


4.27 


0.35 


6.23 


0.37 


6.21 


0.37 


2.89 


0.48 


10.04 


0.86 


4.42 


0.32 


6.57 


0.74 


2.17 


0.48 


6.01 


0.46 


5.46 


0.28 


7. 71 


0.70 


5.80 


0.43 


8.05 


1.14 


6.81 


0.76 


7.52 


0.76 


5.35 


0.52 


6.48 


0.53 


5.57 


0.73 


6.11 


0.68 


2. 69 


0.37 


10.05 


1.05 


6.04 


0.58 


4.57 


0.56 


0.16 


0.02 


6.89 


0.57 


7.40 


0.66 


0.08 





0.54 
0. 52 
0.27 
0.21 
0.00 
0.06 
0.05 
0.71 
0.04 

0.01 
0.01 

II 11(1 

0.01 

0.0] 
0.01 
0.01 
0.01 



664 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
ANALYSES BY SHIPPEN WALLACE. 

Description of samples. 



No. Seller. 


No. 
26 


Seller. 


1 U. H. Rambo. Gloucester, N. J. 


C. K. Morris, Camden, N. J. 


2 Do. 


27 


Gifford 6c Co., CamdeD, N. J. 


3 L. Fowler, Gloucester. N. J. 


28 


Tbomas Malone, Camden, N.J. 


4 James McLaughlin, Gloucester, N. J. 


29 


Thomas Westacott, Philadelphia, Pa. 


5 Do. 


30 


Cousty's Grocery, Philadelphia, Pa. 


6 R. K. Jester, Burlington. N.J. 


31 


Do. 


: Samuel Burr. Burlington, N.J. 


32 


Do. 


" 8 George F. Worth, Burlington, N. J. 


33 


Do. 


9 Sherman Brothers. Burlington, N. J. 


34 


L. Blaess, Philadelphia, Pa. 


10 Do. 


?,5 


Deacon <fc Fry, Philadelphia, Pa. 


11 


George F. Fort, Burlington, N. J. 


36 


Callowhill Street Market. Philadelphia, Pa. 


12 


Do. 




A. McCallister, Philadelphia, Pa. 


13 


William Sherwood, Burlington, N.J. 




S. Merriel, Philadelphia, Pa. 


14 


George W. Kimball, Burlington, N. J. 


39 


Wm. Cunningham & Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 


15 Do. 


40 


Samuel P. Helmer, Philadelphia, Pa. 


16 Samuel Emmons, Burlington, N.J. 


41 


C. S. Rollins, Philadelphia, Pa. 


17 


Do. 


42 


John McDonald & Son, Philadelphia, Pa. 


18 


Shinn 6c Son, Burlington, N. J. 


43 


Purdy Brothers, Philadelphia, Pa. 


19 


Ivins Pettit, Burlington, N. J. 


U 


Do. 


20 


Charles Ettenger, Burlington, N. J. 


45 


Crippen & Son, Philadelphia, Pa. 


21 


George A. Anthony, Burlington, N.J. 


46 


John Willson <fc Co., Philadelphia, Pa. 


22 


R. S. Dutton, Burlington, N. J. 


47 


South Second Street Market, Philadelphia, Pa. 


23 


G. W. Swaney, Camden, N. J. 


48 


Do. 


24 


Charles Warner, Camden, N.J. 


49 


Do. 


'25 Florner 6c Son, Camden, N. J. 


50 


Do. 



Price paid, 5$ cents per pound. 



SUGAB, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY 
Analytical data. 



6Gi 



No. 

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
4U 
41 

H 



Direct 
polariza- 
tion. 



Indirect 
polariza- 
tion. 



Tempera- Sucrose by Wftte _ Ash 
tnre°C. factor 144. " ater " Asb ' 



86.7 
91.3 
86.0 
87.0 
88.3 
88.0 
91.0 
87.0 
87.0 
88.5 
89.0 
87.0 
88.0 
88.2 
86.8 
88.5 
85.0 
86.5 
86.2 
89.7 
90.8 
91.3 
92.0 
92.7 
91.5 
93.3 
87.2 
93.0 
92.5 
fc9.0 
94.0 
92. 7 
86.3 
86.5 
85.8 
86.0 

87.5 

8a o 

88.3 

-• 







17 

















200 
117 
200 
717 
834 
870 
500 
8*4 
875 
100 
915 
900 
000 
000 
915 
100 
280 
200 
200 
100 
920 
75C 
000 
850 
100 
7U0 

700 
112 
167 
975 
235 
115 
120 
110 
225 

200 
000 
100 
LIS 

115 
200 

110 
MO 



500 
216 
500 
830 
260 

150 
830 
820 
725 
530 
845 
153 
522 
572 
520 
600 



333 
290 
210 
115 
500 
200 
110 
100 
233 
500 
333 
100 
222 

775 
775 
580 
725 

520 



666 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
ANALYSES BY II. A. WEBER. 

Description of samples. 



No. 


Bought from— 


Labels. 


1 


J. G. & S. Brown, Hunter street and 5th avenue, 


Off A, HavemeyerA Elder. 






Columbus. 








•> 


do 




C, Havemeyer &. Elder. 

Brown sugar, Spreokels' raw sugar. 

Oft A, Franklin Sugar Refinery 




3 


do 




4 


Henry Tkropp,345 South High street, Columbus. 


Company, 








Philadelphia. 




fi 


do 




C, Franklin Sugar Refinery Company, Phila- 
delphia. 








6 


do 




Brown sugar, Spreckels raw, Franklin Sugar 




" 




Refinery Company, Philadelphia. 




7 


Esper & Sons, 403 South High street, Columbus. 


Oft A, Franklin Sngai Refinery Con 


pany, Phil- 








adelphia. 




8 


do 




C sugar, Franklin Sugar Refinery 

Philadelphia. 


Company, 


9 


do 




Brown sugar, Franklin Sugar Bel 
pany, Philadelphia. 


nery Corn- 










10 


William Schaw, 


South High street, Columbus... 


Brown sugar. 




11 


PreinkensBros., 


391 South High street, Columbus. 


Light C. 




1? 


do 




Yellow C. 

C sugar, Franklin Sugar Refinery 




13 


B. *L Babb, 297 South High street, Columbus.. 


Company, 








Philadelphia. 




14 


R. M. Babb, 297 


South High street, Columbus. . 


Yellow C, Franklin Sugar Felinery 
Philadelphia. 


Company, 


15 


R. M. Babb, 297 


South High street, Columbus.. 


Franklin Sugar Refinery Companj 

phia. 


, Philadel 


10 


do 




Coffee C, Franklin Sugar Refinery 


Company, 








Philadelphia. 




17 


Wheeler's, 15 N 


>rth High Btreet, Columbus 


C, Franklin Sugar Refinery Company, Phila- 








delphia. 




18 


do 




Yellow C, Franklin Sugar Refinery 
Philadelphia. 


• !ompany, 










Ifl 


do 




Brown sugar, Havemeyer A Bld< r 
Yellow C, Franklin Sugar Refinery 




20 


1 i Bayden, L6 North High street, Columbus 


' iompany, 


21 


do 




Philadelphia, 










pany, Philadelphia. 




22 


.). ii. Baohua, 2< 


5 South High street, Columbus 


Yellow c, Franklin Sugar Beflnerj 

Philadelphia. 


Company, 


28 


a J Evane, 2:n 


Baal Long itreel ( lolumbus. . . 


Off A. Franklin Sugar Beflnery 
Philadelphia. 


Company, 


?4 


..do 




ii, Fi.inklin Sugar Refinery 
Philadelphia. 


Company, 










?r» 


.do 




Brown sugar, Franklin Sugar Bel 
pany, Philadelphia. 


n. i J ( 'mo 










-»; 


...do 




New Orleans, Franklin Sugar Befiner 
Philadelphia. 


^ Company, 










27 


I'.nu man Bros., 
< lolumbus. 


>orner Long and < Irani ai anni i 


Off a 




28 


do 




Frown sugar. 






m \ Montgomery, 818 Bast Lou 


Yellow c. standard. 






lombni 








30 


do 




Brown sugar, standard. 





No. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 6o'7 

Description of samples — Continued. 

Bought from — Labels. 



31 M. Theado &. Co., 234 and 238 South 4th street, Off A. 

Columbus. 

32 do C. 

33 do Brown sugar. 

34 Fraas <fc Fooks. 171 and 170 South 4th street, Off A, Hnvemeyer & Elder. 

Columbus. 

35 do C, Havemeyer & Elder. 

3G do N. O. sugar. 

37 Chris. Have, Main street. Columbus C. 

38 do N.O. sugar. 

39 do C Bag 

40 Saul & Eberly, 74, 7G, and 78 Main St., Columbus C, Spreokels. 

41 do Brown sugar, Sprockets' vera dark. 

42 do X. ( ). sugar. 

43 I J. B. & L. Zettler, South 4th street, Columbus.. Light C. 

44 do Brown. 

15 George Babb, 32 East Main street, Columbus... Off A. 

40 do Yellow C. 

47 do Brown. 

48 Holden Bros., North High street, Columbus Brown sugar. 

•19 Aug. Boesel, L352 North High street, Columbus Do. 

50 J. L. Guthridgf, 1444 X. High street, Columbus. Do. 



668 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS 

Analytical data. 



No. 


Direct 

polariza 

tion. 


Indirect 

polariza- 
tion. 


Temper- 
ature, °C. 

16.5 


Sucrose by 

factor 144'. 

86.99 


Wat. i. 


Asli. 


1 


BO. : 


—27.0 


5. 42 


0.41 


2 


82.9 


—26. 5 


19.0 


82.32 


5.29 


0.93 


3 


8G.8 


—26.7 


19.0 


85. 70 


3.48 


3. 25 


4 


92.0 


-28.7 


19.0 


90.99 


6.53 


0.19 


5 


85.5 


—28.0 


19.0 


.v-,. 32 


5. 71 


88 


G 


88.1 


—28.0 


19.0 


87.37 


3.04 


3.17 


7 


92.0 


—29.0 


19.0 


91.00 


6.06 


0.22 


8 


85.8 


—28.1 


19.0 


85.70 


5.49 


0.85 


9 


86.7 


-27.8 


19.0 


86.15 


4.66 


2 .31 


10 


85.7 


—28.7 


19.0 


86.08 


5.59 


;.o7 


11 


90.3 


—28.3 


19.0 


89.24 


6.51 


0-27 


12 


81.8 


—28.5 


22.0 


86. 22 . 


5.37 


0.74 


13 


85.0 


-28. 


22.0 


85.99 


5.14 


. 7G 


14 


84.6 


-27.5 


22.0 


85.31 


5.73 


j. 02 


15 


85.4 


—27.8 


22.0 


8G. 14 


4.06 


3 .56 


10 


90.0 


—30.0 


22.0 


91.32 


6.98 


0-30 


17 


87.3 


—29.5 


17.0 


86.48 


5. 95 


.34 


18 


83.4 


—28.0 


17.0 . 


83.19 


4.70 


1.08 


19 


81.3 


—28.0 


17.0 


81.55 


5.14 


2 17 


20 


83.0 


—28.0 


17.0 


82. 82 


3.80 


0.68 


21 


85.7 


-28.0 


17.0 


84.91 


5. 20 


3.68 


22 


87.8 


-27.0 


21.0 


87.11 


5.22 


0. 4 S 


23 


92. G 


—29.0 


21.0 


92.19 


6.12 


0.33 


24 


92.0 


-28.2 


21.0 


91.12 


3. 52 


0.07 


25 


89.0 


—26.4 


21.0 


87.49 


3.20 


1.71 


2G 


92.5 


—28.8 


21.0 


91.96 


1.89 


0.27 


27 


91.9 


—28.1 


19.0 


90.29 


6.78 


0.28 


28 


86.3 


—27.1 


19.0 


85. 32 


4.4G 


::. 60 


29 


86.8 


-28.8 


19.0 


86.98 


5.61 


0.76 


30 


85. 3 


-27.5 


19.0 


84.87 


7.67 


2.46 ■ 


31 


95.1 


—30.0 


20. 


95.56 


I 21 


0.09 


32 


87.3 


-27.2 


23.0 


87.70 


6 44 


1.10 


33 


92.5 


—29.0 


23.0 


87.01 


3. 72 


8. 56 


34 


86.9 


-28.0 


23. 


87. 77 




o.n 


35 


86.9 


-28.0 


23.0 


.-7 77 


6.84 


1.39 


36 


91.6 


—29.7 


19.0 


01.19 




0.91 


37 




-28.5 


19.0 


86.60 


G. 50 




38 


94.6 


—29. 5 


19. 


93 B0 




ii t ' 


89 


95 7 


—29. 5 


19 ii 


!I4. 20 




n. 7.2 


40 


88.2 


-28.3 


19 




4.09 


(i 97 


41 


36 i 


-27.1 


19.0 


86 17 




3. 50 


42 


93. 4 


-29. 7 


lit. I) 


92. 82 


1.18 


0. 59 


13 


87. 5 


•J7. 5 


19.0 




Q i- 


1.00 


44 


67.8 




10.0 




1 06 


3. 18 


45 


'.HI 1 


—29.2 


10. 




i in 




10 


88. 8 




lit. 


KH. 03 


i 03 


1 01 


a 


83. l 


27 2 


10.0 






1.79 


i- 


96 B 


-27.8 


19.0 




l ii 


4 17 


49 


90.7 




19.0 


00.06 


::. 1 1 


1. is 


r.o 


88. •'» 




19 ii 


87.81 


i i 


2. 10 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 669 

ANALYSES BY F. G. WIECHMANN. 
Description of sample*. 



No. 


Character. 


Price 

per 

pound. 


1 


Soft 


$0.07 


2... 


...do 


.07 


3.... 


...do 


.07 


4.... 


....do 


.07 


5.... 


do 


.07 


6 




.10 


7.... 


Soft 


.07 


8.... 


...do 


.06 


9 


... do 


.00 


10.... 


....do 


.06 


11 .. 




.09 


12... 


....do 


.10 


13.... 


Soft 


.07 


14 


....do 


.07 


15 .. 


...do 


.07 


16 .. 


...do 


.07 


17 


....do 


.07 


18... 


....do 


.07 


19.... 


Powder 


.09 


20 


Soft 


.07 


21 


....do 


.08 


22 ... . 


....do 


.07 


23 ... 


....do 


.07 


24 . .. 


....do 


.06 


25 .. 


....do 


.07 


26 ... . 


....do 


.06 


27... 


....do 


.06 


28 


...do 


.07 


29 ... . 


....do 


.07 


30 


....do 


.07 


31... 


....do 


.06 


32 ... . 


....do 


.07 


33 ... . 


....do 


.06 


34 ... . 


....do 


.08 


35.... 


...do ... . 


.07 


36.... 


•-- (1 " 


.08 


37... 




.00 


38 




.06 


..... 


....do 


.07 


40 ... . 


— do 


.07 


41 .... 


do 


.07 


42 ... . 


.. do 


.07 


It .... 


..-..do .... 


.07 


41 


....do 


.(>7 


M .. 


...do 




46.... 


....do 


.07 


47 


....do .. 


08 


18 . ... 


....do 


.07 


49 ... . 


....do 


.07 


50 ... . 


....do 





Bought at — 



H. lioeslager, 794 3d avenue, New York. 

L. Eicke, 4th avenue and 11th street, New York. 

F. C. Rahe, Broome and Forsyth streets, New York. 

Steinherg, Wythe avenue and South 2d street, Brooklyn, E. D. 

38 Grand street, Brooklyn, E. D. 

A. Balfauz, 54 Grand street, Brooklyn, E. D. 

L. Gieseler, "Wythe avenue and South 1st street, Brooklyn, E D. 

P. U. Mon torsi, 60 South 5th avenue, New York. 

Tompkins, 70 South 5th avenue, New York. 

Schaefer & Son, 95 "West Houston street, New York. 

Malatesta, 133 South 5th avenue, New York. 

Piatt, 160 Spring street, New York. 

Bergonzi Bros., 58 Grand street, New York. 

Hanley & Glynn, 59 Whitehall street, New York. 

Fajen & Co., 17 South street, New York. 

C. Meyer, 29 Coenties slip, New York. 

R.C. Hewitt, 201 3d avenue, New York. 

Koch Sc Seinke, 185 3d avenue, New York. 

Behrens, 273 avenue A, New York. 

A. Becker, 283 avenue A, New York. 

1). Miiller, 307 avenue A, New York. 

Junghertchen, 310 avenue A, New York. 

L. Dwingelo, 778 2d avenue, New York. 

The Great Overland Tea Company, 748 2d avenue, New York. 

W. F. Vogel, 739 2d avenue, New York. 

Kerr Brothers, 738 2d avenue, New York. 

People's Tea Company, 722 2d avenue, New York. 

F. Hardy, 718 2d avenue, New York. 

<;. A. Wnerfel, 690 2d avenue, New Fork. 

059 2d avenue, New York. 

J. Butler, 043 2d avenue. New York. 

C. C. Sievers, 641 2d avenue, New York. 

New York and China Tea and Coffee Company, 804 2d avenue, 

New York. 
Fresher & Donolley, 837 Basl 33d itn 1 1 New York. 
Charl< - 13d street Ni n Fork. 

J.N. Gal way, I2dstreel and Vanderbil! avenne, New Fork. 
II. .Mi<Min<lurT. US 3d avenue, New Fork. 
The Greal Atlantic and Paoiflo Tea Company, 8th avenne and 53d 

street, New Fork. 
Wright A K\er, h'ji 8th avenne, New Fork 
K. and P. Gerety, 880 8th avenne, N< 
II. w Kramwiede, B70 8th avenue, New York 
a B B. dell, -it 9th avenue, New York. 
<;. L Bohroeder,838 Btfa avenue, Ne* i 
II. Bremer .v Son. 790 Btli avenne, Ni 
A* Birnbaum, 780 8th avenne. New Fork. 
D n Tonjes, 740 8th avenne, Nen York, 
w. D, M,,n. 7328th arena* . Ne* York, 
w ii M.ixw.n, 706 8th avenne, S en Fork. 

- h a\ .nil.-. \.w Foi k . 
J. K< \. h Foi i.. 



670 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
Analytical data. 



No. 


Direct 
polariza- 
tion. 


Indirect 
polariza- 
tion. 


Temper- 
ature. 


Sucrose by 
factor 144. 


Water. 


Ash. 


1 

2 

3 

4 
5 
6 

7 
8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

1G 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

20 

27 

29 
30 
31 
82 
33 
34 
35 
36 
B7 
38 

10 
41 
42 

11 
15 
46 

17 
1- 
10 
60 


88.3 
87.9 
91.3 
84.7 
90.7 
99.7 
8G.8 
93.2 








5.95 
4.99 
5.49 
5.01 
5. 04 
0.03 
2.59 

2. 69 
5.09 
5.04 
0.07 
0.02 
5.45 
4.79 
3.01 
5. 44 
3.45 

:, 47 

0.03 
4.15 
4.80 
4.72 
4.08 

4. 72 
4.85 
•J. 27 
4.53 

3. 80 
4.79 

5. 72 

5. 10 
4.04 
4.70 
i 80 
1.14 
4.81 
8. DO 
5.64 
4.01 

i .i 
i 2fl 

i 88 

I. 00 

i n 


1.213 
0.997 
0. 511 
2. 365 
0.511 
0.003 

0. 979 

1. 350 
1.609 
1.699 
0.007 
0.003 
1.440 
1.134 
1.440 
1.278 
1.237* 
0.059 
0.007 
0.745 
0.497 
1.099 
1.310 
1.414 
0.903 
1.085 

2. 304 
1.080 
1 :".'- 

1. 170 

1.068 
1.875 
1.421 

2. 160 
0.001 

1. 144 
0.604 
•_'. 1 1 J 
0.864 

817 
0.504 

2. 203 

1. 162 
0.648 












































87.2 
86. 6 
99.7 
99.9 
85.3 
87.6 


"■" ■■■ 





































87.4 
87.0 














87.3 
90.9 
99.9 
85.3 

80. 7 

































91.0 
86.4 
88.6 
89.0 
89.5 
86.3 

80.5 
88.3 

92.1 
86. 1 
88.4 
H7.0 
8:;. 8 

85. 8 
89.2 
8(1. 3 
90.0 

K9. 7 
80. 7 

86. i 
'.ii 
81.6 

.-7.7 


























































































































































































SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
SUGAR ANALYZED IN CHEMICAL DIVISION. 

Description of samples. 



671 



No. 



Where bought. 



8559 
8533 
8564 
8565 
8567 
P570 
8571 
8574 
8577 
8581 
8583 
8586 
8587 
8589 
8590 
8591 
8593 
8594 
8595 
8596 
8598 
8599 
8600 
8601 
8602 
8820 
8621 



8623 
8624 
8625 
M28 
8627 
8828 
8629 

8630 
8631 
8632 
8633 
8634 

8037 
8638 



B641 






A. A. Winfield, 215 13* street SW 

327 13th street HW 

324 13th street NW 

do 

1219 E street 

W. E. Abbott, corner 11th and H streets 

do 

J. H. Semmes, 740 12th street 

| Franklin Barrett, New York avenue and 12th street 

! Hart <fc Higgins 

Russell &Co., 9th and I streets 

j W. H. Combs, 934 9th street 

Wilson &. Schultz, corner I and 7th streets 

O. D. Kenny, corner 7th and I streets 

do..... 

do 

China and Japan Tea Store, 731 7th street 

j do 

do 

H. L. Key worth, 531 7th street 

, 1367 C street SW 

\ do 

J. W. Brewer, corner C and 13* streets SW 

Estler &. Co., corner C and 13* streets SW 

do 

F. Lawrence, 528 Lexington avenue, Baltimore, Md 

Corner Linden avenue and Rose street, Baltimore, Md.. 

Geo. B. French, corner North Paca and Lexington, Balti 
more, lid. 

Bryant Sc Clarvoe, Baltimore, Md 

Rider &. Co., 709 Baltimore street, Baltimore, Md 

Ed. Reese & Son, 412 Baltimore street, Baltimore, Md.. . 

L.H. Reitz, 237 Hanover street, Baltimore, Md 

720 North Bntaw street, Baltimore, Md 

1 E.T.Carter, 180 Camden street, Baltimore, Md 

United States Tea Company, corner Lexington and 
Pearl, Baltimore, Md. 

L. Strauss,226 North Eutaw street, Baltimore, Md , 

Randall, 410 Baltimore street, Baltimore, Md 

•ill Lexington street, Baltimore, Md 

Hopper, Met law .<v Co., 222 Charles street, Baltlmore,Md 

Atlantic and Paoiflc 1 '< a < tampan j . 615 West Lexing- 
ton street, Baltimore, Md. 

si n i ins A Co., 116 En taw street, Baltimore, Md 

Atlantic ami Paoiflo Tea Company, 615 Weal Lexing- 
ton street, Bait Imore, Md. 

Greene, irj Baltimore street, Baltimore, Md 

Rider & Co., 768 Baltimore street, Baltimore, Md 

R. R. Howard, < lamden and Howard streets, Baltimore 
Md 

T. M. l: ner North Charles ami Mod 

berrj timer sfd 

L. Strauss, 22f North Buta* street, Baltimore, Md 

s. Edmonds & Son-, ooi m c Lexington and Peai 
Baltimore, Md. 

C i. Gabeler, 5M Lexington street, Baltimore, Md 

I.. 11. Reitz, 227 Banov'i i street, Baltimore, Md 



Character. 



Brown sugar 

Cut sugar 

White sugar 

Brown sugar 

do 

do 

Powdered sugar 

Brown sugar 

do 

do 

do 

do 

White sugar (granulated) 

Granulated sugar 

Powdered sugar 

Off A sugar 

Granulated white sugar . 

Black sugar 

Brown 

Cut 

Brown sugar 

Black sugar 

Granulated sugar 

Brown sugar 

Powdered sugar 

Brown sugar 

A sugar 

Brown sugar 



.do 
.do 
do 
.do 
.do 
.do 
.do 



...do 

...do 



do 

B BUgax 

Pulverized sugar 



Price 

per 

pound. 



Brown sugar 

Columbia a sugar 



Soil m liite BUj 
if 

< m sagar 



Louisiana sngi 



r 

< '(.III. i I loll, i . 



I'lllvel i/ed 

— do 



672 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical data. 



No. 


Direct 
polariza- 
tion. 


Indirect 
polariza- 
tion. 


Temper- 
ature 

°C. 


Su< lot- by 
f act or 144'. 


Water. 


Ash. 


8559 


87.1 


—29.6 


18.5 


87.6 


6.45 


.99 


8563 


99.9 


—34.6 


17.6 


99.5 


.04 


.03 


8564 


98.2 


—33.2 


17.4 


97.1 


1.44 


.23 


85C5 


84.1 


—28. 


19.8 


83.5 


4.23 


2.02 


8567 


85.0 


—27.7 


20.6 


84.3 


5.52 


1.02 


8570 


83.7 


—29.7 


U7.4 


83.8 


5.12 


1.21 


8571 


99.5 


—32.3 


20. 


98.3 


.05 


.05 


8574 


88.4 


—30.1 


15. 8 ' 


87.1 


5.08 


1.27 


8577 


85.0 


—29.0 


•19.8 


'85.0 


4.89 


1.80 


8581 


87.0 


-28.6 


20.6 


85.8 


4.64 


.67 


8583 


85.1 


—28. 9 


19.0 j 


84.8 


4.87 


1.18 


8586 


87.0 


—28.3 


21.0 


86.3 


3.78 


1.07 


8587 


99.9 


—33.0 


20.0 


98.5 


.03 


.05 


8589 


100.0 


—34.2 


17.6 


98.9 


.06 


.05 


8590 


100.1 


—32.9 


20.6 


99.5 


.06 


.04 


8591 


93.0 


—30.3 


20.6 


92.2 


5.93 


.18 


8593 


90.2 


-31.4 


17.8 


90.0 


5.85 


.36 


8594 


80.6 


—29.3 


20.2 


82.1 


7.98 


.11 


8595 


85.7 


-27.6 


18.6 


84.1 


5.92 


.19 


8596 


100.1 


—33.4 


18.8 


99.2 


.11 


.03 


8598 


86.0 


-29.0 


20.5 


86.0 • 


6.20 


.80 


8599 


81.1 


—27.6 


20.0 


81.1 


7.97 


.14 


8600 


100.0 


—33.1 


20.8 


99.8 


.06 


.01 


8601 


87.5 


—27.7 


20.6 


86.2 


5.00 


1.57 


8602 


100.1 


—32.8 


19.8 


99.9 


.06 


.02 


8620 


85.0 


-29.6 


19.4 


85.3 


5.60 


1.46 


8621 


93.9 


—31.2 


19.6 


93.2 


4.83 


.26 


8622 
8623 


86.8 
84.6 


—29.2 
-29.0 


19.8 
20.0 


86.5 
84.7 


6.22 
4.87 


.58 
2.30 


8624 


83.4 


-29.3 


20.0 


84.1 


5.27 


1.66 


8625 


84.0 


-28.9 


20.0 


84.3 


4.73 


.89 


8626 


85.3 


-28.6 


20.4 


84.4 


6.71 


.93 


8627 


85.8 


-29.3 


20.4 


86. o 


5.65 


.82 


8628 


87.0 


-29.1 


20.4 


86.8 


4.04 


3.33 


8629 


88.0 


-29.5 


•jo. l 


87.8 


3.52 


2.94 


8630 


85.8 


-29.1 


20.8 


86.0 


6. 63 


1.34 


8631 


84.0 


-29.1 


22.0 


85.0 


7.17 


.89 




83. 5 


-28.2 


22.0 


84.0 


8.06 


2.11 


8G33 


88.6 


-30.8 


22.0 


89.8 


4.40 


.88 




100.0 


-82.8 


22.0 


DO. 7 


.01 


.02 




85.2 


-29.2 


22. o 


86.0 


6, 1 1 


1.51 




93.3 


-31.5 


22.0 


93.8 


8.68 


.47 




86.7 


-29.0 


22.0 


B7.0 


6.M 


.86 




02. 2 


-80.7 


22.0 


92.4 








99.4 






99.3 


.17 


.01 






-33.0 


22. 1 


98.8 


.33 


.40 


M',11 




-80.0 


22.4 




6. 81 


.38 




ion. 


-33.0 


S2. 4 


99.6 




.03 




100.0 






99.7 


. 28 


.08 










99.5 


01 


.01 



SUGAK, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 673 

NOTES ON ANALYSES. 
GENERAL. 

The total absence of any added matters to the sugars of commerce 
is plainly shown by the five hundred analyses of samples purchased in 
open market in different parts of the country. 

A few years ago an attempt was made to adulterate cane sugar, then 
worth nearly 10 cents a pound, with sugar made from cornstarch, worth 
from 3 to 5 cents a pound. This sugar was sold in considerable quan- 
tities under the name of new-process sugar. It is needless to say that 
it passed into consumption under the impression that it was genuine 
cane sugar. The cornstarch sugar, on accouut of the difficulty of dry- 
ing it, made the whole mass sticky and difficult to handle. This variety 
of sugar, therefore, did not find a ready sale, and its manufacture never 
assumed very large proportions. 

Attempts were then made to manufacture pure anhydrous corn- 
starch sugar, and these attempts were successful from a chemical, but 
not from a commercial, point of view. In point of fact, however, con- 
siderable quantities of this dry dextrose were put on the market, and I 
believe it is still made under the patents of Dr. Arno Belir. 

The low price of cane sugar, however, has heretofore prevented the 
profitable adulteration of cane sugar with any article made from starch. 
It is also gratifying to know that the powdered sugars of commerce 
were not found adulterated with starch or terra alba ; at least, in so far 
as the limited examination of them extended. 

The chief adulterant of low-grade sugars, if it can properly be so 
called, is water. By modern methods of sugar-boiling a great deal of 
low-grade sugar and water can be incorporated in low-priced sugars, 
which still show an almost white color. This is due to the combined 
influence of bone black, and low temperature in the vacuum pan. By 
means of bone black the sirups are nearly or quite decolorized; and 
by boiling at a low temperature (llo° to 120 P.) a soft crystal of sugar 
is formed which is capable of holding a large percentage of water and 
reducing sugar. The resulting sugar is, nevertheless, almost white, and 
finds a ready sale for many culinary operations. These BOgars are 
easily detected by noticing the polarizations below 90° in the tables Oi 
analyses. 

The question of the use of these sugars is one of economy only, 
for they are certainly not injurious to health. In general it may be 

said that for a given sum a greater quantity of saccharine matter can 

be purchased by taking the high-grade sugars, in respect of maple 

sugar there is a general impression that it is largely adulterated with 
cheaper varieties. At the present time the resources ot' cheinistn are 

powerless to detect such an adult crat ion. The Bugar of the maple sap 
is identical in composition with that of the sugar cane, sorghum, and 



674 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

sugar beet. No discrimination in such cases can be made by analysis. 
If the ethereal substance which gives to maple sugar its peculiar flavor 
could be detected and quantitatively determined, then adulteration 
with a sugar containing none of this substance might be detected. 
Extract of hickory bark is said to contain the same flavor as maple 
sap, and, therefore, even in case of being able to measure the quantity 
of this substance, it might be added as an adulterant. 

Id regard to the price of the sugars, molasses, etc., it should be re- 
membered that they were purchased early in the year 1891, before 
sugar was admitted to our ports free of duty. 

THE COLORING OF SUGARS. 

White and yellow sugars usually receive a special treatment, either 
in the vacuum pan or the centrifugal, in order to prevent a gray or 
"dead" appearance. In the case of white sugars blue ultramarine is 
the substance usually employed for this purpose. The coloring matter 
is suspended in water and is applied as final wash in the centrifugal 
immediately before stopping the machine. This process is termed 
"bluing." A very small amount of the color adheres to the crystals, 
giving the sugar a whiter and brighter appearance. Some sugar 
makers suspend a small amount of ultramarine in water and draw it 
into the vacuum pan a few minutes before the strike is finished. In 
addition to this treatment in the pan the sugar is also blued in the cen- 
trifugal. It is not unusual to find sugars which have been excessively 
blued, and which, on solution, yield a blue sirup. Fortunately ultra- 
marine is not poisonous and no injury to health can result from its use. 

The yellow clarified sugars of the plantations are always treated 
witli a wash containing chloride of tin, commercially known as tin 
crystal. Tlie yellow sugars not treated with tin, soon after leaving the 
centrifugal, lose their bright color and become a dead or grayish yellow. 
Such sugars are only manufactured for the refiner, and do not enter 
directly into the consumption. The tin crystal is dissolved in water 
and, as in the case of ultramarine, is employed as a final wash shortly 
before slopping the centrifugal. The depth of the yellow color of the 
sugar depends largely upon the strength of the tin solution and is 
modified by the manufacturers to suit the demands of the market. 

The principal constituent of the various sugar colors known as kk rock 
compound," " Smith's sugar color," etc., is chloride of tin. The tin 
Chloride is not in itself a coloring matter. Tin can rarely be detected 
in sugars known to have been colored by means of tin chloride. The 
yellow color produced by this substance is probably a result of its ac- 
tion on tin- BUgar itself. 

Tin crystal is also employed in the vacuum pan, but not generally in 
this country. In the manufacture of the beautiful sugar known as 

" Demerara crystals," chloride of bin is employed in the vacuum pan. 

Sulphuric acid was formerly w^'d for this purpose, but it has been su- 
perseded by the tin compound. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 675 

The chloride of tin passes into the molasses and becomes an objec- 
tionable constituent of this product. Messrs. Lock & Xewlands Broth- 
ers* mention a harmless yellow color of organic origin, which is used in 
the manufacture of imitation Demerara crystals. So far as the writer is 
aware this color is not used on the sugar plantations of this country. 

SPECIAL NOTES. 
ANALYSES BY H. A. HUSTON. 

The samples of sugar were purchased in La Fayette, Ind., Indianapolis, 
and Chicago. A glance at the descriptions of the samples will show 
that all the common commercial sugars are represented in the samples. 

Open-Tcettic sugar. — One sample of marked open-kettle sugar is found 
in the list. Open-kettle sugar is made largely in Louisiana by planters, 
having only a small area in cultivation and inexpensive factory facili- 
ties. The boiling is accomplished without the aid of vacuum apparatus 
and in open kettles. The molasses is separated without the use of cen- 
trifugals and by simple drainage from the hogsheads, into which the 
mush sugar is placed after granulation. Open-kettle molasses is the 
best and highest priced molasses in the Xew Orleans market. Very 
little open-kettle sugar is found in commerce outside of the region of its 
production. There is some demand for it, especially among bakers, 
and many like its aromatic flavor and taste. For this reason there 
might be some inducement to brand with that name the low-grade yel- 
low cane sugars of a refinery. 

MapJc sugar. — Three samples of maple sugar are included in the list, 
viz, 125, polarizing 84.11 and costing 22 cents a pound; 130, polarizing 
84.21 and costing 13 cents a pound; and 145, polarizing 81.40 and cost- 
ing 20 cents a pound. 

The price of maple sugar, as is well known, is out of all proportion 
to the saccharine matter which it contains, and is due to its peculiar 
and pleasant taste, derived presumably from some ethereal matter ex- 
uded with the sap. The nature of this substance lias not, to my knowl- 
edge, been definitely determined. ft is not wholly volatile, since it 
remains in the sugar and molasses after they have; been kept for a long 
time at a high temperature during the process of concentration. Never- 
theless, a distinctly agreeable odor marks {lie process of maple sap 
evaporation, as every one can attest who has visited the primitive 

sugar factories which are Operated in the maple-sugar industry. 

As has before been int iinat ed, there is a popular belief that maple 
sugar is largely adulterated with cane sugar derived from other sources. 

The chemical Identity of these sugars, however, preveuts any chemical 
detection of such alleged adulteration. The great stoics of maple 
sugar and sirup offered for sale in comparison with the very limited 
supply is the chief basis for the popular suspicion. It must beremem 



Sugar: Look ANewlands Brothers,] 



676 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

bered, however, that the aunual output of maple sugar in this country 
approximates ^0,000 tons, and this would be sufficient to supply a great 
demand. Maple sugar is chiefly used, outside of the area of its manu- 
facture, as a delicacy and not in general consumption. 

No. 117 — Extra C. — This sample is distinguished by having the 
lowest polarization of any in the list, viz', 74.56°. It shows in a marked 
way how much water and molasses can be incorporated in a sugar with 
fair color and merchantable conditions. This sugar was selling for 6J 
cents a pound when sugar of 99.5° purity was bringing only 8 cents. 
The relative value of the sugar in the two samples at 9 cents a pound 
for pure sugar is as follows ; 

Value of 99.5° sugar at 9 cents for pure 100° sugar, 8.96 cents. 
Value of 74.56° sugar at 9 cents for pure 100° sugar, 6.71 cents. 

At the rate of 6^ cents per pound for 74.56° sugar, 100° sugar 
would cost 8.38 cents a pound. At the rate of 8 cents for 99.5° 
sugar, 100° sugar would cost 8.01 cents a pound. It is seen at once, 
therefore, that in respect of the quantity of pure sugar obtained the 
purchaser of the low-grade sugar is at a disadvantage. This, however, 
is an extreme case. Jn most cases prices and purity are so adjusted as 
to give approximately the same quantity of pure sugar for the same 
price. 

High polarizing sugars, — A pure sugar under certain definite condi- 
tions corresponds with the 100° mark on the polariscopic scale. This 
scale is fixed arbitrarily, and the quantity of pure sugar required to 
real 100° in a given volume of solution varies with different instru- 
ments, When, however, in a given accurate instrument, a reading of 
more than 100° is obtained for a sample of sugar, it shows either some 
analytical error or else the presence in the sugar of some body having 
a higher specific rotatory power than sucrose. It was noticed that sev- 
eral samples of granulated sugar examined in the laboratory of the 
Department of Agriculture showed a rotation slightly greater than 
100°. These values will be discussed below. In the case of No. 139 of 
the samples now under discussion, a polarization of 100° is noticed with 
a trace of moist are and ash. This may have been due to a slight error 
m reading, which may sometimes amount to as much as 0.2°, or to 
BOme high rotating material in tin 4 sugar under examination. Mr. Hus- 
ton's polariscope was almost exactly correct, giving a reading of 9!>.7 
with the sugar sent, against 99.73°, the mean of numerous readings in 
the Department laboratory, checked by a quartz plate, standardized by 
the office of weights and measures, U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey. 

\.\AL\ BES UP II. II. NICHOLSON. 

Samjtlcs. — The samples examined by Prof. Nicholson were purchased 

at Bed Oloud, Beatrice, Lincoln, and Omaha, Nebr. They consist 
chiefly of Low-grade sugars, onlj two, Nos. 25 and to, reaching the grade 
of pure granulated sugai , 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 677 

Lowest polarization. — Xo. 10, marked Xew Orleans sugar, shows the 
lowest polarization of any of the samples, viz, 77.3°. It is low even 
for an open-kettle sugar. It is more likely to be a very low grade of 
refinery product. 

Highest polarization. — The highest polarization shown by any of the 
samples is 100.2° by Xo. 42, also marked New Orleans. This sample 
is shown to have also 1.07 per cent water and 1.88 per cent ash. The 
number, 100.2°, representing the polarization is necessarily erroneous. 
All plus polarizing sugars are of a high grade of purity and have but 
little ash. The only possible explanation of this high number is that 
the sample is beet sugar made from material rich in raffinose and not 
well purified. This might account for the excess of polarization and 
also for the presence of so large a quantity of ash. A sugar polarizing 
99° and over should have only a trace of ash. 

This polarization should also be diminished 0.3, on account of error 
in the instrument. But even 99.9 polarization is entirely too high for 
a sugar containing nearly 3 per cent of foreign matter, unless, as above 
intimated, it may also contain raffinose. 

ANALYSES BY W. B. RISING. 

Samples. — The samples were purchased in Berkeley and San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. They were mostly low-grade refinery samples, and one, of 
which there was some doubt, was said to be New Orleans sugar. 

Lowest polarization. — Sample iSTo. 171 showed the lowest polarization, 
viz, 79.6°. It was a yellow sugar with G.32 per cent water and 2.G5 
per cent ash. The place of its manufacture and the name under which 
it was sold are not given. 

Highest polarization. — The purest sugar of this lot is No. 5, a granu- 
lated sugar purchased in Berkeley. It shows a polarization of 98.10°, 
with only .1.") per cent water and .02 per cent ash. 

Highest ash. — Sample No. 1 is remarkable in having so high a content 
of ash. Scarcely more than this would be expected in molasses. The 
color of this sugar, however, was white and its polarization only S,">.7°. 
From the large quantity of ash contained in it there is reason to sus- 
pect that it was made from beets. The small quantity of beet sugar 
used on the Pacific coast, however, would make it difficult to accept 
such an explanation. 

Accuracy of instrument. — Mr. Rising has failed t<> report the reading 
of the sample Bugai sent him; therefore the accuracy of the polari- 

scope used by him is nol known. 

ANALYSES i:\ M. A. BCOVBLL. 

Samples. — The samples were purchased in Lexington and Louisville, 

K\., and in Cincinnati. Ohio. After the analytical work had all been fin- 
ished Prof. BcOVelPs laboratory was destroyed by fire and his notes 
and samples destroyed. With great cnei-,\ ami ability he soon re 

L8808— No, L8 1 



678 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

established his laboratory, purchased new samples, and repeated the 
work. The data given are of course from the second set of samples. 

Temperature. — The solutions were all made up and read at approx- 
imately 25°. 

Standard of the instrument. — The sample of test sugar sent to Mr. 
Scovell polarized on his instrument 99.8°. By standard quartz plate, 
99.73°. Error, .07°. The instrument, therefore, was correctly grad- 
uated, reading only a trifle too high. 

Lowest polarization. — Sample No. 84 showed the lowest polarization, 
viz, 74.4°. This sample had 4.88 per cent water and .67 per cent 
ash. It was labeled maple sugar, and was a light-colored cake, simi- 
lar in form to the most common shape in which maple sugar is sold. 

ANALYSES BY S. P. SIIARPLES. 

The sugars on this (Boston and suburbs) market, as sold at the retail 
stores, come from the two refineries which are situated at this place. 
A small amount is bought from Spreckels' refinery at Philadelphia. 

Almost the whole of the sugar used in this part of the State is of the 
quality known as granulated. I have procured three or four samples 
of this to show the grade of the sugar. 

The only yellow sugar made at present here is that numbered 9437, 
and known as the Revere yellow. The Revere Sugar Refinery uses 
only high-grade centrifugal sugars, made from cane. The American 
Sugar Refining Company uses all grades of sugar that come into the 
market, including some beet sugars. This winter they have been using 
some New Orleans sugars aud some little sorghum. 

The yellow sugars now on the market here are mainly of New York 
make, and are sold through the American Sugar Refining Company. 

I have endeavored to give as fully as possible the exact condition of 
the market here in selecting these sugars, giving the sugars as found 
in the retailers' hands and also the sugars as sold by the refiners. 

Many of the retail dealers do not keep the yellow sugars, dealing 
only in the granulated sugars. These are generally of three grades, 
line, medium, and coarse. 

They are all alike and made at the same time, but the consumers 
here very generally prefer the line granulated, and quite frequently it 
brings a shade more at wholesale. There is generally an insufficient 

supply of this grade. The three grades are prepared by passing the 

dried sugar through a sizing machine. 

I ESI -i GAB i:i CEIVED I ROM W \8HINGTON, 

Moisture 0.08 

Polaris din 800 mm lube 99,90 

Polarized iu 100 mm tube 50.00 

\iirr iuveniou (read at 21 W C.) —31.80 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 679 

50 cc of Violette solutioii required 35.5 cc of inverted sugar solution 
containing 6.847 grams to the litre. 

1 cc of Violette solution =0.00486 grams of invert sugar. 
The above value has been used throughout this report. 

ANALYSES BY W. 0. STUBBS. 

These analyses are particularly interesting on account of being made 
on samples which are supposed to represent very accurately the raw 
sugars produced in Louisiana. 

In the description of the samples we find the terms which are used in 
that State in describing raw sugars. Some of these, perhaps, merit a 
more extended definition. 

The term u open-kettle sugar w is applied to raw sugars made in the 
old-fashioned way of boiling the juices in open kettles to proof. The 
juice is then drawn off in tanks and allowed to crystallize. The mix- 
ture of sugar and molasses thus formed is transferred to hogsheads, 
with perforated bottoms and allowed to stand until the molasses drains 
off. Open-kettle sugars are highly prized by many on account of their 
fine odor and taste. They are, however, moist and likely to become 
hard on drying. In many respects, especially in baking cakes, the 
sugar is of great value. 

The term u centrifugal seconds " is applied to sugar made by the 
modern process, reboiled from the molasses obtained in the first crys- 
tallization. This sugar is sometimes grained in the vacuum pan, but 
more often is boiled to string proof and allowed to crystallize in wagons 
in the hot room. In polarization, this sugar is generally higher than 
open-kettle sugar, but in flavor it is inferior to that sugar. For refin- 
ing purposes, however, it is probably a little more valuable than ordi- 
nary open-kettle sugars. 

"Yellow clarified sugar" is a first product of high grade and a deli- 
cate yellow color. It was formerly produced very largely on all the 
plantations in the State where modern processes are employed. It 
found a ready market without passing through a refinery. The delicate 
yellow color is imparted by treating the juices with sulphur funics be- 
fore the process of clarification is completed. The juices are then 
boiled in the clarifying pans and swept until very clean. After gran- 
ulation in the vacuum pans, they are washed in the centrifugal and 
brightened by being sprayed with a .solution of chloride of tin in some 

form or other. Since the change in the fiscal policy of the ( iovernnieiit 
in regard to sugar duties and the institution of the bounty, yellow 
clarified sugars are made in much less quantities than before. 

The highest polarizing sugar examined by Mr. Stobbs was No. 46, 
polarizing inn . When the instrument, however, is corrected to cor- 
respond with the proper polarization, it is seen that this number ifl not 

too high. becQuring, instead <>•' loo, 99 



680 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY BHIPPEN WALLACE. 

The samples examined by Mr. Wallace were of low-grade sugars for 
which he paid a uniform price of 5J cents per pound. They were pur- 
chased iu Philadelphia and vicinity, and represent undoubtedly the 
low-grade sugars from the refineries of that city. The only clew to the 
origin of these low-grade sugars will probably be found iu the percent- 
age of ash which they contaiu. Those which contain over 1 per cent 
of ash are certainly raw sugars derived from the sugar beet. The same 
is possibly true of those where the ash runs above one-half of 1 per 
cent, but in these cases it is probable the raw sugar is derived front a 
mixture of sugars made from cane and beet. I believe it is the custom 
in some refineries not to attempt to keep the raw beet sugars and cane 
sugars separate during refining. In this case, both the refined article 
and low-grade sugars would be mixtures of the two. 

ANALYSES BY H. A. WEBER. 

The samples examined by Mr. Weber were all purchased in Colum- 
bus in the localities mentioned in the table. These were also uniformly 
low-grade sugars and presumably low-grade .sugars from refiners. 
Many of them, however, were marked New Orleans sugar, but this label 
does not always indicate the origin of the sample. In many localities 
New Orleans sugars are much in demand, and from the quantity of 
such sugar which is sold, it is to be presumed that much of the low- 
grade sugar of refineries is sold under the name of New Orleans sugar. 

As indicated in the communication of Mr. Weber in transmitting his 
samples, he determined the sugar by chemical methods as well as by 
polarization, lie seems to rely more upon the chemical method than 
upon the method by polarization, in which respect his opinion differs 
from that of most chemists familiar with this class of work. The dif- 
ferences, in many instances iu his figures, are quite marked. Iu sam- 
ple No. 1 there is a difference of nearly 3 per cent between the result 
Of the polarization and of the sugar determined by chemical means. In 
most of the other instances the t WO results are nearly identical. 

ANALYSES BY P. <;. \\ IK< IB M ANN. 

Jn one of the sugars examined, No. 23, there were found grams of 
rice, whole and broken. The presence of this lice, however, was proba- 
hl\ only accidental, due to carelessness, as the market price of this ar- 
ticle is almost the same as that of sugar, thus offering no inducement 
for its use as an adulterant. 

With this exception, all of the samples examined must be pronounced 

non-adulterated, as polarization, water, and ash are in every case 
within the test limits of t hese grades of refined sugars. 

Particular attention must be called t<> the percentages <^' ash found 

in the samples examined by Mr. Wiechmann, especially as compared 

with the content in the Bam plea analyzed by Mr. stnhbs. As before 

intimaVd, an excess of ash in raw sugars would point to a beet-sugar 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 681 

origin. The presumption in favor of the New Orleans sugars is that 
they are all made from cane. On the other hand, it is known that 
large quantities of raw beet sugar are imported into New York and the 
greatly increased percentage of ash in the New York samples possibly 
indicates the use of considerable quantities of raw beet sugar by the 
refineries supplying the New York and Brooklyn markets. 

THE SAMPLES OF SUGAR EXAMINED AT THE LABORATORY OF THE 

DEPARTMENT. 

These samples were purchased in Washington and Baltimore. Num- 
bers 8550 to 8602, inclusive, were purchased in Washington ; numbers 
8620 to 8644, inclusive, were purchased in Baltimore. 

An attempt was made not only to get fair samples of the low-grade 
sugars, but also a considerable number of high-grade sugars. It is in- 
teresting to note that a number of these sugars polarized 100° or 
slightly over. In every case, these high polarizing sugars had the 
peculiar odor characteristic of beet sugar. A possible explanation of 
this high polarization is found in the supposition that they may have 
contained traces of raffinose. 

The low-grade sugars represented all the various kinds of such 
sugars which the market would afford. Considerable time and effort- 
were spent in getting absolutely fair market samples both from Wash- 
ington and Baltimore. 

In the table of analyses are given, in addition to the ordinary data, 
the percentages of sugar contained in each sample when calculated 
after inversion by the factor 144. Apparently the factor 144 gave more 
accurate results than the factor 142.6, the results of which tend to be, 
as would be expected, too high. 

From a general review of the analyses of sugar purchased in all 
parts of the country we may safely assume that the adulteration of 
sugar with sand or terra alba which is said to exist in other countries 
is not practiced to any appreciable extent in this. The addition of 
other sugars than cane sugar to the sugars of commerce is also ex- 
tremely doubtful. The only things which could be construed as an 
adulteration is in making sugars almost white but with soft grain cap- 
able of absorbing a considerable quantity of molasses and retaining 
it and the use ot 'excessive quantities of ultramarine. The soft sugars 
mentioned form a considerable quantity of the low-grade sugars of 
bommeree. Prom the calculations made, in one or two instances, it 
is seen that the purchaser scarcely gets as much saccharine matter in 
buying these low-grade sugars at a low price as lie docs in buying high- 
grade Bugars at a slightly higher price The difference, however, is so 
slight as to be unimportant. The trade in low-grade sugars, therefore, 
can not be considered fraudulent, as the purchaser is fully aware at the 

tune of buying that he is getting an inferior <pialil\ of SUgai for which 
he is paving a lower price. So long as the price of SUgar continues at 
its present low figure, it may be said that the danger of adulteration is 



682 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

extremely small. The very best way of all to prevent the adulteration 
of an article of food is to have the price of this article so Low as to ex- 
clude the possibility of any kind of adulteration proving profitable. 

Attempts to find the origin of the sugar samples usually proved fruit- 
less, inasmuch as they were, as a rule, bought in small groceries, the 
proprietors of which knew no more about them than that they came 
from the wholesale houses. One sample of Louisiana yellow clarified 
(No. 8640) was found in Baltimore. Many of the granulated white 
sugars, after standing in corked bottles for some time, developed the 
foul odor characteristic of beet products. The sugars now called u brown 
sugar" by the grocers are moist, fine- grained, light-yellow products, 
while by "black sugar" is understood a yellowish-brown sugar, such 
as was sold as " brown sugar" five or six years ago. It was attempted 
to get some very cheap samples, but none were found which varied 
much from the average price. 

For direct polarization duplicate samples of 20.048 grams (±0.5 mg) 
were weighed out in a sugar dish, washed into a 100 cc tlask, with 
water of room temperature, dissolved in about 75 cc. of water by giv- 
ing the flask a gentle rotary motion, and from 1 drop to 1 cc of con- 
centrated solution of basic acetate of lead added, the smaller quantity 
being for very high-grade sugars, the greater for correspondingly low; 
1 or 2 cc of alumina cream was also always added. High-polarizing 
sugars seldom give a flocky, readily filtering precipitate with basic ace- 
tate as do lower grades, the precipitate formed being as a rule scanty 
and slimj^, passing readily through the filter. Addition of alumina 
cream flocks this suspended finely-pulverulent precipitate together, 
much facilitating filtration and insuring clear filtrates. For the sake 
of uniformity all sugar samples received this addition. After making 
the solution up to the mark it was filtered through a tinted filter and 
polarized in a 200 mm tube. The polariscope used was a (J00 mm half- 
shade Schmidt & Haensch. Six readings were made on each solu- 
tion, the average being recorded. For invert readings a 50 to 55 cc. 
flask was tilled to the 50 cc mark with the solution which bad been 
polarized, room temperature being noted, 5 cc of strong hydrochloric 
(sp. g. 1.2) added, and the tlask, together with another containing water 
and having a thermometer standing in it, placed in a pan of water kept 
heated to 68 to 70 by a steam bath. As soon as {he thermometer in 
the tlask showed (i!), time was noted and that temperature kept up for 
ten minutes. After this lapse of time the tlasks were plunged in 
another pan Of OOld water, to be again removed when the thermometer 
showed room temperature. Polarization was made in a 220 mm tube. 
The tube was laid in the polariscope over a delicate thermometer. 
Readings were then made at short intervals until they ceased to vary, 
the final reading being recorded and, at the same time, the temperature 
recorded on the thermometer was noted. The old value for Clergefs 
constant, 111, was used instead of the newer but not vet established 
values 112.1 and L 42.6-7. Hone-black was not used with sugar samples. 



MOLASSES AND SIRUPS. 

ANALYSES BY H. A. HUSTOX. 

Description of samples. 



No. 


Bought of— 


Price 

per 

gallon. 


Manufactun r or 
brand. 


Kind. 


Remark*. 


51 


Chas. II. Slack, 


$0.80 


" Leighton " 


New Orleans molasses. 






Chicago. 










59 


...do 


.60 


Diamond Gilt Edge.. 


Sugar sirup 




r >i 


Whitael & Co., 





Harvey's Nursery, 
Tippecanoe Co., Ind. 








West La Fayette. 








54 


Chas. H. Slack, 


2.20 


D. C. Leonard & Son, 


Pure Vermont maple 


Ash light green in 




Chicago. 




Wilmington, Vt. 


sirup. 


color. 


55 


...do 


.30 


Bee Hive 


Black Strap molasses. 
Porto Rico molasses.. 




56 




.60 






57 


...do 


.60 


Beilview 


New Orleans molasses 




58 


do 


.60 


Stanley.. 


do 




59 


A.Botsford &. Co., 






Ohio maple sirup 


Made up from maple 
sugar. 




Chicago. 






60 


...do 








Made up from maple 
sngar and glucose. 












61 


A. B. Braden, La 
Fayette. 


1.25 


Sugar-Growers' Asso- 
ciation. Cliardon, 
Ohio. 


do 

• 




6? 


... do 


.75 




Boston Refinery sugar 
drips. 














63 


....do 


.80 


Open-kettle goods . . 


New Orleans molasses. 




64 


...do 


2.00 


Crown Cordial and 


Tu Fru* 


In tin can from btock. 








Extract Co., New 




(See NO. sii.i 








York. 






65 


Schwann ft Hcin- 


1.20 


Put up for Pottlltzer 


Maple sirup 






mfller, Chicago. 




Bro*., Port Wa\ oe 
;iik1 La Payette, Ind. 




P o 1 1 1 i t zer Bros. 
Stated 06 was Let- 
ter than t;o, and 66 


66 


Pottlitzcr Bros., 
La Fayette. 


1.00 


Put up for Baldwin 

L Co., New llavili. 


Orange County. \'t.. 
homemade ma p 1 e 


v better i linn B7, lint 
Save DO statement 
thai eil lii l was 


67 


... do 


1.00 


Canned by National 

Bii up • ". 


sirup. 
West, in N, u York .. 


genuine maple 

sii up. 


68 


Beck ft I' ranch, 

La Fayette. 


. 60 


Bradahaw A Wait, 
Chicago, 111. 


Silver dripa 




6<J 


....do 


. 7") 




1 h leans mo 




70 


... do 


1 28 


Bradahaw >v Wait, 
Chicago, ill. 












71 


p. Peeley, La Faj 

ette. 


L20 


(No oame) Lndianapo- 
lis, [nd. 


Ohio maple sirup . . . 




72 


... do 


.40 


(No name) Chicago, 

111. 


rap 





ael 



Label states: "A pure, delicious, fruity table sirup lot griddle ami pan e 

toted fruit and beat grade of sui 



ikes, made from tine 



684 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
Description of samples — Continued. 



-v„ « ,, 1f r , I1( ' Manufacturer or 



Kind. 



Remarks. 



7.1 P. Feeley, La Fay- 
otte. 

74 ....do ... 

75 do 

7(5 Fm sing Broa., La 

Fayette. 

77 ...do 

78 ....do 

79 ....do 

80 A. B. Biaden, La 

Fayette. 



I C. Jevne <fe Co. 
Chicago. 

.. do 

...do 

...do 

.. do 



87 



$0.40 (No name) Chicago, 
111. 
.50 (No name) Tippe- 
canoe Co., Ind. 

.05 

1.10 Reiu\Murdock&Co, 
Chicago, 111. 

.45 

.70 

.50 

2.00 Crown Cordial and 
Extract Co , Chi- 
cago. 



Sirup 

Sorghum. 



NeT Orleans molasses. 
Michigan maple sirup. 



Silver drips 

New Orleans molasses. 
Fancy honey sirup . .. 
Tu Fru 



Said to be "stronger' 
simp than No. 72. 



D. 11. Scully, Chi- 
cago. 

Sprague, Warner 
<fc Co., Chicago. 

...do 

.. do 

.. do 

...do 

. . do 

Ciiu kelhans, In- 
dianapolis. 

Louis Schism, La 

Payette. 

Weill & Schilling, 

La Fay ill.. 
...do 



97 Win. Beck, La 

Fa\ itli 

98 Louis K c in in 1 1 

l.i I | 

99 .F < ■ - Beck, La 

I'.i\ < 1 1 1- 
100 .Li. O'Ncil | Oo 
( 'III. 



.75 

.90 

.00 
.80 
.60 
.50 
.50 



10 



70 



1.4U 



1.40 



I. Calvin Shafer Co., 

New York. 
Woodstock 



White Robe 
Magnolia . . 

Woodlawn . 



Same as No. 04, but 
put up in glass and 
marked "Sample 
purchased because 
tin was found io 
No. 64." 



New Orleans'molassi 9. 

Confectioners' sirup . . 

Maple sirup 

Corn sirup 

Standard strawberry 

sirup. 
New Orleans molasses. 



No. l maple simp 



Canned bj Bradshaw 

& Wait, Ch 

Sprague, Warner & 

Co., Chicago. 



-i robmej er St 
\.w Fork. 



Delgado A Co., x- * 

Orleans, La. 



New Orleans molasses. 

do 

.... do 

Boston standard alrsp, 

Perfection simp 

Fust-run selected ma 

pie sirup. 
Honey Drop sirup . , 



( iood Luck sirup .... 

New Orleans molasses. 



do 



Pare maple simp, "de 

licious and whole 

some." 
Maple sirup from Ver- 
mont 

New ( ii 1, ail molasses. 



Sold as being free 

lioin tin. 

Do 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



685 



Analytical data. 



Polarization. 



Xo. 



Direct. Indirect. 



51 

52 
53 

54 

5.". 

56 

57 

58 

59 

GO 

61 

62 

63 j 

64 

65 

66 

67 

Orf 

til) 

70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

;.; 



70 
80 
81 
82 
83 
84 

66 

87 
38 

80 

'JO 
01 

K 

o:t 
M 
05 

M 



Tempera- y 
tnre°C. S ' 



Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Water. 


Ash. 


Tin or 
other me- 
tals. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent 


Per cent. 


41.23 


26.92 


20.24 


2. 75 Absent. 


23.94 


33.27 


16.47 


0. 92 Present. 


39.34 


36.01 


20.88 


1.87 Absent. 


65. 71 


00.05 


24.15 


0.40 Present. 


26.40 


17.21 


22.64 


6. 13 Do. 


21.73 


30.00 


24.18 


2.75 Do. 


40. 23 


29.52 


18.10 


3.61 Absent. 


21.89 


30. 00 


20.27 


3.61 Do. 


51.00 


13.46 


34.93 


0.32 . Present. 


40.55 


27.63 


38.80 


0. 31 Do. 


65.23 


00.29 


32.37 


0.27 Do. 


39.19 


37.85 


11.12 


2. 79 Absent. 


54.28 


14.58 


21. 90 


2.18 Do. 


9.44 


54.14 


23.18 


0. 06 Present. 


27. 78 


36.45 


20.89 


0. 33 Do. 


31.01 


32.81 


23.49 


0.43 Absent. 


26.97 


39.77 


21.97 


0.70 1 Present. 


21.83 


52. 50 


16.24 


0. 99 Absent. 


17.82 


41.01 


20.81 


1.13 Do. 


63. 20 


1.98 


35.82 


0. 55 Present. 


23. 1 1 


35.76 


26.68 


0.44 Do. 


31.44 


41.53 


21.26 


0. 94 Do. 


26. 47 


23.75 


25.29 


2. 95 Do. 


36. 14 


31.39 


23.15 


2.56 Absent. 


31.44 


26.34 


24. 22 


4. 25 Present. 


13. 30 


42.19 


27.59 


0.25 Do. 


18.65 


41.53 


23.25 


0.89 Absent 


32. 19 


27. 68 


22.90 


8.90 Present 


16. 14 


47.78 


16.79 


0.43 I),.. 


12. 66 


52.93 


22.01 


0.08 


Do. 


43.87 


29.07 


24. Hi 


1.05 


Absent 


14 38 


51.42 


20. 03 


(i. 35 


i'i .-int. 


30. 33 


38. 28 


30.75 


0.45 


Do. 


14.41 


42. 06 


19.47 


0.78 


Da 


0.00 


60.78 


39. 10 




Do. 


40. 57 




21.2;; 


2. 48 


I).. 


82.48 


28 12 


20.31 


0. 4ti 


Do. 






24. HI 




Da 


48.47 






2.81 


• nt. 








3.72 Do, 


10.00 


31.17 


ia is 


I>,> 








0.82 1'.. 




31. lit 


27.10 


0. (il 


■ ■ nt. 




85.94 






I- i 


15. 18 








Absent 


13 77 


82. 14 






Present 


11 13 








i),. 










i>.. 






. 


(I. 41 




51.81 











686 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



ANALYSES BY ft II. NICHOLSON. 
I >> n ription of samples. 



No. Bought of— 


Wholesaler or manufacturer. 


Label. 


1706 Starietf Hroa.. Lincoln 


A. L. Smith, Fairfield 


Sorghum. 

'tal drip-. 


1707 
1708 
1709 
1710 
1711 


. ...do 


Boston 


do 




. . do 




Ko.k candy sirup. 
Maple sirup. 


do 

G. W. Closson, Lincoln 


L. G. Yoe & Co., Chicago 


1712 


.. .. do 

do 

do 

( !oofc .t. Johnson 

do 






1713 

ITU 


Conlten, X. Y 

Fail field, X. hi 


ond grade. 
Honey drip sirup. 
Sorghum. 
Do. 


1715 




1716 






1717 


do 

do 

do 

do 


Spragoe &. Co., Chicago 


Sugar sirup. 


1718 




1719 
1720 


Vermont 


Vermont maple sirup. 
New Orleans sirup 
Do. 


1721 







1722 
1723 


Btltton, Lincoln 

do . 





New Orleans, second 1" 

New Oilcans, Lest. 


1724 


do 

do 

Maxwell, Sharps A: Ross, Lin- 
coln. 

do 

do 




Paxton & Gallagher 


Golden drip. 


172.-, 
1720 

1727 
1728 


Murdoch & Co., Chicago 

Raymond Bros., Lincoln 

do 


Maple sirup. 
Crystal drops. 

Tip Top sirup. 
Honey Dew. 


1728 




1730 


do 




New Orleans molassea. 


1731 


do 


....do 


New Orleans molasses Bee 


1732 




St. Lonis Preserving Company 


ond grade. 
Golden drip. 

New Orleans mol.i 


1733 


do 


1734 
1735 


EL Llimistein. Omaha 

D. L. 1 '.ii i" ni. r. Omaha 

do 

John Swoboda, Omaha 

do 


st. Louis Presen ing company.. 
L. (i. Vor & Do 


Golden simp. 
Ilonev drips. 


1736 
1737 


..do 


N> m i >i leans molasses. 

Common sirap 

New Oilcans molassi - 


1738 


...do 


1739 Hi-iniincl a- dt Omaha 


Farrell k Co 


Coin simp. No 7 

Sorghum. 
Blrup Xo. 70. 

New Oilcans mol.i 


1740 
1741 


II. Mo. ii. r. Omaha 

do 


s. a Baoheldex 


17J2 






]'. ; 


Vitm I'.i.m , Omaha 

.1. W. F.nmll, Omalui 

11. Mu.ll. r, Omaha 

do 

II Blamstein, Omaha 

Seimrod & 1 So., 1 kmaha 




Ohio maple sirup. 


1741 




Choice N.w < >i leans. 


1746 


do 

do 


New ( li leans, tit — 1 made. 

New ( Means, second gi ade. 


1717 


,1 


n. m 1 »i leans strap. 


171- 


do 


Do. 


171 I 




Corn simp, Climax Drip. 
Sorghum. 






177.1 


John Swoboda, Lincoln 

II. Hlumst. in, Lincoln 

.1. N. iiniaii Lincoln 

II. in v Mo.ll.i', Lincoln 




Ohio maple sirup. 
Do. 




.i ii Peilbaoo Omaha 




■ I Sngai Redoing < '.» 

a i; Bn mer & 1 '.... < !hi< 


Vim moot maple sirup. 

Do, 
Ohio maple simp. 











■• Blaoi strap " pars and simple, sad next to Impossible to deooloriae ■nffloiantty to read. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

Analytical data. 



687 



No. 


Polarization. 


Temper 
ture o C. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


^Vater. 


Ash. 


Tin, or 

other 

metals. 


Direct. 


Indirect. 










Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 




1706* 


+ 46.1 


- 21.9 


12 


49.7 


9.91 


22.03 


3.74 


None. 


1707 


+140. 

+ 45. 1 : 


+ 133.2 
- 25.5 






19. 60 


20.59 


1.28 


Do. 


1708 


1 
11.5 


51.6 


9.62 


25.48 


2.17 


Do. 


1709 


+ 58.4 


- 24. 4 


12 


60.6 


, 3.59 


27.57 


1.17 


Do. 


1710 


+ 89.7 
+133. 5 
+102. 5 


+ 72.9 


11 





14.82 


33.88 


0.25 


Do. 


1711 


+123.9 
+ 86.6 


15 




17.24 


25.81 


1.58 


Do. 


1712 


10.5 




16.94 


27.00 


2.52 


Do. 


1713 


+124. 2 
+ 37.1 


+118. 5 
- 19.8 


12 




20.40 


22.87 


1.82 


Do. 


1714 


10. 5 


41.3 


13.88 


21.56 


2.77 


Do. 


1715 


+ 99.6 
+ 43.9 


+ 81.2 


12 




16.00 


27.22 


1.63 


Do. 


1716 


— 22.8 


12 


48.7 


9.76 


27.80 


0.69 


Do. 


1717 


+ 136.5 
+131.8 
+ 86.5 


+ 128.3 
+121. 1 
+ 31.8 


12.5 




19.20 


22.47 


1.68 


Do. 


1718 


12 




12. 58 


27.26 


4.20 


Trace. 


1719 


11.5 


39.9 


6.34 


31.73 


0.54 


None. 


1820 


+ 73.7 
+ 33.5 


+ 74.6 


14. 5 





27.80 


18.15 


0.22 


Do. 


1721 


— 13. S 


10.5 


35.1 


13.88 


28.91 


5.58 


Do. 


1722 


+ 9.8 


— 27.3 


10.5 


26.9 


27.00 


25.59 


6.00 


Do. 


1723 


+ 37.3 


- 26.7 


12 


47.1 


12.50 


28.28 


2.81 


Do. 


1724 


+147.5 
+125. 5 
+128.5 
+148.3 
+ 148.9 
+ 19.2 


+ 123.9 
+103. 9 


12 




16. 52 


20.50 


1.24 


Do. 


1725 


12 




14. 38 


30.00 


0.35 


Do. 


1726 


+123.6 
+ 110.7 


11.5 




20.40 


22.43 


1.53 


Do. 


1727 


12 




20.20 


18.20 


1.60 


Do. 


1728 
1729 






16.66 
13. 60 


21.10 
26.85 


1.35 
4.38 


Do. 
Do. 


- 19.1 


12 


27.0 


1730 


+ 41.1 


— 27.1 


11.5 


49.7 


11.36 


35.51 


3.11 


Do. 


1731 


+126.9 
+134.9 
+136. 1 
+ 131.0 


+ 122.5 
+ 120.6 
+ 120.0 
+ 117.5 


12 




20. 40 


26.36 


1. 54 


Do. 


1732 


12 




14. 70 


26.76 


1.56 


Do. 


1733 


11 




17.24 


27. L0 


1.20 


Do. 


1731 







16. 66 


23.71 


1.54 


Do. 


1735 


+134. 2 


+119.5 


11.5 




18.60 


24. 49 


1.90 


Do. 


1736 


+ 30.9 


- 27.0 


11 


42. 2 


12, 98 


29.65 


4.96 


Do. 


1737 


+ 132. 1 
+ 83.5 


+ 126.4 


11 




17. 10 


21.83 


1.41 


Do. 


1738 


+ 61.3 


11 




17.54 


26.78 


4.15 


Do. 


1739 


-4-148. 3 


+127. 8 
— 21. 4 


12 




25. 60 


19. 28 


1. 11 


Do. 


1740 


+ 40.2 


12 


45.0 


12.04 


28.41 


4.10 


Do. 


1741 
1742 


+ 122.1 
+125. 5 


+ 115.1 

+ 120.0 


12 
11.5 




15.62 


39. 88 


1.41 
1.51 


Do. 
Do. 




174:j 


+ 114.5 


+ 99. 5 


12 




19.20 


26, 27 


1.50 


Do. 


1744 


+ 74.2 


+ 68.2 


11.5 




13: 08 


30. 56 


2. 80 


Do. 


174! 


+ 4.0 


S 1 


11 


6. D 








Do. 


17 16 


+ 67.5 


+ 37.8 


11 


76.7 




28. 88 




Do. 


1717 




in g 


11 


47.7 


9. 62 




3. 60 


Do. 


1748 




1 


U.5 


40. 3 




•j<;. -:\i 




Do 


1749 


. 




11.5 




19. 00 


20. 21 




Do, 


1750 


+128.5 


+ 123. 8 


i:t 




14.92 


1 


2 07 


Do 


1751 




• 110.5 


12 




14.60 




o.a 


Do 


1752 


+ 134.:. 

+ 131.5 




11 
14 




16, 10 

14.70 




0.6O 


Do. 
Do. 




17.-.1 






i:i 




12.98 






Do 








14 






20. W 




Do 





Tbia sample oonld not be clarified Baffle li nth well to p 



liable reading 



688 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY W. B. RISING. 

Description of samjrtes. 



So. 


Label. 


"Where bought. 


Price 

per 

quart. 


Color, etc. 










Francisco. 








6 


New Orleans molasses 


A. Wallman, 14th and Adeline, 
Oakland. 




Dark red. 


7 


Golden Simp, Wellman Peck &. 
Co. 


Eichwede, Mubr & Co., 7th and 

Adeline, Oakland. 




Red-brown. 


8 


New Orleans molasses, Wellman, 

Peck & Co., San Francisco. 


do 














9 


Sirup, Tilinaun & Bendel, San 
Francisco. 


Hadler Bro9., 17th and Mission, 
San Francisco. 




Yellow-brown. 


10 


New Orleans molasses., F. E. T .. 
Golden sirup, California Re- 








13 


Stewart & Trowbridge, Berkeley 





Yellow-brown. 




finery. 








40 


Golden sirup, American Re- 
flnery. 


Burns Bros., 16th and Mission, 
San Francisco. 




Do. 


41 


New Orleans molasses, Tillman 
&. Bendel. San Francisco. 
















42 


New Orleans molasses 


W.P.Wheeler, San Pablo and 




Dark reddish- 






14th streets, Oakland. 




brown. 


43 


Golden sirup, California Re- 
finery 


Agard & Co., Broadway and 13th 
street, Oakland. 




Light yellow. 


44 




... do 














talli/.cd. 


45 


do 


Phelan & Fish, 11th and Wash- 




Muddy brown. 






ington, Oakland. 






4G 


Golden sirup, California Re- 
finery. 


do 




Dark red. 










K 


. fio 


1). Brnne, 15th and Mission 

('. Paulsen, Valencia and 18th 


$0. 10 
.30 


Light amber. 


5G 


Extra New Orleans clarified 


Dark brown. 




molasses, Tillman & Bendel, 


Btreets, Ban Francisco. 








San Francisco (in 1 -gallon 










cans). 








57 


I leans molasses 


18th and Mission, San Francisco. 


.10 


Red-brown. 


58 


do 


Cluff & Co., ISt h and Mission, 


.16 


Dai k green, 






San Francisco. 


1 


59 


■ ii leans molasses, Albert 


\V I\ Ferguson, Valencia 


Red-brown. 




M.i ii «'. ('<> . s.in Francisco. 


and lTlli. San Franci 






60 


Golden drip, American Retinerj 


1 8 th and Mission, San Francisco 


.10 


Ligbl brown. 


01 


do 


Kaiieiinan A Rlppe, northwest 

cornel 16th and BoWSJ 




Do 












Frani 






02 




do 


.15 


Dai k, almost hlack 


88 lM»nti 




.15 


Light brown. 






Northeast coi mi Broad VI a\ and 

Keai n\ , San 1 i ancis. o. 


.20 










Sirup 


Duponl and < Ji. . i 

Fran< 


.15 










».- 


o 


N'orlli.asl corner Filbert and 

Powell, Sin Frani 


16 










00 


(in 


,i I, w Miami 688 New Mont- 


. M 








\i 




7U 


Molasses 1. 


.15 


Black. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

Description of samples — Continued. 



689 



No. Label. 


Where bought. 


Price 
per 

quart. 


Color, eti . 




New STork Tea Company, south- 
west corner 14th and Mission, 


|0. 15 












San Francisco. 










10 


Light red. 




street, San Francisco. 




73 Sirup 


1st and Mission, San Francisco. 


.15 


Do. 


74 R. von (1. Mehden 


Corner 2d and Mission, San 


.15 


Do. 




Francisco. 






75 New Orleans molasses 


New York Tea Company, south- 


.25 


Reddish yellow. 






west corner 4th and Mission, 










San Francisco. 






7G 


Sirup 


Powell &. Greenwich 


.10 


Yellow. 


77 ..do . 


H. Shattuck, 2d and Minerva, 
San Francisco. 


1 j 








7* do 


J. H. Gobbenboske, southwest 






corner 2d and Howard, San 








Francisco. 






79 do 




15 


Reddish. 




cisco. 






Cluff Bros., 9 New Montgomery, 
San Francisco. 


30 














15 


Reddish. 




street, San Francisco. 




82 do 




20 


Light yellow. 




3d streets, San Francisco. 




84 do 




10 


Red-brown. 
Black. 


85 


New Orleans molasses 


Hayes & Dwyer, 50 2d 
San Francisco. 


40 








86 








Almost black. 






cisco. 




87 


Sirup said to bo from Sandwicb 
bland*. 


Irvin Brose, 57n Howard 


.20 


Do. 


88 




B. H. Bore, 137 4th street 

Robohm <fc Kinoma, Howard 


1 -, 


"1 .>..,! 


119 


Sirup, Americau refinery 


.10 Greenish. 






and 8th, San Francisco. 




120 


do 


Rieoher & Zimmer, 7th and 

Stevenson, S;m Pranoisoo. 


1". K. '1 








121 


Now Oi 1«-iiii-4 molasses 


W. B. Cluf. A Bro., Stevenson 
and Gtli street, San l'i .. 










122 


Sirup 


Northwest ooi n< i 61 b and Jessie 


15 Vellou l.mwn. 


\'s.; 


do 


8th and Jessie, San | 













690 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Analytical data. 



No. 



Polarization. 



Direct. Indirect. 



70 
71 
72 
7:5 
74 
75 
76 
77 
78 
7<J 
80 
81 
82 
84 
85 

HO 

L19 
120 
121 
122 
128 



111.65 
40.15 
91.00 

105.38 
40.92 
45. 43 
37.30 
42. 24 
67.10 
77.66 
40.70 
39.71 
92.62 
38.51 
36. 85 
86.90 
17. 72 
93. 50 
47.90 
38.83 
11.47 
39.93 
40.92 
42.24 
41.25 
36.85 
37.73 
18.15 
33.00 
36.00 
39.93 
36.00 
83. 49 
41.80 
27. 17 

36. 96 
3K.77 
39. 16 

37. si 
87, i" 
86. 80 

41. (Hi 
28.70 

12, 20 

!:: 01 
77.00 



*«gP".° ,„„0 9 e. ftgjl 



88.77 
-19. 25 

63.80 

72.27 
-18.81 
-19.47 
—25. 30 
-18. 04 

28.60 

25. 63 
-27.83 
-23. 65 

61.27 
-14.30 
-19.03 

49.17 
—18. 70 

46.10 
—23. 54 
—19.80 
—17.16 
—19. 58 
—17. 60 
—18. 48 
—17.60 
-10.28 
-18.70 
—16.39 
—18. 81 
—19. 36 
-15. 73 
—18.70 

49. 06 
—22. 33 
—17.80 
—16. 50 

20. 08 

22,00 
-17.82 
—18.20 

12, l" 

— 17.0!) 

ia is 

—15.40 
L7.06 
36.08 
L4.74 



Per cent. 
16.71 
43.64 
20.00 
24.21 
44.06 
48.00 
46.00 
44.28 
28. 20 

38. 07 
50. 20 
46. 28 
23. 00 
39.10 
41.35 
27.35 
50.00 
34. 90 

52. 57 
43.00 
43.10 
44.07 

42. 35 
44. 28 
43.57 
38.80 
41.64 
25. 12 

40. 35 
40. 42 

39, 82 
25.35 

46.90 

39. 12 

43, 75 
11.71 
41.07 
10. 11 

85. 00 
18.07 

85. 50 

53. 36 

lldl 
80.00 
41.21 



Water. 



• 
29.85 
24. 51 
28.57 
30.30 
24.39 
27.17 
72. 50 

22. 70 

23. 40 
24.06 

22. 99 

23. 25 
28.17 
33.01 
24.00 
31.00 
19.90 
35.00 
16.67 
21.55 
17. 54 
19.68 

24. 75 
24. 51 
18, 18 

19.23 

30. 10 
13. 50 
18,20 
21.31 
19.45 
32. 00 
22. 22 
21.22 
26. 10 
22. 70 
26.20 
21.10 
• 

L8.28 

17.50 
24.00 



Per cent. 
17.47 
20.08 
17.00 
20.00 
24. 78 
26.12 
16.92 
17.30 

24. 32 

26. 77 
22.88 
23.71 

25. 01 

19.36 

22. 27 

24. 1!) 
20.19 
18.59 
25.61 

19.95 
20. 78 

23. 85 

27. 49 
30. 20 

21.40 

20. 79 

20. 00 

17.86 

21.80 
21.35 

19.87 
21.12 

28. 79 

18 70 

28. 1 1 
84.06 

21.1s 





Tin or 
other 

metals. 


Per cent. 
1.63 




3.18 




1.51 




1.79 




3.72 




2. 94 




2.84 




4 98 




2. 10 




1.84 




2. 16 




2.58 




2.46 




6.72 




4.18 




2. 35 




4.29 




2.13 




1.82 




5.13 




3.68 




4.04 




7. 27. 




1. 21 




4.94 




4. 36 




3.53 








8.99 




4.85 




6.42 




4.23 




•'. 20 








.'.. 72 




7.31 




2. 28 




3.99 
4.68 




6, 1 » 




4.14 




4.38 




I 1.". 




;. 80 




1.93 




5. :>u 




2. 15 




5. 1 




4. 10 









SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 691 

ANALYSES BY M. A. SCOVELL. 
Description of samples. 

Sample 1. New Orleans. Light color, some sugar. Seller, R. J. McCombe, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. Manufacturer, Raceland Plantation, Louisiana. 

Sample 2. Sugarhouse Sirup. Bright, light color, thick, cleau. Seller, Hamilton 
Grocery Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. Manufacturer, American Pre- 
serve Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 3. Rock-candy Drips. White, thin. Seller, Joseph R. Peebles' Sons' Company, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Manufacturer, R. A. Hulden, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 4. New Orleans. Light color, medium consistency. Seller, Joseph R. Peebles' 
Sons' Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. Manufacturer, " S. & A." Plan- 
tation, Louisiana. 

Sample 5. Golden Sirup. Very light color, thick. Seller, Joseph R. Peebles' Sons 
Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. Manufactured through " Hogard," New 
York. 

Sample 6. Maple Sirup. Light color, thin. Seller, R. J. McCombe, Cincinnati. 
Manufacturer, Henry E. Crane, Garrettsville, Ohio. 

Sample 7. McMechen's Old Virginia Tree Maple Sirup. Dark color, medium thick- 
ness. Seller, Schwabacher, Louisville, Ky. Made by Geo. R. Mc- 
Mechen, Wheeling, W. Va. 

Sample 8. King Drips. Light color, thick. Seller, R. J. McCombs, Cincinnati. 
Wholesaler or manufacturer, Thurber, Whyland & Co., New York. 

Sample ( J. Clymer's Select Maple. Put up by the Buckeye Sirup Refinery, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio, in quart tin cans. Seller, Hamilton Grocery Company, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Color light, medium thickness. 

Sample 10. Old Time Maple Sirup. Put up by L. G. Yoe & Co., Chicago, 111., in quart 
tin cans. Sold by P. Tracy, Cincinnati, Ohio. Light color, medium 
thickness. 

Sample 11. Vermont Maple Sirup. Put up by the Crescent Sugar Refinery Company. 
Sold by H. D. Gosa, Cincinnati, Ohio. Fair color, medium consistency. 

Sample 12. Maple Sirup. Put up at the camp for Jos. R. Peebles' Sons' Company, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. Very light, thin. 

Sample 13. New Orleans. Avon Plantation. By E. W. B. Sold by Henry Iluncke A 
Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. Light-colored, some sugar. 

Sample 11. Maple Molasses. Made by Crane Brothers, Garrettsville, Ohio. The label 
states: " We guarantee this to lie perfectly pure maple molasses, pur- 
chased by us of responsible farmers, and hermetically sealed in cans, 
under our own supervision. It is justly denominated the best of all 
and is anequaled by any other brands. Colter A Co., northwest corner 
Sixth and Main streets, Cincinnati, Ohio." 

Sample ir>. Sugarhouse Molasses. Dark* colored, saltish taste, clear. Made by Have* 

meyerd Elder. Bonghl of Sterritt, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample if.. Sugarhouse Molasses. Very dark, thick, tnrbid, greenish ; has the smell 
of New Orleans. Sold by W. II. May, Lexington, Ky. Wholesaler. 
Mosley, Etaum a Gogreve, Cincinnal i, < mio. 

Sample 17. New Orleans Molasses. Dark, with much sugar. Seller. Liodsaj A 

Nugent, Lexington, Ky. Maker, J. N. R. riant at ion, Louisiana. 

Sample 18. Ni -w Orleans Molasses. Light colored, some Bugar, tine flavor. Voiron 
Plantation. Sold by G. H. Kinnear, Lexington, Ky. 

Sampler.*. Bartino Sirup. "Made for winter use." Smell and flavor of New Or- 
leans. Made bj Hopple, Flasoh< a I o., Cincinnati, and sold i»\ G. II. 
Kinnear. Lexington, Kj . 

Sample 20. Clover Dripa "Pure sugar sirup." Dark, tnrbid, saltish. FrotnHobart, 
New York City, sold i»> Coiti i a Co . Cincinnati, Ohio, 



692 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Sample 21. Sorghum. Dark colored, very acid taste. Made by Mr. Hurst. Fayette 
County, Ky. Sold by J. T. Houaker, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 22. Bartiuo Sirup. Dark colored, New Orleans flavor. Made by Hopple, 
Flasehe & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, and sold by T. J. Cassell, Lexington, 

Ky. 

Sample 23. Phoenix Drips. A bright, thick, light sirup. Made by Bradshaw A: 
Waite, Chicago, 111. Sold by Mrs. Clark, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 24. New Orleans Molasses. Open kettle. Sold by Cozine, Lexington, Ky., 
through Mosley,Kaum & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 25. Sorghum. From the Big Sandy River, Kentucky. Fair color, fermenting 
slightly. Sold by W. H. May, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 2G. New Orleans. Fair color, no sugar. It) cypress barrels marked ''D. A. 
Brand." Bought through Curry, Howard & Co., Lexington, Ky., by T. 
J. Cassell, and sample obtained of T. J. Cassell. 

Sample 27. New Orleans. Dark-colored, turbid molasses, thick. Seller, McClelland, 
Lexington, Ky. Made by the Cedar Grove Plantation, Louisiana. 

Sample 28. New Orleans. Open kettle. In cypress barrels, marked " Ser. pt." Sel- 
ler, W. H. May, Lexington, Ky. Wholesaler, Torbitt & Castleman, 
Louisville, Ky. Very light colored sirup. Very little sugar. 

Sample 29. Caramel Drips. A light transparent sirup, made by Bradshaw & Waite. 
Sold by W. H.May, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 30. Bartino. A very reddish black thick sirup. Made by Hopple, Flasche &. 
Co., Cincinnati. Sold by Vogt, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 31. Sorghum. A fair-colored bright molasses, with sorghum taste. Seller, 
Henry Vogt, Lexington, Ky. Wholesaler, J. T. Heitmeyer & Son, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 32. Open Kettle. A fair New Orleans molasses, with much sugar. Sold by 
II. Vogt, Lexington, Ky. Wholesaler, Torbitt & Castleman. Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

Sample 33. New Orleans. A light-colored molasses, with fine flavor. Sold by Mc- 
Clelland, Lexington, Ky. Wholesaler, Torbitt A Castleman, Louis's ille, 
Ky. Said to be branded " Magnolia Plantation." 

Sample 34. Maple Sirup. A bright, thin sirup. Put up in quart jugs by Thurber, 
New York. Sold by John Hutchinson, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 35. Old Time Maple Sirup. Bright, medium thickness. Put up in quart 
cans by L. G. Yoe<& Co. Sold by John Hutohinson, Lexington, Ey. 

Sample 36. Milton Maple Sirup. Light colored, thin. Said to be put up by L. <i. SToe 
& Co., Chicago, 111., although there is no manufact urer's name on the 
can. In quart caus. SoldbyJohu Hutchinson, Lexington Ky. 

Sample 37. Bartino. A medium-colored thick sirup. New Orleans flavor. Blade by 
Hopple, Flasehe «& Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. Sold by John Hutohinson, Lex- 
ington, Ky. 

Sample 38. Sweet Clover Sirup. A very Light straw-colored, thick sirup, made i>,\ L. 

«.. i*0€ A ('o., Chicago, 111. Sold l>y A. J. E&OSS, Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 39. Sorghum. Horseshoe brand. A fair colored sorghum flavored molasses. 

Sold by .John Hiitcliinsi.il. Lexington, K.\ , Wholesaler, Hopple, I'lasche 
A Co., ( incinnat i. ( Hiio. 

Sample 10. Melrose Sirup. A Light-colored, dear, thiok sirup. Manufacturer, T.W'il- 

lard & < o., New Yoikciiv. Sold by J, B. Wurach, Louisville, Ky. 
Sample ii. New Orleans reboiled, Barrel marked " Union." Blackstrap. Sold by 

John Hutchinson, Lexington, Ky. Wholesaler, Torbitl A Castleman, 

Louisville Ey. 
Sample 42. New Orleans Molasses. Magnolia Plantation. Light colored, some sugar. 

Sold by John Hutchinson, Lexington, Ky. 
Sample 43. New Orleans Sugar House molasses. Dark colored, in barrels brauded 

" Mrs. A. A. B. M Sold hy Scully d Yates, Lexington, Ky, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



693 



New Orleans Centrifugal. A blackstrap. Alice B. Plantation. Sold 
by Cozine, Lexington. Ky. 

Golden Sirup. A bright, transparent thick syrup made by the Buckeye 
Sirup Refinery, Cincinnati, Ohio. Sold by Hamilton Grocery Com- 
pany, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sorghum. Light-colored, sorghum taste. Sold by McClelland, Lexing- 
ton, Ky. Wholesaler, Hopple, Flasche & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Maple Sirup. In quart tin cans, thin, bright. Labeled as follows: 
Guaranteed pure Maple Sirup, canned for C. W. Jefferson, Louisville, 
Ky. Manufacturer's name not on the can. C. W. Jefferson states that 
it was made by L. G. Yoe, Chicago, 111. 

Rock Candy Drips. A white sirup of medium consistency, made by L. 
G. Yoe & Co., Chicago, 111. Sold by A. J. Ross, Louisville, Ky. 

New Orleans. A light-colored sugar sirup, made by Church (A. W. S.) 
Plantation. Sold by Scully & Yates, Lexington, Ky. 

California Golden Sirup. Made from pure cane sugar of Spreckels. 
Sunset brand. None genuine without the brand. Sold by J. C. 
Berryman, Lexington, Ky. 









Analytical data. 








No. 


Polarization. 


Tempera 
ture, ° C. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Water. 


Ash. 


Tin or 
other 

metals. 


Direct. 


Indirect. 


1 


42.4 


- 20.6 


24.0 


Per cent. 
48.31 


Per cent. 
18. 52 


Per cent. Per cent. 
25.41 2.51 


Tin. 


2 


130.4 


117.0 


28.8 


10.31 


40.81 


16.89 


72 


Do. 


3 


46.6 


- 21.9 


24.0 


52.53 


16.13 


28. 82 


0.03 




4 


44.2 


- 18.5 


24.0 


48.08 


18.18 


26. 32 


2.33 


Tin. 


B 


41. r, 


5.1 


24.6 


35. 82 


30.30 


18.13 


2. 45 




6 


62.8 


- 20.8 


25.2 


64.41 


2.53 


25. 28 


0.58 




7 


83.4 


16.9 


24.2 


51.04 


12. 54 


23. 29 


0.33 


Trace. 


- 


36.0 


L2. :; 


24.8 


37. 15 


34.48 


15.05 


3. 25 




9 


92. 


16. i 


24.8 


35. 08 


20.20 


25. 2 i 


0.39 


Tin. 


10 


104.8 


76. i 


24. 6 


22. (16 


25. 15 


26. 70 


0.29 Do. 


11 


VIS. 2 


112. 


24. 8 


12. 46 


32. 25 


•j:s. 23 


0.46 I>c. 


12 


61.4 


- 21.4 


24.8 ' 


63.70 


1.56 


29. 72 


0.63 




13 


42.4 


- 20.4 


24.8 


48.30 


18.35 


2.".. 17 


2.05 




14 


59.8 


- 20.0 


25. 2 


61.48 


1.31 




71 


Tin. 


15 


84.2 


23.3 


24.0 


31.36 


31. 25 


18.70 


:i. 14 




16 


•J.".." 


20 ;, 


24.8 


34 97 


32. 28 


2(>. 37 


4. 82 




17 


62. l 


— 23. 6 


24.4 


86 05 


111. 52 




1 *7 




18 


38.0 


- 21.2 


24. H 


15. 54 


25.00 








19 


130.8 


12(M 


21. 1 


8. 22 


35. 39 




1.13 


Tin. 


20 


38.0 


15.8 




41.38 




15 08 


- 


I'tippr] 


21 


30.4 


- 12.5 


85.0 




81.74 








22 




in;. 2 


24.4 




:<7 7:; 


21.78 


1. 19 


Tin. 


23 




m. i 






84. ;h 


it;, in 


(i 65 




M 


47. 'J 


20. !• 






16.81 








25 




- 14.2 






11.05 


















10. 11 




2 7o 




2" 


3(t. 8 


- 16. 4 








1 7. 68 






28 




• 








21.84 






121.0 












1. 17 




:«i 


L28 


us. 8 










1 12 




::i 




112.6 








17 7'.' 










M 


24.8 




17 88 


17 17 






















Do. 


' 









61 :•:: 










i- 


$08— N< 


.. l.; 















694 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical data — Continued. 



No. 


Polarization. 
Direct. Indirect. 


Tempera- 


Sucrose. 


lieducing 


Water. 


Ash. 


Tin or 
other 
metals. 


35 


109.8 


78.1 


24.8 


Per cent. 
24.38 


- 
25.31 


Per cent. 
26.08 


Per cent. 
0.31 


Tin. 


36 


115.6 


98.6 


24.6 


13.06 


27.31 


31.83 


0.22 


Do. 




125.2 


113.9 


2.",. 4 


8.82 


39.22 


18.98 


1.02 


Do. 


■ 


153.0 


145.6 


25.2 


5.67 


40.81 


14.89 


0.32 




39 


106.4 


86.0 


24.8 


15.69 


34.48 


21.84 


1.17 




40 


39.2 


- 11. G 


24.8 


39.08 


33.33 


13. 78 


2.63 




•11 


— 8.0 


— 18.3 


24.8 


7.92 


54. 05 


20.11 


4.84 


Trace of 

tin. 


42 


41.0 


— 18.9 


24.6 


46.04 


18.35 




3.05 




4:; 


34.4 


— 21.6 


24.2 


42. 97 


25. 32 




2.56 


Tin. 


44 


28.2 


— 19.8 


25.2 


36.97 


28. 57 


19. 30 


J. 36 


Do. 


45 


142. 2 


138.6 


24.2 


2.76 


40.82 


18.47 


0.64 




46 


102. 


76.1 


24.6 


19.91 


29. 70 


27. 30 


1.93 




47 


61.6 


— 20.0 


24.8 


62.77 


5. 81 


28.32 


0.33 


Do. 


48 


67.6 


— 21.1 


24.8 


68.23 


0.53 


23.81 


0.15 




49 


38.4 


— 20.7 


24.8 


45.46 


23.25 


24.50 


3.16 


Trace of 

tin. 


50 


36.6 


— 13. 


25.6 


38.27 


31.26 


'J". 44 


2.20 





ANALYSES BY S. P. SHARPLES. 
Description of samples. 



No. 
9352 

9355 

9:j5U 



Bongltt of— 



Walter Swan & ( <>., Boston, 
do 



..In 

.do 
.do 
.do 



Price 
per 

quart. 



Label. 



Remarks. 



Robert tfcCullagh, Boston 

Bighlands. 

do 

Roxbury market 

Cobb, Bates & Kerka, Dock 

Square, Boston, U 

■ I.. 

s. D Ware, Eliol Square, 

Roxbury, M 



. i:; 

. l:. 
. 17 

. 16 
. 15 



No. 1, New Orleans, Ange- 
lina. 
No. 2, New Oilcans. II. A.. 



No. 3, New Orleans (mark) 

Home, N. W. V. 

• ■ \\ ( )i leans Arinelie, 

15.11. H.&Oo. 
Nb. 5, Ni w < U leans Annelie, 

N. B. If. 

• w < Means Magno- 
lia, X. W.F. 



Maple Sii np . 
N'.w Oi leans. 
.... do 



Pol to RiC0. . 

Golden Drip 



16 Golden Sirup 



I Bine ilili.ni 
one, Roxburj , m. 
i \ kfcCobfa 16 Rockland . 15 Porto Rice 
Roxbm v, Haas. 



Said to be pore open-kettle 

sirup. 

Supposed to lie bleached; 

lias a poor tlavor and 

tastes of sulphur. 
Suppose d to lie bleached. 



Probablj oonsists of about 

60 i ni sirup ai <i 50 

i at gin 

Do. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



695 



Description of samples — Continued. 



No. 


Bought of— 


Price 

per 

quart. 


Label. 


Remarks. 


9366 


Menduru, 141 Hampden 


$0.10 


Porto Rico 


Low grade. 


9367 


street, Boston, Mass. 
do 


.15 


New Orleans 


High grade article, full of 

sugar. 
Probably adulterated with 
about 10 per cent glucose 


9368 


F. H. Haynes, Blue Hill ave- 
nue, Roxbury, Mass. 


.15 


Porto Rico 














to improve color and 










body. 


9369 


A. A. Whidden, Central 


.07^ 


New Orleans 




9370 


street, Boston, Mass. 
M. Cashin, Clark street, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 


.371 


Porto Rico 


About 50 per cent glucose 
and 50 per cent low grade 
Porto Rico. 




9371 

9372 
9373 

9374 


French Bros., 392 Hanover 


.45 


Ideal Table Sirup 


Mainly glucose 


street, Boston, Mass. 


.45 

• 37* 

.15 


New Orleans 




Viveiras <k Casta, 27 Prince 

street, Boston, Mass. 
William J. Shea & Co., 377 


Port o Rico 




do 


Probably about 10 per cent 
glucose added to improve 


Hanover street, Boston, 








Maes. 






color and body. 


937:" E. Robinson & Co,, 63 War- 


.35 


Warranted Pure Sap Sirup, 


Sirup of this brand was 


ren street, Roxbury, Mass. 




W. J. Lamb. Medford, 


found last year to bo 






Mass. Maple sirup in liask. 


adulterated with glucose. 


9376 


Tisdale, Roxbury, Mass 


.25 


Maple sirup in fancy pressed 
glass jng. 




9377 


St. Cloud Market, 561 Tre- 
mont street, Boston, Mass. 


.35 


Pure Maple Sirup, A. J. 
Raymond, Everett, M 
In wine bottle. 




9378 


E. Robinson <fc Co., 63 War- 


.35 


(On neck) Challenge brand. 


Very probably made from 


9379 


ren street, Roxbury, Mass. 

S. E. Wilson <fe Co., corner 
Worcester and Washing- 
ton streets, Boston, Mass. 


.30 


(On side) Pure Maph 
up, Orange County, Vt. 

Pore Maple Sirup, put up 

by I. G. Turner, Medford, 

In wine bottle. 


granulated or other high- 
grade cane -sugar and fla- 
vored with maple sirup. 


9380 


C. C. Howland &. Co., 652 




Boyd's Green Mountain Ma- 


In wine bottles. 


Shawmut avenue, Boston 




ple Sirup, warranted pure 




Mass. 




sap sirup, bottled sxpi 

ly for OUT family trade 




9381 James H. Wythe .v. Co., 


.30 


Maple sirup in ^v int- bottles 


Made nearlfontpelier, Vt ; 


Brattle itreel 1 lambridge, 






guaranteed pure md re- 
liable. 


9382 I). I). lMckanl.-W, Shawmut 




Boyd's Green Mountain 


In u ine botttles. 


avenue, Boston, Mass. 




pie sirup, warranted 
pore sap sirup, bottled ei 
pressly fot our family 
trade, D. D. Piokard, 




9383 Benney, Bitot Square, i;< >x- 
bury, Mas a. 


.30 


Pure Maid' sii up ti on 
pleton, vt , D. n l 


Ill wine bottles. Al.i.ut 

one-fifth gl . 


C. I>. Swam & 


.35 


Sup. i lor Maple Blrup. in 


In w ine bottles. 


Washington 

ton Highlands. 




dt d for bu< k* h< .it 
griddle i 

('. I>. Sw .nil 1 










ton Highlands. 





696 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Description of samples — Continued. 



No. 


Bought of— 


Price 
per 

quart. 


Laoel. 


Remarks. 


9385 


C. C. Howland & Co., 652 
Shawmut avenue, Boston, 
Mass. 


$0.35 


Boyd's Green Mountain 
Maple Sirup, put up by 
C.C. Howland & Co., 652 
Shawmut avenue, Boston, 
Mass. 


In wine bottles. 


9386 
9387 


A. A. Davenport, Warren 
street, Roxbury, Mass. 

Richard Tubman, Washing- 


.25 
.30 


Mapleine Sirup for table use. 

Put up by Reid &. Co., 

Boston, Mass. 
Pure Maple Sirup, Wood- 


In wine bottle. Probably 
a cane-sugar solution fla- 
vored with maple sirup. 

In wine bottle. 


9388 


ton street, Roxbury, Mass. 

W. S. Melcher, 35 Warren 
street, Roxbury, Mass. 


.30 


stock, Vt., F. P. Adams & 
Co., Boston, Mass. 
Warranted Strictly Pure 
Sap, from Woodstock, Vt. 
Maple Sirup. F. P. 
Adams & Co., Boston, 








Mass. 




9389 F. S. Pisteen, 529 Tremont 


.35 


On neck : Gilt Edge Brand. 


Do. 




street, Boston, Mass. 




On side : Pure Manic 
Sirup. Put up by J. G. 
Turner, Medford, Mass. 




9390 


J. F. Johnson, 256 Shawmut 
avenue, Boston, Mass. 


.30 


No label 


Maple sirup. This sample 
was partly crystallized in 
the bottle. 


9391 


Cobb, Aldrich & Co., 2233 
Washington street, Rox- 


.26 


Improved Maple Sirup, 
Woodstock, Vt. Com- 


In wine bottle. Adulter- 
ated with glucose. 


9392 


bury, Mass. 
Revere Sugar Refinery 


.07* 


pound. 
Diamond Sirup 


Sample of this sirup was 
said to have been stopped 
at Canadian custom- 
house. I analysed U 
then, with about same 
reanlta aa at present. 


9393 


Thomas Dana ic Co., Bos- 




Texas Clear 






ton, Ma-.-.. 










do . 






A wry handsome, goodfla- 










\ ored Porto Bioo. 


[)'.t')~> 


do 




Texas A 


A heav\ dark sirup. 

a \ c ry dark thiek strop. 

A low made New Orleans. 




do 




Tea aa B 




do 




New Orleans Matilda 




American Bugac Refinery 

Company. 
Butoher A Bona, Philadel- 








().-. 


Sil ui» 


Sold for use in curing 




phia I'.i 






meat. 




Jan* ai 
lantic avenne, B 


l."> 




I >.u k i olored. 


















9401 


O.F( Ulan 

, [,;n-. Boato 


. 10 


Porto Bioo 


a \.r\ low grade black 
molai 





. i rei t 




Pnra Maple Birnp, pnl up 


Thia la mppoaed to be per- 




and < Boaton 




hot iii Vermont angai or- 
chards, expreealy for 8. B 
Pien •• A Co., Importora 

and gTOOl 


leelly pure ai ti< le. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 697 

Analytical data. 



No. 


Polarization. 


Tempera- 
ture, °C. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Water. 


Ash. 


Tin 
or otlu-r 
metals. 


Direct. 


Indirect. 










Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 




9352 


38.00 


—12. 00 


23 


38.20 


24.28 


23.80 


2.64 


Absent. 


9353 


41.50 


-21.00 


20 


47.21 


19.36 


24.12 


2.56 


Do. 


9354 


46.50 


—21. 00 


20 


50.90 


13.68 


22. 5S 


2.88 


Do. 


9355 


39.50 


-20. 80 


20 


45.54 


18.68 


22.14 


2.61 


Present. 


9356 


42.00 


-18.00 


20 


45.32 


17.67 


23.14 


2.28 


Absent. 


9357 


42.40 


—19. 50 


24 


47. 45 


18.68 


25. 28 


1.93 


Do. 


9358 


43.00 


-11.00 


24 


41.39 


20.24 


24.49 


1.74 


Do. 


9359 


59. 00 


-19. 70 


20 


59.54 


2.21 


27.48 


0.38 


Do. 


9360 


42.60 


-12. 50 


24 


42.23 


21.12 


24.22 


1.74 


Do. 


9361 


39.70 


-16. 60 


24 


43.15 


28.12 


20.60 


2.10 


Do. 


9362 


50.30 


-14. 00 


28 


50.08 


14.72 


24.76 


1.49 


Present. 


9363 


92.80 


70.00 


27 


17.79 


32.40 


21.02 


1.20 


Absent. 


9364 


96.50 


74.60 


27 


16.99 


30.00 


25.02 


0.86 


Do. 


9365 


41.70 


-15.00 


27 


43.98 


23.12 


21.28 


1.00 


Present. 


9366 


22.00 


— 17.50 


29 


30.89 


28.60 


23. 44 


4.66 


Do. 


9367 


43.80 


—22. 00 


19 


49.52 


22.48 


18.55 


1.00 


Absent. 


9368 


56.40 


— 6.50 


20 


47.50 


17.36 


23.44 


1.08 


Do. 


9369 


25.00 


-16.70 


19 


31.39 


29.44 


25.38 


3.04 


Present. 


9370 


83.90 


70.20 


19 


10.46 


35. 20 


24.62 


1.56 


Absent. 


9371 


112.60 


96.60 


19 


19.56 


31.20 


24.60 


0.86 


Do. 


9372 


42.40 


-18. 70 


17 


45 63 


19.60 


23.52 


1.90 


Do. 


9373 


32. 00 


-16. 10 


24 


36.87 


29.40 


23.94 


2.68 


Present. 


9374 


46. 30 


- 6.50 




40.18 


18.00 


26.22 


1.99 


Do. 


9375 


59.70 


-21.00 


16 


60.04 


2.34 


30.04 


0.18 


Absent. 


9376 


58.80 


-20. 00 


16 


58.62 


6.20 


27.35 


0.32 


Do. 


9377 


53.00 


-19. 40 




53.30 


4.67 


30. 92 


0.58 


Do. 


9378 


59.40 


—20. 20 


18 


59.87 


2.53 


32.00 


0.12 


Do. 


9379 


58.00 


-19. 80 


18 


58.35 


3.27 


29.88 


0.30 


Do. 


9380 


61.50 


-19. 40 


21 


61.04 


2.10 


29.64 


0.50 


Do. 


9381 


59.90 


—10. 20 


16 


58.85 


3.12 


27.70 


0.42 


Do. 


9382 


63.00 


-20. 60 


17 


62.44 


1.38 


32. 46 


0.46 


Do. 


9383 


77.00 


4.60 


17 


53.78 


6.57 


28.2* 


0.26 


Do. 


9384 


61.00 


-20. 20 


21 


61.27 


2.19 


28.02 


0.32 


Da 


9385 


54. 10 


-16.90 


24 


54.42 


2.83 


35. 20 


0.40 


Do. 


9386 


54, 90 


—15. 90 


24 


64.19 


5.40 


34. 20 


0.14 


Do. 


9387 


58.00 


-18. 70 


23 


58.59 


3. 27 


30. 82 


0.38 


Da 


9388 


60.00 


-20. 90 


19 


60.89 


3.27 




0.38 


Do. 


9389 


59.00 


-20. 30 


19 


59.68 


3.99 


25. 52 


0.31 


Do. 


9390 


64. 'JO 


-21.70 


19 


65.18 


2. 58 


20.52 


0.17 


Do. 


9391 


86.50 


43.50 


19 


32.36 








Da 


9392 


35.90 


—12. 70 


19 


36.58 




19.60 


5.00 


Da 


9393 


20.80 


—20. 00 


20 


30.81 




■22. Mi 


3. 96 


Da 




48.00 


-15. 50 


19 


47.79 


16. 18 




1.71 


Da 


9395 


34.00 


—20. 00 


19 


40.64 


21.12 


2L84 




Do 


9396 


21. 50 


-19.00 


19 


30.48 




21.89 




1).. 


9397 


29. 10 


-23. 60 


u 










Da 




37. 80 


-14.50 


19 










Da 




45.40 


12, 90 




44.-.':; 






7.68 


Da 


9400 


39.90 




19 












9401 


::o. 20 


U. 2o 


19 


83.41 








Da 




62.50 




in 






■ 


0.51 


Do 






FOODS A>T> FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



ANALYSIS BY W. C. STUBBS. 
* DueripU** of HimpJe. 



_ : of— 



Where 



.. -d or manu- 
factured. 



Remarks. 



"a, 1360 M ._ 

New Orleai 

- 

eree 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

dneryXo. SS- 
Louisiana Sugar Refiner . 

- . -:ineryXo. 37. 

Jno. Barela;. 

do 

do 



Rodd Bros. A: Co.. New Or- Mixture of _ tp, and 

leans. Louisiana mola?- - 

: nknown Louisiana centrifugal molasses. 



Marianna Plantation 



Poplar Grove Plantation. . 

Marked "H 

Star Plantation 

J ust inia Plan tation 

Julia Plantation 

-hoe Brand 

Louisiana Sugar Refinery 

d 

do 

Justiuia Plantation 

Evan Hall Plantation 

_aes Plantation 



do 

do 

do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

Emile E. Hatery, Camp and 

Jul. 

A. A. McGinnis's Sons 

Wm. Hart, Rampart ami Gra- 
-' 
- 

Perdido street*. 

part - 

- 
do 

•Jn.». J 

M ' 

i 
EL li 

Andrew etr> 



Eureka Plantation 

Belle Alliance Plantation. 

McManor Plantation 

Marianna Plantation 

Cora Plantation 

L. a; M. Central T . 
Waveland (Bayou Teche). 

Stella Plantation 





Hermitage Plantation 
Unknown 



..l.i 

.«lu 



Chinaiigu Plantation. 



Da 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Open kettle. 

Da 
Refinery molasses. 

Do. 

Do. 
Louisiana centrifugal molasses. 

Do. 
Louisiana centrifugal molasses, 

diffusion process. 
Louisiana centrifugal molasses. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mixture glucose sirup and Lou- 
isiana molasses. 

.::a centrifugal m 
Louisiana centrifugal ■ 

.i>s mixed. 
Op*n kectle. 

Mixture of glucose sirup and 

I molasses. 
Louisiana open kettle. 



Do. 
Do. 

Mixture of glucose sirup and 
ham -sea. 

.do 

-lrut) and 
Louisiana im -lasses. 
Do. 

■tie and <?). 
Mixta* P aD(i 






.do 



\R. MOL ..V. 

ANALYSIS BY W. 

.IiTillUril. 






Bought of- 



TVhere wholesaled or manu- 
factured. 



Remarks. 



38 . F. Magintzgy, 133 Magazine Unknown 

street. 

39 A. TV. Skarden, Magazine and do 

Jackson s:r 

40 Harry Butner, Laurel and Ara- Louisiana Su^rar Refinery. 

bella ptreets. 

41 I.E. King, Valmot and Laurel Unknown 

str- 

42 G. TV. Dunbar ■ Ekfna do 

43 Jas. Wilson <fc Co., Prytacia do 

and Felinty streets. 

44 H. B. Gilson, 28 Valence >ireet do 

45 do <:•-• 



4G J. P. Schmidt. 1094 Magazine Ro : 
street. 

47 Fred Denny g»DM do 

sti- 

48 do do 

49 Smith Bros. <fc Co., loC Povdras Unknown 

50 do dn 



Mixture of glucose simp and 

Louisiana molasses. 
Louisiana centrifugal molasses 

and 
Mixture of _ 

Louisiana molasses. 
Louisiana • - 

Do. 
Mixture glucose sirup and 
Louisiana molasses. 

Mixture glucose sirup and 
Louisiana molasses. 
Do. 

Do. 

.in centrifugal n.-: 
Mixture glucose sirup and 
Louisiana in ■ -lasses. 
Do. 



700 



POODS AM' FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical data. 



No. 



Totalization. 



Direct. Indirect. 



1.. 
2.. 
3.. 

4.. 

5 . 



10 



12 ... 
13.... 
14.... 

15 

16 ... 
IT .. 

18 

10 

20 

21. 



23.... 
■21 ... 
25.... 



28 



30.... 
31... 



<Su P re Sucrose. *££H Wa ^r. 
c c. sugars. 



46.00 
40.40 ' 
25.00 
30. 50 
36.10 
30. 36 
36.20 
42.25 
38. 00 , 
35.50 
38.40 
36.40 
33.20 
24.60 
23.00 . 
23.00 L 
23. 80 . 
28. GO . 
22.20 . 
27.80 
33.00 
23.80 
27. 20 
112.60 
29.20 
19. 20 



40.00 
120. 40 
40. 20 
48.60 
55. 10 
67. 50 

4::. 20 
115.20 
]■-:. 10 

124.20 

n 

in; 30 

128.00 

87. 1" 



00. 88 

17.82 

22. CO 

23. 32 
18.36 
23.54 
22.22 
21.78 
22. 22 
14.96 
14.74 
26.18 
23.98 



- 24. 43 

- 23. 10 

- 21.12 

- 21.56 
96.14 

- 22.44 

- 20.68 

- 23.98 
97.90 

- 23. 54 
22.20 
22.44 
31.24 

1.65 

10 56 

- 7.70 
104.50 

20. 2o 

70. 20 



Per cent. 
33.79 

48. 70 

31.95 

38.74 

44.01 

36.55 

44.25 

47.23 

44. 28 

42. 70 

36.70 

30.47 

42.11 ! 

34. 70 ' 
31.70 
33.58 
31.10 

35. 60 I 
30.50 J 
37. 56 i 



40 36 
33. 52 
36.38 
12.28 
37. 90 
28.89 
41.53 
16.42 
53.09 
51.69 

26. 50 

26. 1 1 

14.50 

17.40 
22. 28 

14.17 

18.66 
54.68 

in. ii 
37. 88 

19.42 
18.17 



Per cent. 

23.52 
34.48 
27.00 
25.64 
20. 60 
21.50 
20. 00 
25.31 

32.30 
29.40 
25.00 
25. 97 
35.70 
29. 29 
31.20 
29. 40 
35. 70 
25.00 
26.31 
31.25 
25.00 
34. 66 
23. 50 

23. 63 
33.00 

17.00 
17.55 
17.33 
34. 66 

88. 00 

34. GO 
36 49 
31.01 
16. 52 
12, 11 

12.00 
81.11 

I 
33. 37 



Per cent. 
29. 97 

23.10 

26.75 

25.05 

31.11 
26. 04 
27.58 

25. 67 
22. 60 
24.04 
81 96 
25.94 
31.17 

26. 27 
29.11 
29.08 
23.11 
23.43 
29.18 

26. 35 
27.34 
26.83 

27. 20 
24.54 

28. 09 
24. 50 
33.31 
28.69 
26.55 
22. 90 
2.-.. ('4 
22. 90 

26 18 

30. 19 

20. 17 

27. 20 

87. 88 

24. 89 

•JO. 22 

I 



Ash. 



Tin or 
other 
metals. 



Per cent. 
0.84 

1.75 

3.53 

4. 32 

4.01 

4.77 

3.37 

2.56 

2.67 

3.11 

3.74 

4.57 

3.75 

4.83 

3.93 

4.53 

4.55 

3.88 

3.96 

4.95 

3.90 

3.34 

6.28 

1.57 

6.02 

2.58 

2.78 

1.78 

0.85 

1. 52 
0.89 
3. 54 
2.63 

2. 52 
2.21 
2 41 
1.51 
4.61 
4.34 
1.97 

1.45 
1.12 
1.27 

0. 65 

0. 72 
1.38 
2.38 
111 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS. AND HONEY. 

ANALYSES BY SHIPPEN WALLACE. 

Analytical data. 



VOi 



Polarization. 



No. 



Temper- 
Indirect. ature .° C 



3.. 
4.. 
5.. 
6 .... 

7.... 
8.... 
9.... 
10.... 
11... 
12.... 
13.... 
14 ... 
15.... 
16... 
17..., 
18 ... 
19 .... 
20.... 
21 .. 
22... 
23. ... 
24... 
25... 
26... 
27... 
28... 
29... 
30... 
31... 
32... 
33... 
34... 

36 ... 
37... 
38... 
39... 
40... 

n .. 

42... 
43... 
41 

47 

u 

49... 
50... 



96.8 

122.0 

115.0 

134.0 ! 

117.8 

50.2 

67.8 

110.5 

133. 

51.7 

112.3 

40.7 

37.8 

97.3 

138.0 

44.3 

129.0 

69.0 

46.0 

111.2 

44.2 

38.5 

45.0 

126.2 

62.3 
105.3 

43. ■". 
107. 2 

146.4 
66. 

116.0 

44.li 
44.3 
120.0 
122.0 

148 i 

53.0 
122.0 

42. 5 
117. . i 

93.0 
104.5 
123. 4 



70.0 
108.0 

99.0 
121.4 

92.0 

— 13.0 
26.0 
87.0 

104 

— 12.0 
77.0 

— 14.0 

— 11.0 
76.0 

136.0 

— 16.0 
101.4 

31.4 

— 18.0 
76.0 

— 16.0 

— 13.6 

— 15.0 
111.2 

— 13.0 
28.4 
86.6 

— 15.6 
86.0 
48.0 

138.0 

— 14.0 
92. 5 

— 17.0 

— 16.0 

— 16. 
113.0 
106. 

— 12. 
113.0 
146.0 

— 12.0 
14 B 

118.0 

— 15.0 

28. 

25.3 



Sucrose. *£!?H Water 



Per cent. 
20.00 

10. 40 

11.90 

9.40 

19. 20 
47.10 
31.10 
17. 50 
31.60 
47. 53 
26.20 
39.20 
36.41 
15.80 

1.40 
45.00 

20. 50 
28.00 
44.70 
26.20 
44.90 
38.40 
44.70 
11.10 
38. 50 
25.30 
13.90 
43. 50 
15.80 
30.80 

6.20 
51.40 
17.50 
37. 10 
44.70 
45. 00 

5. 20 
11.90 
40.60 

1.70 
39.10 
50.50 

6.70 

17.86 



Per cent. 
27.50 

33. 50 

34. 00 
35.30 
32. 28 
12.85 
19.50 
29.85 

35. 60 
13.08 
30.90 
16.10 
17.20 
28.10 
35.80 
21.50 
32. 50 
27.40 
11.85 
28. 47 
21.50 
22. 20 
19.10 
33.75 
22. 00 
28.85 
30.35 
18.80 
29.75 
31.62 

36. 71 
12.10 
32.50 
17.35 
21. 41 

34. 80 
34. 00 
15.32 
34. 50 

37. 53 
16.60 
11.82 



Per cent. 



Asb. 



Tin or 
other 

metals. 



Per cent. 
1.89 

1.53 

1.52 

1.37 

1.50 

2.75 

3.10 I 

1.55 

1.92 

4.06 

1.33 ! 

4.75 

4.85 

1.90 

1.45 

4.38 

1.48 

2.50 

4. 25 

1.45 

4.40 

4.95 

4. 75 

1.50 

4.90 

3.75 

1.35 

5.50 

1.40 

3.25 

1.25 

4.06 

1.60 

5.90 

4.40 

4.40 

1.38 

1. 14 

4.50 

1.4" 

1.25 

4.00 



702 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
Analytical data. 



No. 



Polarization. 



Direct. Indirect 



Temper- 
ature ° C. 



Sucrose. 



Reducing 
Bugars. 



29.7 



64.5 

58.4 



57.0 
28.5 



130.8 



35.0 



4K.2 
49.4 
CO. 3 



33.2 
31.4 



43.0 
29, 6 



-10.0 



30.4 -10.0 

34. -6.0 

90.0 

44. 5 -10. 

44.3 -10.0 

56.8 -21.5 

82. 21. 



55.4 -21.7 
65. 5 —23. 
62.6 -21.3 

63.5 -21.9 



-22.5 
-20.9 



-20.9 
-18.0 



110.0 



-18.9 



-21.9 

-19.4 
-21.0 



-18.0 
18.6 



18.4 



1 5.3 



11.0 



-9.2 
85. 7 



80. i) 



17.8 
2L0 

17.0 






16.5 



Per cent. 
29.60 



15 
)8 



20 



20 



22 



28 
28 



28 



30.17 

29.87 

12.14 

40.70 

40.99 

58.69 

40.22 

3.32 

57.79 

66.34 

63.43 

64.50 

1.59 

65. 22 

59.99 

34.78 

58.83 

35.04 

29.79 

1.71 

9.37 

36.44 

7.14 

41.17 

5.16 

8.49 

2.07 

53.34 

52. 35 

61.87 

•J. 412 

39. 11 

1.92 

13. 76 
'_'. 87 
16.90 

B0. 78 

1.97 

2. UK 

61.80 






Per cent. 

28.20 

40.98 

28.56 

27. 80 

32.68 

21.82 

22.44 

6.24 

14.50 

37.60 

5.26 

1.32 

1.43 

1.26 

44.60 

1.26 

5.88 

14.92 

5.70 

26. 74 
18.64 
37.58 
33. 32 
14.28 
38.46 
25.38 
33.33 
30. 12 
40.00 
13.33 

8.19 

L68 

41.66 

20. 88 

27. 03 
40. 00 
10.75 
40. 86 
22.82 

BO. 80 

11.77 

•J1.27 
1. l(i 

ii 67 
16.66 

i. n 



Water. 



Per cent. 
28.68 
21.00 
27.51 
31.15 
25.52 
23.45 
23.27 
30.25 
29.70 

26. 25 
31.40 
30.85 
30.87 
30.12 
20.53 
33.13 
32. 17 
30. 86 
33.12 
23.99 
28.29 
24.00 
25.85 
32. 55 
28.59 
26.44 
28.06 
25. 71 
20.86 
30.45 

31.37 
17.90 
25.60 
24. 98 
28. 14 

86. 33 

88. 86 

24. 10 

27. 93 

18.02 
80. 58 



Ash. 


Tin or ! 
oilier 
metals. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


5.00 


0.0074 


.58 
5.17 




0.0134 


4.54 


0. 0200 


1.93 


0.0028 


5. 05 


0.0100 


4.17 


0.0180 


0.24 




0.33 


0. 0020 


0.41 
0.55 




0.00F0 


0.45 




0. 53 


Trace. 


0.50 




1.17 






0.28 


0.0100 


0.11 


0. 0200 


0.32 


0.0100 


4.7d 


0. 0260 


2 54 


0. 0060 


1.02 




0.35 




0.42 
2. 68 
3.59 






0. 0200 


1.60 


Trace. 


4. 12 


0.0100 


0.64 




0.17 
0.74 






d.71 


0. 0060 


0.76 




2. 85 


0.0140 


4.31 


0.00 10 


1.03 




0.30 




1.03 





1.31 


0.0120 






1.67 


0. 0000 


l 88 

0.81 






3. 05 




0.15 




:■ 86 




1. 10 


,i 0006 


0. 19 






o.oioo 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
ANALYSES BY II. A. WEBER 

Description of samples. 



703 



Xo. 


Bought from — 


Remarks. 


1 


J. G. &. L. Brown, Hunter street and 5th avenue, 
Columbus, Ohio. 


New Orleans Molasses. 


2 


do 


Sugar-house Molasses. 


3 


Henry Thropp, 345 South High street, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 


New Orleans Molasses. 


4 


Ssper & Sons, 403 South High street, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 


Do. 




A. J. Evans, 236 and 238 East Long street, Co- 


Do. 




lumbus, Ohio. 




6 


Bowman Bros., corner Long street and Grant 
avenue, Columbus, Ohio. 


Do. 




M. A. Montgomery, 618 East Long street, Co- 
lumbus. Ohio. 


Do. 


8 


Atlantic Tea Company, 190 South 4th street, 


1 quart glass bottle Thurber's Maple Sirup ; de- 




Columbus, Ohio. 


licious flavor. 


9 


M. Theado &. Co., 234 to 238 South 4th street, 


Tin can labeled Williams Bros. ..t Charbonnean, 






Detroit, Mich. 


10 


Saul Sc Eberly, 74, 76, and 78 East Main street, 


lglassbottlo labeled California Nectarine Drips, 




Columbus, Ohio. 


National Sirup Company, Chicago and St Paul. 


11 


do 


Tin can labeled Maple Honey Sirup, Bradshaw 
& Waite, Chicago, 111. 


1? 


do .. 


Rock Candy Drips, F. EL Leggetl >.v Co., New 

York; glass bottle containing lump of rock 










candy. 


13 


Esper&Sons, 403 South High street, Colum- 


Tin can labeled Pure Maple Sirup, Crane Bros., 




bus, Ohio. 


Garrettsville, Ohio. 


14 


do 


Tin can labeled Choice Table Maple Sirup, J. 






B. MoNabb, Salem, Ohio. 




do 


Corn Sirup. 

Glass bottle labeled Rock Candv I )rips. F. 1 1. 1.e ■• 


1G 


do 






gett's, Nfw York, containing lump of candy. 


17 


March, Chestnut and Bigfa streets, Columbus, 


Can labeled Thurber's Mountain Sugar Maple 




Ohio. 


Simp. 


IS 


Wachter, West 3d avenue, Columbus, Ohio — 


Can labeled Pure Maple Sirup, Williams Bros. 

\ Charbonnean, Detroit, Mich; $100 reward 

for adulteration found. 


10 


V. K. Allen, Qoodale and High street-. Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 


Can labeled Pure Maple Sirup, 1 Q I » St Co. 


7,0 


do 


N«w < Means Ifo d quality. 


?,\ 


do 


22 


do 




23 


a. Hawk, Goodale and Eigb streets, Columbus 


Rock Candy Drips, Bradshaw 4 Waite, ( 




Ohio. 


111. 


24 


do 


Bottle labeled Pure Maple Simp, F. <;. Btroh- 






me', i a Ym k. i Delioious flai or.) 




<lo 


Central Park Drips, Thurber A Whylan< 

Vo,k. 






26 


do 


New ( trleans Mol.i>ses, set olid qliallt \ . 


27 


do 


>i leans Molasses, Brttquallty. 


28 


March, 263 North High street, Columbus, 


New Orleans ' luart. 


29 


do 


Table Bit u[>. 



704 



POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
ANALYSES BY II. A. \\ EBER. 

Description of samples — Continued. 



K. 


Bought from— 


Kemarks. 


30 


Atlantic Tea Company, 240 North High street, 


1 jug maple sirup labeled Thurber's Map 




Columbus, Ohio. 


Sirup. 


31 


Thos. Bergiu, 51 North High street, Columbus, 


1 bottle maple sirup labeled Thurber's Mapl 




Ohio. 


Sirup. 


32 


do 


1 can maple sirup labeled Donovan & ChrismaJ 






Pure Maple S>rup Cable, Ohio. 


33 


Henry Wachter, 3d and Harrison avenue, Co- 


1 quart Golden Drip9. 




lumbus, Ohio. 




34 


do 




35 


AH. Phelps, 3d and Harrison avenue, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 


New Orleans Mol.i 


3G 


Solon Hyde, 5th avenue, Columbus, Ohio 


Golden Drips. 


37 


J. G. & L. Brown, 5th avenue, Columbus, Ohio 


Fancy bottle labeled L. (i. Voe i: Co.'s 1'ur 

Maple sirup. 


38 


do 


Golden Drips. 


•39 


If. A. Staling 1416 North High street, Colum- 
bus, Ohio. 


New Orleans Molasses. 


40 


do 


Table Sirup. 

New Oilcans Molasses. 


41 


R. H. Bobb, 297 South High street, Columbus, 




Ohio. 




42 




Golden Simp. 


43 


do 


Book < landy Drips. 
New Orleans .Molasses. 


44 


Miln, Greenwood and High streets, Colum- 




bus, Ohio. 




4. r > 


do 


Maple Molasses, sold in bulk. 


46 


U.K. Kaiser, 1520 North High street, Coluin 
bus, Ohio. 


NYw Orleans Molasses. 


47 


Aug. Boesel, 1352 North High street, Colunv 


Do. 


48 


do 


Table Sirup. 

l bottle Labeled kCoMeohen's Old Virginia Trei 


49 


J. M.r.ell & Son, 1188 North High street 




luinhiis, Ohio. 


Maple Sirup, <;. k. lioMeoben, Wbeellni 

W. Va. 


50 


By, -North High street, Columbus, 


1 can Maple Sirup labeled Pun Maple Sirup 




Ohio. 


Blyiia Canning Company, Klyria, Ohio. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
ANALYSES BY F. G. WIECHMAXX. 
Description of samples. 



705 



a. 


Price per 
pint. 


Bought from. 


Label. 


31 


$0. 19 


H. M. "Wey ranch, 805 3d avenue, New York. . 


New Orleans Mobu 


.2 


.15 


do 


' Porto Rico Molasses. 


y.', 


.10 


H. Hahnenfeld, 767 3d avenue, New York 


Xew Orleans Molasses. 


34 


.10 


H. Boeselager, 794 3d avenue, New York 


Do. 


35 


.09 


J. II. Meyer &. Bro., 341 East 23d st.. New 
York. 


Do. 


50 


.10 


C. W. Frieling, 397 2d avenue, New York 


Do. 


57 

• 


.07 


C. Tobaben, 379 2d avenue, Xew York 


Sirup. 


.09 


do 


Molasses. 




.10 

.10 




Xew Orleans Molasses. 
Sirup. 


M 


do 


ni 


.10 

.10 


D. Plumb, 282 3d avenue, Xew York 


Do 


12 


do 


Porto Kico Molasses. 


04 


.10 


do 


Xew Orleans Molasses. 


.10 


D, Mehrtens, 280 3d avenne, Xew|York 


Sirup. 


ItR 


10 
.10 


do 




86 


.09 


J. Betzemann, 230 3d avenue, Xew York 


Do. 


67 


.10 


H. Cordes, 1 347 2d avenue, Xew York 


Molasses. 


Cr 


.09 


do 


Sirup. 


69 


.09 


L. Fette, 1333 2d avenue, Xew York 


Xew Orleans Mola 


70 


.08 


do 


Sirup. 


71 


.10 


Ferris & Keehill, 442 4th avenue, Xew X01 k 


Xew Orleans Molasses. 


72 


.10 
.10 
.10 


do 


Porto Rico Molasses. 


7:1 


do 


Sirup. 


74 


E. Scbmidt, 441 4th avenue, New York 


Do. 


76 


.10 
.12 


do 


Xew Orleans Mola 


76 


J. Macaulay, 422 4th avenue, Xew York 


Do. 


77 


.08 


J. A* Steinberg, Wythe avenue and South 
5th street, Brooklyn, E. D. 


Sirup. 


78 


.09 


do 


1 u leans Mola 


79 


.09 


P. J«.liu. Wythe avenue and South 4th 
street, Brooklyn, K. I). 


Do. 


M 


.07 


dO 


Sirup. 


81 


.10 




Xe\s Orleans Mola • 


92 


.10 


do 


Sirup. 


18 


.08 


EL A. Butt, 3d avenue and 60th street, New 

York. 


Do. 


hi 


.10 
.10 
.09 


do 


1 <: leans Molasses. 


MS 


do 




B6 


w. I). EL Jaeger, L020 3d avenue, Nev< York 


I leans Mola 


h7 


.09 


Schnakenbei g A B oeek, Wythe avenue and 
South 6th street) Brooklyn, B. l». 


Sin.].. 


Ml 


.10 
.09 


do 


' 


10 


\V. Gtode, Wythe avenue and Sooth Bto 


Do. 






t, Brooklyn, B. D. 




9<> 


.OS 


do 


Sirup. 


9! 


.10 


P. C. Henoken, 93 South 8th street, Brook 

hi., B. D. 


Do. 


92 


.10 


do 


■1 leans Mol 1 - 


93 


. Ill 


F. Bippe, 919 3d avenue ' 


Qoldsn Sii up. 


94 


.10 


Bohroeder A Gk>ldberger, 91] Bd avenue, 

New York. 


Sirup. 


9S 


.09 


... do 


l'oi to Ftioo Mols 


96 


.in 
. 99 


do 


i] ;, atiH Moi.iss,-, 


fi- 


J. Moi \ ark 


Do. 


lls 




.... do 


Sirup. 


99 


M 


Plumb 1 »tii avenue, ITew Fori 


Porto Rico 


00 


.nt 


do 





706 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical, data. 



No. 



G7 
68 

m 

70 
71 
72 
73 

74 

7.-. 
76 
77 

80 
81 
82 

84 

B6 

87 
88 

'.in 
01 

01 

86 

!I7 
9K 

100 



Polarization. _ 
Tempera- 
Indirect. ture ° C - 



46.0 

38.8 

53.0 

118.0 

84.0 

42.0 
124.0 
88.4 
36.0 
64.8 
56.0 
L4.0 
38.4 

45.2 
80.0 
47.2 
40.8 
68.0 
38.4 
80.0 
37. 6 
37. 
38.0 

46. o 

1 05. 2 
62.8 

::9.6 

102.0 

37. 2 
41.4 

82.8 
B0. 6 

1 1 :.. 8 
42. 8 

87. 

i, i 
40.0 

8L2 
118.0 



- 21.8 
16.0 
24.0 

100.0 
5.6 

11. 6 
107.4 
77.2 
14.8 
28.8 
19.2 

- 15.2 

- 15.2 

- 13.2 
30.8 

- 18.4 

- 15.6 
11.6 

- 15.6 
35.2 

- 11.6 
15.6 

- 16.0 

- 19.6 

- 19.2 
84.4 

7.2 
r».6 

- 9.2 

- 20.4 
80. 

- 16.0 

- 17.2 

- 5.2 
4 'J. H 

- 11.4 
100.0 

- 17.0 

- 14.4 

- 13.2 

14.0 
LB. 2 
18 8 

7o. K 
107.6 



Reducing 



- Water. 



Per cent. 
55.2 
44.6 
21.8 



39.5 
20.2 
43. 7 



8.4 

11.4 
27.1 
27. 7 
56.4 
43.7 

47.6 

37.1 
53.4 
45.9 
42. 5 
44.0 
33.8 
37.1 
39.6 
40.7 
42.2 
49.1 



41.8 

3D. 8 



51.8 



40. l 

BO 3 
40.7 



48 "• 

10. : 

38. 8 

17.:. 

37. 4 

1. I 

42. 2 
40.7 



rer cent. 
15.15 
21. 74 
• 38. 16 
34.01 
18.93 
32.90 
27. 47 
30.30 
40.48 

20. 59 
30.12 
28.56 
19.30 
30.48 

19.15 
21.83 
14.28 

21. 27 
24.51 
32. 26 

22. 98 
21.46 
29.76 
24.75 
24. 15 
14.00 
82. 26 
21.10 
25. 71 

19.15 

28.00 
16.94 
25. 77 

B0. BO 
L8.08 

27. 03 
22.42 
B1.64 



28. 25 
29.85 
29.05 
26.05 
28.88 
28.10 
22.68 
28.00 
29.18 
25.80 
24.45 
30.02 
28.93 
23.08 

28.93 
26.72 
30.38 
23.55 
26.08 
21.84 
27.38 

29. 48 
24. 75 

22. 40 
27.65 
30.35 
26. 70 

23. 30 

26.80 
20. 43 

26. To 
28. 30 
20. 43 

24. 80 

27. 66 



Ash. 



Tin or 

other 
metals. 



Per cent. 
2.995 
3.161 

2. 621 
2.066 

3. 0-iO 
2.646 

4. 428 
2.221 
2. 153 
4.176 
3.600 
4.194 
3.474 
3.755 

3. 802 
2.545 
2.952 
5.954 

1. 742 

2. 898 
2.646 
5.332 

3. 798 

5. 688 

3. 096 
3.330 

2.016 

:;. 824 

2. 484 

2. in:. 

4.331 

2. 124 

2.045 

7.114 

4. 86] 
3.006 
J. 428 

2.646 

3.150 
2. 722 



Absent. 
Present. 
Absent. 

Do. 

Do. 
Present. 

Do. 

Do. 
Absent. 

Do. 
Present. 
Absent, 

Do. 
Present. 

Absent. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Present. 
Absent. 

"., 

Al.s. nt. 
Do. 

Present. 

Absent. 
Present. 
Absent. 

Do. 

Do. 

Present. 

Do. 

Do. 
Absent. 

Do. 
Present. 
Absent. 

Do. 

A bsent. 

Do. 
Do. 

Presi nt. 

Absent. 

Do. 

Present. 

Do. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HOXEY. 



707 



ANALYSES BY CHEMICAL LABORATORY, U. 8. DEPARTMENT OF AGRI- 
CULTURE. 



No. 



Where bought. 



8560 A. A. Winfield, 215 13£ street SW 

1561 do 

85G2 do 

85GG 324 13th street NW 

8568 12l9Estreet 

8561) Waple & Co., corner E and 11th streets. . 

8572 I W.E.Abbott, 11th aud II Btreeta NfW ... 

8573 I J. H. Semmee, 740 12th street 



8575 
8576 

8579 

8580 
8582 
8585 
8588 
8692 
8597 
8011 
8612 
8613 
8614 
8615 
8616 



.do 



Franklin Barrett, Nevr York avenue and 
12th street. 

do 

Hart and Higgins 

do 

W. H. Combs, 934 9th street 

Wilson &. Schultz, I and 7th streets 

M. Oppenheimer, 823 7th street 

II. Q. Keyworth, 531 7th street 

1367 C street SW 

Estler Bros. &. Co.,i:;,} and C streets SW 
J. W. Brewer, 13$ and C streets SW 



Description. 



Porto Rico Molasses 

New Orleans Molasses 

Vanilla Sirup 

Golden Drip Sirup (graining) 

Golden Drip Sirup 

Honey Sirup 

Bulk Maple Sirup 

Maple Sirup (.i) 

Golden Eagle Sirup 

Dark New Orleans Molasses.. 



Bottled Maple Sirup {b) 
Bottled Maple Sirup (c) . 

Pure Sugar Sirup 

Golden Sirup 

New Orleans molasses.. 

Golden Drip Sirup 

New Orleans Moll i 

Bright Sirup 

do 

N'-tt Orleans Molasses.. 



Price 
per 
pint. 



II. 11. Bowie, 237 12th street SW Porto Pico Molasses 

J.F. Harvey, 400 nth street sw Black Molasses 

J.tt Vermillion, 333 11th street SW Strawberry Sirup (for flavoring only) (d) 



8618 
8045 



8640 



8017 



8048 



8649 



Maple Simp (f) 

do(/» 

do <(j) 

Golden Sirup . . 



do 






8051 



;:. : 



Second Grade Sugar Sirup 

I up 

do 

New Orleans M 



8617 do Crystal Sirup 

do New Orleans M 

A. Katzenherg, 222 North Butaw street, 

Baltimore, Md. 
Greene, 412 Baltimore street, Baltimore, 

Md. 
T. A.Agnew. corner Kutaw and Pratt 

streets, Baltimore, Md, 
.1. v. w i bsfc i B93 Howard street. Balti- 
more, Md. 
Comer Linden and R Balti- 

more, Md. 
J.T.Johnson, 800 Biddlestreet, Baltimore 

Md. 
Randall, tin Baltimore street, Baltimore, 

Md. 
Mrs. Troll, 18 Pearl street, Baltimore, Md 
Bd. R e •• A Son, 112 Balthno 
Baltimore, Md. 
oLaboled: Vermont Maple Sirup. Put up by J. H. Bar! Rutland, VI 

Picture n\ itli " We l>e maple sugar and sirup makers" as l< 

b Quart bottle label* d . Ha • n - Von it Maple Sirup, Warranted Para. 

c Quart bottle labeled: McMechen's Old Virginia Tree Maple Birnp, a.Dsolntelj P 
MeMecheo & Son, Wheeling, W. Va. 
d Labeled: Githeua & Rexsaraer Philadelphia Drade-mark, X G & B I 

art bottle, labeled : Vermont Maple Sirup from Austin, Nlohols A 
/Fancyquarl botth>, labeled Strictly Pure; Natural Flavo Pa Maple Strap. Curth 
Rochester, N V.. Packers of canned fruits and vegetables, pi 

g Glass-stoppered quari decanter, labeled: Thurher'i Maple Simp; delloloua 
Wii\ i md & < !o. luanufactun 



08 



York office, 



eo. K 



urbex 



708 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



ANALYSES BY CHEMICAL LABORATORY, U. s. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL- 
TURE— Continued. 



Where bought. 



8654 
8655 



Description. 



Price 

per 
pint. 



Simms & Co., H6Eutaw street, Baltimore, No. 6 Sirup 

Md 

l & Co., 709 Baltimore street, Haiti- No. 3 Sirup .06 

■lore, lid. 
J.'Cowman & Bros., 254 Biddle street, Bal- New Orleans Pare Sugar Sirup 

tiinore, Md. » 

E. T. Carter. 120 Camden street, Baltimore, Golden Drip Sirup 

M.l. 



861 Howard street, Baltimore, Md 

R F. H. Lawson, corner Charles and Ham- 
ilton streets, Baltimore, Mri. 



New Orleans Sirup. 
Maple Sirup (a) 



Bottled Sirup (6) 









Reed, corner Charles and Franklin street. 

Baltimore, Md. 
Hopper, McGaw & Co., 222 Charles street, Rock-candy Sirup 

Baltimore. Md. 



Sugar Sirup 



Rider & Co., 709 Baltimore street, Balti- Corn Sirup 

more, Md. 
J. F. Johnson, 300 Biddle street, Baltimore, 

Md. 
Jordan Stabler, corner Eutaw, Madison. Bottled Maple Sirup (graining) (<*) 

and Garden, Baltimore, Md. 
L. I'felTerkorn, 206 Camden street, Balti- Sirup 

more, Md. 

mas, 228 North Hut aw street, Balti- Bulk Maple Sirup 

more, Md. 



nan \. Bros., 254 Biddle street, Bal Black-strap 

timore, Md. 

I P. O'Hara, corner Biddle and Virginia RevereSirup 

■ Ball Lmore, lid. 
ireene, 412 Baltimore street, Baltimore, Sugai Drip Sirup. 
Md. 

do, 412 Baltimore street, Baltimore, Second Grade Sirup. 
M.l. 

larvoe, Baltimore, Md 

. . rnsteia, B12 Camden street, Balti- 
more, Md. 

8674 I I Carter, 120 Camden street, Baltimore, do.... 

M.l. 

i o.,70B Baltimore street, Balti- NoJL Sirup 



Sugar-bouse Sirup 
Sugar Sirup 






more, M.l 
Q r French, oornei Paoaand Lexington Bottled Sirup; (contained a piece of rock 

ti Baltimore, lid. oandj > (d). 
i m Be< ed Soni M7 Charles fa-eel Maple Sirup («) 

Baltimore, lid 



.07 

.06 

.07 
.20 

.20 

.20 

.06 



.18 



00 






25 



ttlelabled: " Hampshire Count] Maple Sirup, choice quality, put up by Leslie, Dunham 
PiUafleld, Iff 
b Quart bottle labeled: "Queen Table Sirup, ( dd Sons, Philadelphia, Pa. 

mi bottle labeled : "Maple Sirup. Having purchased tb is sirup from the owners of th< 
Lpped it direof to ns from the forest In Vermont, l can guarantee its purity. Jordan Btabler, 
md ( rarden 
d Pint bottle labeled: " Rook Candy Drips. Franol ii Leggetl & Co., New York. To avoid spoil' 
Us should be kepi in ■ oool place " 
.it bottle labeled) "Green Kountain Maple, Delicious Flavor. Austin, Nichols & Co., sole 
rft ' Sketch labeled 'Sugar-making in Vermont." 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
Analytical data. 



709 





Polarization. 












No. 






Temper- 
ature, °C. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


"Water. 


. , Tin or other 
Ash - metals. 


Direct. 


Indirect. 










Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


8560 


41.9 


6.6 


17.6 


26.1 


22.03 


32.84 


4.90 Tin. 


8561 


98.7 


71.9 


18.0 


19.9 


27.62 


27.98 


3. 53 Do. 


8562 


97.2 


68.4 


18.0 


21.3 


33. 33 


21.14 


3.63 Do. 


8566 


40.5 


— 17.7 


18.0 


43.1 


29.58 


17.05 


5. 00 Tin and copper. 


8568 


109.4 


87.6 


17.0 


16.9 


33. 44 


24.48 


2. 51 Copper. 


8569 


141.8 


133. 8 


17.0 


6.0 


38.46 


22.63 


1.50 Tin. 


8572 


62.2 


— 23.7 


17.0 


63. 4 


4.81 


30.04 


0.37 Neither. 


8573 
857J 


53.4 
101.1 


— 23.1 
75.5 


17.0 
17.2 


56.5 
18.9 


11.36 
32.05 


31.02 

27.77 




Not examined. 


1.80 


Neither. 


8576 


30.0 


— 21.3 


17.8 


37.9 


25.91 


23.60 


6. 10 Copper. 


8579 


63.3 


— 24.2 


17.0 


64.6 


Trace. 


33.29 


0.57 


Tin. 


8580 


60.3 


— 23.2 


17.0 


61.6 


2.86 


32, 62 


0.97 


Da 


85S2 


117.9 


100.7 


17.0 


12.6 


33.78 


26. 51 


0.77 


Tin and copper. 


8585 


44.6 


— 2.3 


18.0 


34.7 


31.25 


23. 72 


3.43 


Copper. 


8588 


34.5 


— 20.9 


18.0 


41.0 


27. 47 


24.92 


4.02 


Do. 


3592 


37.4 


— 17.1 


18.0 


40.4 


31.75 


19.99 


3.74 Tin. 


8597 


45.0 


— 15.9 


18.0 


45.1 


19.68 


27. 99 


2.07 Copper. 


8611 


40.2 


— 9.9 


17.6 


37.1 


18.38 


27. 85 


7. 76 Do. 


8612 


73.5 


39.8 


18.0 


25.0 


31.61 


23.67 


3.94 Tin. 


8613 ' 


93.8 


66.4 


18.0 


10.3 


27.17 


27.78 


3.83 f Do. 


8614 


62.0 


36.3 


18.0 


19.0 


30.03 


29. 86 


3. 83 Copper. 


8615 


37.4 


— 12.3 


17.0 


36.8 


20.00 


29. 1 1 


5. 13 Tin and copper. 


8616 


34.6 


33.7 


17.2 




5. 15 


31.06 


0.20 


Not examined. 


8617 


123.2 
109.7 


108.5 


17. 


;".■;""." 


34. 62 


24. 23 


2.96 


Copper. 

Tin and copper. 


8618 


90.0 


17.0 


14.5 


33.11 


22. 02 


2.67 


8645 


60.6 


— 17.6 


22.0 


58.9 


7.94 


80. 4:: 


3.80 


Do. 


8646 


87.0 


30.6 


22.4 


42.5 


16.90 


28.80 


1.08 


Tin. 


8647 


56.6 


— 21.1 


22.4 


58.5 


7.87 


31.51 


0.37 


Tin and ocpper. 


8648 


36.8 


— 12.6 


19.2 


36.8 


34.24 


20.60 


2. 6 1 


Do. 


8649 
8650 


143.6 
37.8 


136. 


18.4 




38. 17 


21. 52 


1.00 


< 'upper. 
Do.] 


— 13.4 


21.2 




88. 1 


24.40 


24.52 


5.40 


8651 


34.6 


— 12.0 


20.8 


34.9 


36. 2;; 


20. 03 




Tin. 


8652 


87.1 


51.0 


20.8 


27.0 


26. 18 


20.92 




Do. 


8653 


38.2 


_ 16.4 


20.8 


40.8 


31.25 




4 33 


Copper. 


8654 


149.6 


138.8 


22.4 


8.1 


39.2] 


16. 15 


1.18 


Tin. 


8655 


137.8 


125. 6 


20. 2 


8.8 


31.01 




1.59 


Do. 


8656 


40.0 


_ 14.1 


21.0 


40.6 




22. 91 




Neither. 


8657 


37.6 


_ 13.0 


21.0 


38.0 


31.85 




6.65 Copper. 


8658 


40. 5 


_. 14.8 


19.8 


41.2 


18.18 




9.29 Do. 


8659 


76.3 






51.0 


10.55 


B1.91 


0.85 Tin. 


8060 






21.4 


21. 6 




21.08 


1 lopper. 


8661 


6L7 


_ 22.2 


B0. 2 




3.11 




10 Neither. 


6962 

8663 


143.0 
40.0 


184.2 






11 . 16 


L9. !»: 


Tin. 


14. a 




40.0 








Do 






_ 21.4 




66.4 












39.9 


142 


19.0 






• 




md ooppei 






16.0 












ter. 


8668 


23. 2 


— 21.2 


20.8 










Tin and eoppi 1 


8009 


66 fl 


M 2 


19. 2 


37.7 








Neither. 








L9.0 


8.2 






L76 


Do 


8671 


109. 2 




28.0 




86. 7" 




1.91 


Tin. 






_ 14.0 


20.0 


39.0 


BL n 


1-. 41 




1 !opp< 


hct:: 


u.»; 


— 10.4 


18.2 








8 on 




-.-,:i 


1 1 2 




L9.0 










Tie. 


B675 


M - 


6.4 


19 










Da 


8676 


r>9. i 

77.9 


10. 6 












Noi examined. 


L8.0 




' 






in.. 










3808— No. 13- 



710 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



REMARKS ON ANALYSES OF MOLASSES AND SIRUPS. 

The general remarks which have been made concerning the purchase 
of samples in the case of sugars apply also to the molasses and sirups. 
The importance of the examination, however, in the case of molasses 
and sirups is much greater than with sugars. While it was expected 
that no adulteration would be found with sugars, it was known that 
adulteration is largely practiced in the case of molasses ; that is, adul- 
teration is practiced if the idea of molasses which is generally enter- 
tained is a correct one. 

The common notion of molasses or sirup is a product derived wholly 
from sorghum, sugar cane, or maple sap. The popular idea of an adul- 
terated molasses or sirup would be one made from other materials or 
compounds than those mentioned. It is true that the word molasses/ 
in a more limited and technical sense, should be applied only to the 
liquid material draining from granulated cane sugar made from sugar 
cane, either by natural percolation or by being treated in centrifugal 
machines. The commercial term molasses, however, applies to a larger 
number of products. It includes the molasses made from sorghum, and 
this is no mean product when the whole country is considered. It is dif- 
ficult to get accurate estimates of the amount of sorghum molasses made. 
This product is made chiefly in small one-horse or two-horse mills, with 
simple evaporating apparatus, and no account of it is taken in commer- 
cial transactions. The farmer makes his own molasses from his small 
plot of sorghum and works up the plots of his neighbors, either on 
shares or for a certain price per gallon. The uncrystallizable portion 
of the product of maple orchards is also recognized in the trade as mo- 
lasses and known as maple molasses or maple sirup. 

Perhaps the best distinction to be made between the term molasses 
and the term sirup is this : 

Molasses is the natural product of the manufacture of sugarcane, 
sorghum, or maple sap, or any product from which a part of the sugar 
has been removed. Sirup is the product of the refining of these articles 
or the, mixing of various other articles together. 

It has long been known that a large part of the maple sirup sold 
in the market is made from glucose, understanding by this term the 
Liquid product of the conversion of starch into sugar. It is also well 
known that large quantities of maple sirups are sold on the market 
which are fabrications made up of other sweets, to which a little maple 
molasses is added for the purpose of giving it flavor, or, as is often the 
ease, being entirely tree from any addition of maple product whatever. 
The maple flavor is imparted to sirups by mixing with them an extract 
of hickory bark, and this product has been made and sold under the 
term of " mapleine." It is sate to say that perhaps t he greater quantity 
Of maple molasses or sirup sold on the market is an adulteration in the 
true sense of the word. These definitions, however, are only of a pop- 
ular nature, and a sirup could not bo said to be adulterated, legally, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 711 

unless some statute is enacted establishing a standard by which these 
products could be judged. 

For the purposes of this report a molasses or sirup is adulterated 
whenever it contains glucose or any other substance which would not 
be a natural product of sorghum, sugar cane, or the maple tree. Mo- 
lasses or sirups which are made exclusively of the products of sorghum, 
sugar cane, and maple sap can not be said to be adulterated in the 
strict sense of the term, no matter what the method of their prepara- 
tion may be. 

The sugar beet, as is noticed, is excluded from the above list because, 
in so far as I know, no table sirups of any kind are ever made from the 
product of the beet. On the other hand, a sirup made from a refined 
beet sugar could not properly be said to be adulterated. Sirups made 
from unrefined beet sugar, however, or the molasses resulting from the 
manufacture of beet sugar, would contain so large a quantity of alka- 
line materials as to be unfit for the table or for culinary purposes. 

It has already been noticed under the head of sugars that a certain 
brand of sugar placed upon the market, viz, "yellow clarified," is 
washed in the centrifugal machine with a solution of chloride of tin. 
This tin would naturally find its way into the molasses, and being of a 
poisonous nature, its presence in the molasses in any large quantity 
would be highly objectionable. Molasses, therefore, which is the natural 
product of the sugar cane, but which contains tin as a result of washing 
the crystals in the centrifugal with that substance, should be con- 
sidered adulterated. In looking for tin in a number of instances copper 
also was found in the molasses. This copper doubtless comes from the 
copper pans and copper coils used in evaporating the juices and sirups. 
Its presence being merely accidental it could not be considered as an 
adulteration. Copper salts are, however, not palatable, and their pres- 
ence in a molasses or sirup is highly objectionable. 

In regard to glucose it may be said that its presence in mola88es 01 
sirup is an adulteration unless the article containing it is distinctly so 

marked. A few years ago, when sugars and molasses were higher 

priced than they are now, the manufacture of sirups from glucose was 

very profitable. The juice of genuine molasses, however, has at the 
present day fallen so low as to make the manufacture «>f glucose for the 
above purpose mucfa less profitable than before. The advantage of 
using glucose, nevertheless, is very great aside from its cheapness. It 

gives to a sirup a line body and a light color. A molasses or sirup, there 
fore, made chiefly of glucose and flavored with the refuse molaSSCS Of 

a re liner v, makes a very attractive article for table use, in so Ear as ap- 
pearance goes. In regard to wholesomencss also it is not possible to 

condemn glucose. When properly made it is apparently as wholesome 
an article of diet as cane sugar. In fact the starches which are oon 
Burned in our foods are all converted into glucose during the process of 
digestion. A glucose food, therefore, Is a Btaroh food already partially 



712 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

digested. The use of acids in converting the starch into glucose would 
prove detrimental to health unless they were carefully removed. Glu- 
coses are, therefore, often made with ferments for the purpose of con- 
verting the starch into sugar rather than by the use of acids. Diastase 
is sometimes used for this purpose and other ferments are also employed. 
At the present time the use of glucose in the manufacture of molasses 
and sirups can not be said to be a fraud, from a financial point of view, 
inasmuch as the glucose costs quite as much as the other materials of 
which the molasses and sirups are made. 

By glancing at the tables of analyses it is easy to pick out all those 
samples of molasses which contain glucose. They are recognized at 
once by their high right-handed polarization, both before and after in- 
version. They are also distinguished by the comparatively low quan- 
tity of sucrose which they contain. 

In regard to the adulteration of maple sirup, large quantities of the 
sophisticated article have been sold, both under the name of maple 
sirup and mapleine. This product is manufactured under a patent is- 
sued to Josiah Daily, of Madison, Ind., dated July 18, 1882, and reissued 
February 13, 1883. This process is best described in the words of the 
patent itself, which follow : 

To all wham it man concern : 

Be it known that I, Josiah Daily, of Madison, in the county of Jefferson and State 
of Indiana, have invented a new and useful method of flavoring sirups and sugars 
and other saccharine matter, of which the following is a full, clear, and exact specifi- 
cation : 

The object of my invention is to impart to saccharine matter tin' tlavor of maple 
sirup ; and the invention consists iu the use of an extract of hickory for giving the 
desired flavor. 

The extract is to be obtained in any convenient manner, such as making a decoc- 
tion of the hickory bark or wood, or percolating liquid through the same, or drawing 

off the sap from the tree. The bark or wood of the hickory tree may be ground to 
facilitate t he extraction of its principle and the extract may be made more or less 
strong by increasing <»r diminishing the quantity of bark or wood, or by boiling the 
extract for a longer or shorter time. 

In preparing sirups I ordinarily add about three tablespoonfuls of the decoction to 
a gallon of heated or boiling sirup. Of course, the stronger the extract the less the 
quantity required for flavoring a given amount of sirup. The sirup may be manu- 
factured from any kind of saccharine mat ter, or mixture of 88 echar i ne mat tcr>, or the 
sirups ordinarily found in the markets may be used. The effeol of the extract or de- 
coction is to give to the sirup the tlavor of the maple, producing a sirup which can 

not he distinguished from genuine maple sirup. 

rhe higfa price of maple sirup, as well as its scarcity throughout the country, ren- 
ders this improved sirup of great val ne. since a good substitute lor maple si in p is t h ns 

produced, which comes within the reach of all. 

It Is evident that the flavored sirup maj be boiled down ami a sugar resembling 
maple sugar in taste may lx produced. 

[n defining the limits of my invention, I would state that 1 douotelaim broadly 
the use of extracts of the wood or barkol trees for flavoring sirups or sugars, as lam 

aware that a decoction made from the wood of the maple has been used for the same 

purpose. The maple, however, belongs to a different genus of tree from that of the 

link. . r\ . and it i-, well known th.it extracts of wood as a rule differ from each other 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 713 

in taste, according to the nature of the tree. I have discovered that the hickory tree 
will produce the llavor of the maple, and I therefore claim as my invention the use 
of the hickory extract wherever it may he employed to impart an agreeable llavor. 

Having thus described my invention, what I claim, and desire to secure by letters 
patent, is — 

1. The method herein described of flavoring saccharine matter, including sirup and 
sugar, which consists in treating or impregnating the same with the principle or 
extract of hickory, as specified. 

2. An improved sirup or sugar, consisting of any suitable saccharine matter fla- 
vored with an extract of hickory, substantially as described. 

Josiah Daily. 
Witnesses: 

A. G. Lyne, 
Solon C. Kemox. 

Bleaching agents. — There is a public demand which requires molasses 
and sirups exposed for sale to be of a light color. This bleaching is 
accomplished by the use of boue-black, or other agents, which will 
oxidize and destroy the coloring matters. Ajnong such agents may be 
mentioned ozone, peroxide of hydrogen, sulphurous acid, metallic sul- 
phites, and sulphuric acid, and other similar agents. The various pro- 
cesses which are offered the public for bleaching purposes, and which 
are held to be of secret composition, depend for their efficiency on some 
of the chemicals mentioned above. 

From the information which has been received, it is lair to presume 
that a great deal of the dark centrifugal molasses of Louisiana is sub- 
jected to bleaching before mixing or placing on the market. This is 
well set forth in the letter from Dr. Smiths, page 640. 

In a letter from a large dealer in molasses in Boston, dated .March 
1 1. 1892, occurs the following: 

We find it very hard work to sell our pure molasses in competition with the staff 
ih.it is shipped here by the New Orleans bleachers. The bleaching business is now 
being tried by parties in New York on foreign molasses. I can readily deteel the 
bleached from the unbleached molasses by the taste; and always after tasting the 
bleached goods 1 find the roof of my month will begin to peel. 

It is claimed by the bleachers that even if the agent used is delete 

rious to health, it is employed in such small quantities as to be practi 
rally harmless. Nevertheless such additions should be prohibited. 
We did not succeed in getting samples of the bleaching agents for 
analysis. The secret of their preparation and the method of their use 
are carefully guarded by the makers and users. Following is a list of 
the bleaching agents supposed to be most commonly used: 

(l) Sulphur fumes; (2) chloride of tin, about l ounce of a saturated 
solution to each barrel of molasses; 3 sulphites and sulphuric acid: 
.1 sulphite of soda and zinc dust, afterwards oxalic acid to precipitate 
the /inc. 

NOTES ON THE SEVERAL ANALYSES. 
iNALYSBS Bl KB. HUSTON, 

In the analysis ot N<>. 64, labeled •• Pure Vermont Maple Sirup," 

there is one remarkable fact. viz. that tin is present The analysis showfl 



714 FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

only a trace of reducing sugar. A maple sirup should have a consider- 
able quantity of reducing sugar on account of the fact that it is boiled 
in open pans for a long while, and this tends to convert some of the su- 
crose into reducing sugar. The high price charged for this sample, 
however, seems to preclude the possibility of its being an adulterated 
article. The presence of the green color in its ash is also a trouble- 
some fact. Xumbers 59, 60, and 61 are also maple sirups, but, it will 
be noticed, differ very materially in composition from No. 54. The re- 
mark made of ]STo. 60 by Mr. Huston that it was made up from maple 
sugar and glucose does not seem to be properly borne out by the data 
given. Mr. Huston, however, failed to report his polarizations, and this 
makes it difficult to judge in all cases of the nature of the product. 

No. 64 is rather a peculiar product claimed to be made from fruit and 
sugar. The sugar was evident^ invert sugar, or else the natural acids 
of the fruit had almost completely inverted the cane sugar, which might 
originally have been present in it. The small amount of ash which was 
present would show that no molasses of any kind had been added to it. 

The other samples examined by Mr. Huston are sufficiently described 
in the analytical data. 

ANALYSES BY MB. NICHOLSON. 

The samples were purchased in Lincoln and Omaha. They com- 
prised samples of maple, IS samples New Orleans, 5 samples of 
sorghum, and the rest of miscellaneous labels. No. 1700 is labeled 
" sorghum," but it could not have been a pure sorghum, on account of its 
low reducing sugar content. It is the custom of certain manufacturers 
to mix sorghum largely with glucose and sell the product as sorghum 
or under some other name. In this case, however, such a mixture 
could not have been made since the polarization before and alter inver- 
sion shows that no admixture of glucose, which is always strongly dex 
trogyratory could have been practiced. The analytical data point to an 
admixture of sugar; but such a compounding would not be practical for 
commercial purposes. The nature of this sample, therefore, L8 unde- 
termined by the analysis, 

The number of samples containing glucose is 35 or 70 percent of the 

total number examined. The glucose used in most instances consisted 
largely of dextrin, as is shown by the high polarization. 

Take for instance No. 17-1, labeled golden drip. This sirup is made 
almost wholly Of a glucose exceedingly rich in dextrin. Nos. 1711, L712, 
1.720, 1731, 17.'5:;, 1738, 1842, and 1746, SOld as New Orleans molasses, 

arc all largely adulterated with glucose. 

or the maple simp, No. 1710 contains no maple 1 nod net, except a lit- 
tle for flavoring purposes. It is made of a glucose rich in dextrose. Nos. 

171:;, L751, 17.~>l', L763, and L764, are almost pure glucose, although 

sold as high-grade maple sirups. 

In No. L746 the analytical data are of little worth on account of the 

impossibility of securing a sufficient clarification to permit of the polar- 

ISCOpiC leading. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 715 

In No. 1750 is found almost pure glucose, sold as sorghum. 
In the whole series of analyses the reducing sugars appear remark- 
ably low. 

ANALYSES BY MR. RISING. 

The samples were purchased in Oakland and San Francisco. Of the 
total number 11 contained glucose or 22 per cent. Fifteen of the sam- 
ples were labeled " New Orleans molasses." There were no samples of 
maple sirup. 

Of the 15 samples of New Orleans molasses 7 are largely adulterated 
with glucose. No. 5G, labeled extra New Orleans clarified, contains 
about 50 per cent of glucose. 

No. 43, labeled golden sirup, California refinery, shows an anomalous 
composition. It contains of reducing sugar, sucrose, water, and ash 
only 57.45 per cent, leaving 42.55 per cent unaccounted for. 

No. 4(>, on the other hand, has 103. G7 per cent of the above constitu- 
ents showing a peculiar composition. On account of the disturbing in- 
fluence of other bodies present on the rotation produced by the su- 
crose of the samples the data afforded by the polariscope are not al- 
ways indicative of the exact quantity of sucrose present. In molasses 
and sirup it can not be expected that the sum of the other constituents 
-f the sucrose by polarization shall equal 100. It is only where there 
is a considerable variation, amounting to from 3 to 5 per cent that we are 
justified in suspecting the addition of some adulterating substance like 
glucose or invert sugar. 

No. 63 shows an abnormal percentage of ash and yet is a sample not 
highly colored and gives no indication of adulteration. The consump- 
tion of large quantities of such a sirup, however, might prove preju- 
dicial to health by reason of the introduction into the stomach of such 
large quantities of mineral matters. 

Nos. 80 and 120 are other samples where a large deficit of solid mat- 
ter is noticed. 

AN \L\ BBS BY M. \. SOOVBLL. 

Of the whole number of samples examined 19 or 38 per cent were 

adulterated with glucose. Fifteen of the samples were labeled " New 
Orleans." None of these were adulterated with glucose but 7 of them 
contained tin. 

No. 41, labeled u New Orleans reboilod,'' shows an almost perfect in- 

\ersion of the sucrose either by reboilingor by subsequent ferments 

tion. It gives a left-handed solution in direct polarization. 

There are 10 samples of maple sirup. ( >f these 7 arc adulterated * itb 
glucose. 
Five of the samples are marked sorghum. Of t hese 3 arc adulterated 

with glucose. 
Eighteen of the samples contained tin and one copper. 



716 FOODS AND FOOL) ADULTERANTS. 

Iii all samples containing glucose, its presence is revealed by the high 
right-handed polarization and by the large quantity of undetermined mat- 
ter. Glucose has a low factor for the sugars which reduce copper — and 
nevertheless all reducing sugars are entered as dextrose in the tables. 
There arises, therefore, a large deficit in total solids when this method 
of calculation is pursued. 

ANALYSES BY S. P. SIIARPLES. 

Of the whole number of samples only 8 contained glucose or 1(3 per 
cent. This freedom from glucose is doubtless due to the careful food- 
inspection laws of Massachusetts, the samples having been all bought 
in Boston and vicinity. 

The number of samples labeled New Orleans is 12. 

Of the 18 samples of maple sirup ouly 2 were adulterated with glucose. 

Tin was found in only 7 of the samples. 

The greater number of the samples appear to be made up of sirups 
and molasses without adulteration, or else to be made from cane sugar 
in such a way as to closely resemble the legitimate products. 

NOTE BY Mr. SHAKPLBS. — This is a very poor time of year (January, 1891) to gel 
molasses other than New Orleans, as the maple is all last year's and largely made by 
dissolving maple sugar. The new crop West India molasses has not come into the 
market yet. New maple and West India will commence to come in in the course of 
a week or two, now. At present the market is supplied largely from New York. 

ANALYSES BY W. C. STTJBBS. 

It might be supposed that in New Orleans the practice of adding 
glucose to molasses would not be followed. The results of the analyses, 
however, show that this species of adulteration is more largely prac- 
ticed there than in Boston. Sixteen samples were found mixed with 
glucose, or 32 per cent. No examination of the samples was made for 
tin. 

Three kinds of molasses made from sugar cane are sold on the New 
Oilcans market. The first of these is the open kettle sugar molasses, 
usually of tine color and flavor and rich in sugar. The quantity of this 
molasses offered <>n the market diminishes from year to year as the more 
modern methods of manufacture BUpplant those heretofore in use. The 
second and rapidly increasing kind is Centrifugal molasses. This prod- 
uct is much inferior in quality to the open-kettle molasses, and 
when two crops of sugar haye been taken from it is little better than 

"black strap."' It is largely used for mixing with glucose. There may 

be found a very limited supply of a kind of molasses known as strop de 
Ixtttrric, made 1>\ boiling the clarified juice almost to the crystallizing 

point. This kind of molasses is esteemed as a delicacy. It. should be 

made from rather green Or inferior canes, SO thai the sugar it contains 
will not crystallize. Several samples Of thifl kind Of molasses may be 
found in the table of anal\ 868. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AXD HONEY. 717 

The sugar plantations in Louisiana usually have a special name, and 
the sirups and sugars eomiug therefrom bear the name of the planta- 
tion. The names of many of these plantations will be found in the 
description of samples. 

ANALYSES BY SHIPPEN WALLACE. 

A general description of the samples will be found in Mr. Wallace's 
letter of transmittal. It is a matter of regret that a fuller description 
of the samples was not furnished. The failure to detect tin in any of 
the samples suggests the remark that much depends on the delicacy of 
the tests applied. In the samples, for instance, examined in the De- 
partment laboratory, a trace of copper or tin was found in almost every 
instance, but in such minute quantities as to have easily escaped any 
quantitative determinations. 

Of the whole number 31 were adulterated with glucose, being 62 per 
cent. 

No samples of maple molasses were purchased. In the number of 
adulterated samples the contrast between Boston and Philadelphia is 
quite striking. 

ANALYSES BY H. A. WEBER. 

Of the whole number of samples 23 contained glucose. These are 
indicated in the table of analyses by the percentage of dextrin which 
they contain. No molasses made from sugar cane would contain more 
than a trace of dextrin. 

There are 15 samples of New Orleans molasses, only 4 of which are 
adulterated with glucose. 

In 15 samples of maple sirup are found 4 adulterated with glucose. 

Twenty-six of the samples were found to contain tin, and in most 
cases a quantitative determination of it was made. The detection of 
small quantities of metallic oxides in the ash of molasses i>.\ Mr. Weber 
quite corroborates our own experience. 

ANAI.\ BBS B1 P. Gh w UK II MANN. 

Of the 50 samples of molasses and sirups analyzed, L'O consist of or 
unquestionably contain starch sirup (glucose), viz. Nob. 63, 5 I. 55, 56, 58, 
59, 61, 62, 66, 69, 71, 77, 78, 79, 82, 86, 88, 92, 99, and LOO; thai is to 
sny, 40 per cent of the samples analyzed are adulterated with glucose. 

Tin was found in L8of the 50 samples j in Nos. 52, 56, 57, 58, 61, 64, 
12, 75, 78, 80, 84, 85, 86, 89, 92, 96, 99, and LOO. Tins correspond* 
;»o* per cent. 

Samples Nbs. 51, 69, 75, 96, and !>7 give a purple-red color on addi« 
tion of concent rated hydrochloric acid. This color is turned into a green 
on adding ammonia to alkalinity . 

With basic acetate of lead the precipitate obtained is of Q " Nile 

green" color. 



718 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Press of work lias prevented my isolating ami positively identifying 
this coloring matter or matters. 

Charles B. ( 'assal, in a paper on "Dyed sugars," read before the So- 
ciety of Public Analysts in July, 1890,* states that certain sugars ex- 
amined by hiin were dyed with tropoeolin dyes — phosphineorchrysani- 
liue. As the reactions with acid and alkalis which he there describes 
are identical with those which I obtained in the samples enumerated 
above, it seems most probable that these samples also have been 
treated with these dyestufifs, or that at least the sugars from which 
they are derived received such treatment. 

Twenty-four of the samples were sold as "New Orleans molasses." 
Of this number 16, or GO. 7 per cent, were adulterated with glucose. 
This shows the enormous extent to which mixing is practiced. One 
barrel of genuine open-kettle molasses may be made to do duty as 5 or 
G barrels of best New Orleans sirup. 

ANALYSES BY CHEMICAL DIVISION, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL- 
TURE. 

Low-grade bulk molasses and sirups comprised most of the samples 
bought, bat a lew maple and other bottled sirups were procured. 
Polarizations were made as indicated under sugars. Boneblack was of 
necessity occasionally used, especially with invert solutions. A small 
pinch of the moist black was placed in the point of a small filter and 
about 50 per cent of the filtered solutions poured through in small por- 
tions and then thrown away. The residue was then passed through. 
This second filtrate was then used for polarization. Glucose was de- 
termined by titration, using Yiolette's solution. 

To determine water a flat platinum dish, containing a little glass 
Btirring rod, was tared, a portion oi* the molasses weighed in, and 

'J or 3 CC of alcohol added and rubbed up to a paste with it. About 

i gram of acid- washed ignited kieselguhr was then weighed in from 
a weighing bottle, and the whole put) to dry in a steam-heated bath, 
kept at a temperature of LOO for three hours, then into an air bath 
heated to 105 till constant weight was attained. 

Ash was determined in another portion, using a porcelain crucible. 
Por the detection of hea\\ metals about 50 grams of molasses were 
placed in B porcelain crucible, covered with sulphuric acid, and burned 

to whiteness in a muffle. The ash was dissolved in hot hydrochloric 

acid, the solution diluted, filtered, and hydrogen sulphide passed 
t hrOUgb. A ny precipitate formed was collected on a paper filter, which 
was dried and burned in a porcelain crucible. The ash was fused with 
DOtaSSic c\ anide, the melt robbed up in an agate mortar, and examined 
with a lens for imlicat ions of metals. Such beads as were found were 

extremely minute. 



•The Amilysi. Yd. 15, p. Ml, 1890. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 719 

Thirty-two of the samples contained traces of tin, 19 traces of cop- 
per, and 3 were not tested for these metals. In most cases only a small 
quantity of the metals was found ; not enough to threaten the health 
of the consumer. 

Many of the samples contained large quantities of ash, in one instance 
reaching 9.20 per cent for the sulphated ash. 

Twenty-five samples of sirup were bought in Washington and 32 in 
Baltimore. Of these, 14 of the Washington samples (Xos. 8500, 8561, 
8502, 8568, 8569, 8575, 8582, 8585, 8612, 8613, SGU y 8016, 8617, and 8618) 
gave evidence of the presence of commercial glucose or starch sugar. 
Of -the 32 Baltimore samples, 13 contained glucose (Xos. 8646, 8649, 
8652, 8654, 8655, 8659, 8660, 8662, 8667, 8670, 8671, 8675, and 8677.) 
Of the 57 samples examined, 27, or 47.3 per cent, showed the presence 
of glucose. 

Eleven of these samples were sold as maple sirups (Xos. 8572, 8573, 
8579, 8580, 8645, 8646, 8647, 8559, 8665, 8667, and 8077). Four showed 
evidence of glucose (Xos. 8040, 8050, 8059, and 8007). Nine samples 
were sold as Xew Orleans molasses or sirup (Xos. 8501, 857G, 8588. 
8597, 8013, 8018, 8053, 8050, and 8G58). Three of these (Xos. 85G1, 
8013, and 8018) had been let down with starch sirup. Two samples 
were sold as Porto Kico (Xos. 8500 and 8014); both contained glucose. 
Two samples (Xos. 8015 and 8008) were sold as " black strap." Neither 
contained glucose. A sample called " vanilla sirup " (No. 8502), 1 of 
^Golden Eagle" (Xo. 8545), 1 of "honey sirup" (No. S5G9), 1 of 
" crystal sirup " (Xo. 8G17), and 1 of " strawberry sirup" (No. 8010) 
were found to contain glucose. Seven samples called " golden drips" 
and " golden sirup" (Xos. 85GG, S508, 8585, 8592, 8648, si; ID, and 8657) 
were tried and 3 (Xos. 8568, 8585, and 8649) were found to contain glu- 
cose. Two samples of "bright simp n (Xos, 8611 and 8612) both con- 
tained glucose. A sample called "sugar-house sirup" (No. 8672) con- 
tained no starch sugar. Two samples (Nos. 8650 and 8671 were Called 
u 8econd-grade Sirup." One (Xo. 8671) contained starch sirup. A 
sample of " best sirup n [ No. 8651) contained none. A sample called 
"No. 3 sirup" (No. 8655), 1 called « No. 6 sirup" (No. 8654), 1 put up 
in a fancy bottle and called "queen sirup" (Xo. 8660), and b sample 
called "corn sirup' 1 (No. 8662) consisted almost entirely of starch sirup. 
A sample of " No. i sirup" (Xo. 8675) contained a slight admixture, 
Two samples of " rock-candy sirup" (Nos. 8661 and 8676) were free 

from starch sugar. Three samples of " sugar sirup n (Nofl 

and 8674) were free from admixture. One sample (No. 8582), contain- 
ing starch sugar, was called '-sugar sirup," and another (No. 8570), 

likewise containing glucose, was called "sugar drips." Two samples 
[Nos. 8652 and 8666) were called simply sirups, one of whicb No. ft 

contained glucose. "Revere sirup n (No. 8669) contained no starch 
sugar. 



CONFECTIONS. 



ANALYSES BY H. A.HUSTON. 

Description of .samples. 



Bought of— 

Unas. H. Slack 
Chicago, 111. 

...do 

...do 

...do 

...do 

J.s. Bwry&Co. 

I. a Payette. 

...do 

...do 

.. do 

.. do 

Fred. Iletz, In- 

dianapolia 
Daggett A Co., 

Indianapolis. 
...do 

Fred. II. 1/ I,, 

dianapolia 
Carter, Iiidiao 
spolia 

.. .1.. 

C R, Wyaomg. 

Indian 

apolia 
< fralg, [ndianap 

.. do 

. do 

Mi 

irell I 
diaoapolia. 

.. -I., 

.1.. ... 
. do .. 
. do 



720 



Price 

per 

pound. 



Manufacturer. 



$0.15 Chas. H. Slack. 



.15 

.15 

.15 

.15 

(*) 

. 125 



(') 



(*) 



125 



....do 
...do 



....do 
... do 



Remarks. 



Contains ultrama- 
rine. 



Iu sticks of differ- 
ent colors. 

This grade candy 
is usually made 
by re boiling 
stair candy. 

Sample dry and 
stale ; insoluble 
matter mostly 
starch and dour. 

Sample dry an d 

stale. 



Name. 



Color. 



Lime drops . . . Light greenish. 



Iceland moss . 
Ribbon candy. 

White candy.. 
Red candy . . 
Boston bean ! 

blowers. 
Horehound . . . 



Marshmallow 
.jolly roll. 



Light red. 
Green and red 

None. 

Reddish, brown. 

Brown yellow. 

Brown. 



Tellow. 



Fred. Beta. ... 
Daggi 

. do 

Fred Beta 

Carter 



• ; i; Wyeong 

A ( o. 

Craig 

...do 






Marshmallow 

banana. 
Broken tally.. 
Batter cups.. . 

Derbj candy. 

Creams 

CheiTj creams 

Pepper m i d t 
oreama 

Clear candy . . . 
Superior mix . 



. . .00 ■ 

m m .\ Co . . Offensive odor . . 



Pistachu 



lps 



.80 ....do 

' I 



. 20 

Hi 



Contains ultra 
marine. 



Raspberry 

dips. 

Violet dips . . 
Machine oats 



Con venation 

Dgea 
stick candy. . 



Pink. 

Tiiik yellow. 
Bed yellow. 

Pink and yellow, 

blue red. 
White, violet, 

pink 
White, 

Do. 

Transparent 
Pink, yellow, 
broil ii red. 

Pale u'reen. 

Tink. 

Violet. 

Red and yellow. 



Pink, yellow, sal. 



mon, 
Bed. 



rhice. 



Mmt lozenges , White. 
m ask lozenges Pink. 
Bine i a R I i Blue, 
sand. 



* Penny goode. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
Analytical data. 



721 



Polarization. 

; " Dfflft.' Su " Bedneblg w a ter Ash 

T , , In- J'ton crose. sugars. waier - ^ sn - 
Direct - direct. tur6 ° a : 



No. 



151 
152 
153 

151 
155 
156 
157 
158 
159 
160 
161 
162 
163 
164 
165 
166 
167 
168 
169 
170 
171 
172 
173 
174 
175 
176 



Per ct. Per cent. 

80.11 19.13 

87. 40 10. 25 

84. 61 13. 84 



81.46 


13.60 


81.06 


16.23 


93.24 


6.91 


80.91 


14.33 


11.94 


20.31 


68.10 


12.44 


77.98 


17.38 


74.04 


19.94 


79.75 


18.28 


75.52 


17.08 


82.33 


8.88 


92.20 


Trace. 


88.58 


10.52 


80.44 


11.54 


90.68 


2.54 


91.97 


0.83 


85.76 


3.97 


88.56 


10.52 


80.14 


8.69 


68.79 


26. 49 


44.49 


13.68 


8.34 


44.23 


92.10 


00.00 



Water. 


Ash. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


0.32 


0.04 ; 


0.45 


0.10 


0.60 

■ 


0.14 


0.64 


0.31 


0.53 


0.38 


0.14 


0. 11 


0.84 


0.66 


2.11 


2.44 


3.64 


0.28 


2.44 


0.25 


4.22 


0.21 


0.47 


0.12 


8.06 


0.35 


5.11 


Trace. 


8.08 


0.02 


0.05 


0.04 


6.03 


0.01 


7.11 


0.21 


6.62 


0.13 


10.28 


0.07 


1.93 


0.04 


0.08 


0.03 


0.18 


1.64 


0.84 


1.44 


0. 49 


2.10 


0.04 


6.99 



Insoluble in I Coloring 
cold water. matter. 



Per cent. 
0.11 
0.14 
0.33 

2.34 
1.20 
0.98 
2.10 
44.84 
16.29 
0.46 
0.59 

Trace. 

Trace. 
2.00 

Trace. 

Trace. 

Trace. 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
0.00 
12.4 4 
2.38 
21.44 

84, 40 

7.44 



Organic. 

Do. 
Mineral and 

organic. 
Organic. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
None. 

Do. 

Do. 
Organic. 

Do. 

Do. 

I),.. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Mineral 



AN LLYSES MY II. II. NICHOLSON 
Description of samples. 



Bought of— 



Manufacturer. 



Label. 



J. J. Miller, Omaha Stick Candy. 

do Book <andy. 

Omaha Do 

ili) If nak Candy. 

Anaerson a Co.,Beatrioe Cream Drop* (pink). 

William Fleming A l Vanilla Di 

do 

H. Bohonberger, Omaha a White Candy. 

Beynoldi A Grant, Omaha 6 Gum Dro 

do i;.d( *ndy 

do 

1». A Williams, Lincoln Jellj Bet 

10. B. Jenkins, Lincoln Straw k* 

<i Nothing coulil lie done w i 1 1 1 sample. 

bGum ooated with so .'t>. 

► it . no Lnreraion possible. 



2-2 



FOODS ami FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Description of samples— Continued. 



No. 


Bought of— 


Manufacturer. 


Label. 


1819 






A pricot Slices. 
Red Jelly Beans. 
Green Jelly Beans. 
Bed Wintergreen Drops. 
Dewdrops, orange flavor. 


1820 






1821 




1822 




1823 




18 9 4 


do 


1825 




F. P. Folsom 


Stock Candy. 


182G 


do 

do 


do 


1827 


do 


Royal Wintergreen. 


1828 


do6 

do 

do 


do 


1829 


do 


Tropic Fruit (green). 
Tropic Fruit (redh 


1830 


do 







a Gum coated with sugar; no results. 
b Nothing could he done with sample. 

Analytical data. 





Polarization. 


Tem- 
pera- 
ture^. 














No. 






Su- 
crose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Water. 


ash. 


Insoluble in 

cold water. 


Coloring 

matter. 


Direct. 


In- 
direct. 










Per ct. 


Per cent. 


Per ct. 


Per ct. 


/ \ r cent. 




1806 


10.4 


— 4.3 


11 


10.6 


9.56 


2.33 


0.62 


No residue.. 


Organic. 


1807 


12.9 


19.4 


14 




7.54 


8.12 


0,14 


.. do 


Do. 


1808 


HM.7 


-38.4 


13 


101. 9 


Traces. 


8.06 


0.10 


... do 


Do. 


1809 


111.8 


— 5.8 


18 


85.4 


6.16 


1.25 


0.16 


Starch and 
gum. 


Do. 


1810 


111.6 


— 4.8 


14.5 


8.1. 1 


5.76 


3.38 


0.19 


... do 


Do. 


1811 


111.9 


- 7.5 


14 


87.2 


5.79 


1.56 


0.J4 


N<> residue 


Da 


1812 


101.4 


—11.3 


12.5 


81.8 


5.81 


8.55 


0. 15 


March 


Do. 


1813 
1814 


107.0 










8.37 
22.78 


0.48 


....do 

Starch and 
gam. 


Do. 
Do. 




















181.1 


119.1 




13 


7.1. 1 


11.50 




0.27 


lidae 


Do. 


1816 


84.6 










1.06 


1.07 


. do 


Do. 


1817 


111.1 


1.6 


12 


81.8 


7.62 


2.01 


0.14 


....do 


i and 

thiol. 


1818 


104.8 


- 0.5 


16 


81. i 


.1. 73 


12.70 


0.20 


do 


inc. 


1819 
















Starch and 
gum. 


Do. 














102.0 


18.1 


11 






7. 62 


0. 11 


Starch 


Do. 








11 


.1 t 


8. if. 


4.76 


(i BO 


do 


D... 




101.. 1 




12 




1 1 . 42 


::..M 


0. 11 


ildue 


Do. 




74.9 




12 




7 00 


6 4'J 




....do 


Do. 




80.1 




II 




14.70 


10.78 


0. l.i 


-lo 


Do. 






7.0 


M 




H. 00 






.. do 


lo and 
thiol. 




KH.4 


87. i 


18 


L00 




0. 7.1 


0.14 


...do 


< Organic 






7.:: 


i:i 


67. 7 




it H 


0.17 


Match 


Do. 












8 22 


i 




.. do • 


Do. 








11 




10.82 


8.28 




...do 


D... 










76.7 


LI. 42 


6.04 


o. 19 


\u residue 






SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

ANALYSES BY W. B. RISING. 

Description of samples. 



723 



No. 



108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
186 
187 
188 
189 
190 



Label. 



Where bought. 



Broken, mixed ! Bruning Bros., 7th and Washington, Oakland. 

Peppermint Drops Pacific Candy Factory, Oakland 

Stick candy W. Bractle, 970 Washington street, Oakland.. 

Wintergreen Drops do 

Gum Drops Anderson & Co., 467 7th street, Oakland 

Flat stick Pacific Candy Factory, Oakland 

Broken, mixed Staudeford 6c Co., 458 7th street, Oakland 

do Anderson 6c Co., 467 7th street, Oakland 

Stick Standeford 6c Co., 7th street, Oakland 

Chips | Bruning Bros., 7th street, Oakland 

Molasses Bacon & Co., Broadway and 10th, Oakland — 

Stick i San Francisco Candy Factory, East street 

do San Francisco Candy Factory, East street — 



Jelly Beans 

Lemon Drops 

Stick molasses 

Mixed 

Marbles 

Mixed 

Lemon Drops 

Mixed 

Mixed broken 

Cliewing Candy 

Hoarhound 

Cinnamon Chewing. 



Peratta and 16th streets, Oakland 

Schaefer's, Mission, near 18th street, San FranOiscO . 

do 

J. N. Postag, 2122 Mission street, San Francisco 

do 

Jessie and 19th streets, San Francisco 

Schaefer's, Mission, near 18th street, San Francisco. 

do 

Mission and 17th streets, San Francisco 

do 



Price 

]H-r 

pound. 



$0. 25 
.25 
.20 
.20 
.10 
.20 
. 12| 
.121 
.20 
.25 
.20 
.20 
.20 
.15 
.20 
.15 
.20 
.15 
.20 
.20 
.15 
.16 
.15 
.15 
.15 



Analytical data. 



I'ol.uization. 



No. 



108 
109 

no 
111 

112 
118 

114 

115 

116 
117 
118 
177 
L78 
L79 
180 
1M 
182 
183 



Direct. Indirect. 



97.8 
107.4 
105.5 

N I 
183.0 

85.0 

83.6 
98.0 
80.4 

105.8 
00. 1 

L01. 1 

107.9 
77. 8 
95.0 

100.4 
91.2 



- 4.40 

114,80 

0.00 

81.80 

1 i | 

- 12.30 
20. 80 

l -i 

0.70 

25. 00 

1-. L8 
l.i 

- 27.94 



Tem- 
pera- 

tnre°C. 



c „„^ Beduoine 
8nOTM * sugars. 8 



39.00 
71. 90 
80.50 
86.30 
18.80 

77. 20 



7.'.. N 

76. I*' 
78.70 

78 80 
66. in 

71. 80 
87.30 



17.24 

17.20 

8. 70 

l'J.60 
8.20 
10. 10 



Water. 



11.5<> 
11. 10 
8. 00 
11.40 

:.. 10 
8. io 



I'er cent. 
7.10 
4.13 
2.71 
2.07 

2. 63 
8.5] 



A*h. 



Insoluble 
in cold Coloring matter. 
u ater. 



1. 24 

0.11 
0. L'8 

0.16 

0.16 
0. 16 
0.82 

ii. II 
n. 08 



li 80 
























0. 18 


0.84 


n. -j l 



0.90 
5.63 

3.80 

«i. in 
1.4ii 

ii. 0] 
0.21 



White, i>r<'\* n. 

While. 

Bed. 

White. 

White, nil 
Fellow, « hiie. 
Various, i > >\ . 
yellow 

Do. 

Do, 
Brow n. 

Da 
fellow. 
Bod, 
Green, 
fellow. 

V.ll 1IIIIH. 

.... 
Wl.il.-. 



724 



FOODS AKD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Atialytical data — Continued. 



Polarization. 



No. 



Tem- 

].• r.i- 
Direct. Indirect, tuiv (' 



184 
185 



187 

188 



190 



107. G 
76. 

105.5 
74.8 

102.8 
94.1 
87.3 



4.7.'{ . 

- 30. 14 . 

- 6.80 . 

- 35.14 . 
35.20 . 

- 29.70 . 
18.70 . 



Sucrose. 



Redaeing 

sugars. 



Per cent. 
75.00 
77.40 
82.00 
78.20 
49.50 
90.00 
50.40 



Per cent. 

7.94 
13.17 

7.52 
12.00 

4.52 

5.49 
19.16 



Water. 



3.48 
3.70 
3.84 
4.52 
6.12 
1.20 
5.52 



Ash. 



Per ct. 
0.20 
0.06 
0.15 
0.05 
1.28 
0.04 
0.10 



Insoluble 
in cold 

water. 



Per cent. 
0.00 
0.01 
6.64 
0.03 
7.50 
0.52 
0.58 



Coloring matter. 



Various. 
Yellow. 
Various. 

Do. 
Red. 
Brown. 
Yellow. 



Composition of insoluble residue. 



No. 


Organic portion. 


Inorganic portion. 


108 
109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
177 
178 
179 
180 
181 
182 
183 
184 
185 
],-; 
187 

188 
LOO 




Sodium chloride. 
Calcium carbonate. 


do 




... do 














do 






<; elatin 








Starch 


do 






do 


do 


do 




do 









A.NALY8ES BY M. A. 8COVELL. 



Description of rami 

Sample 151. Mini Lozenges, white ; made by John Perkins, Cincinnati, Ohio. Sold 
by Henry Hnneke & Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 1 •"-•.'. Mixed Creams, pink, red, white, and yellow ; made i>y John Perkins, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Sold by Henrj Hnneke d Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 153. Stick Candy, striped with red, not oolored <>u inside of stick ; made by 
J. \v. 1. ell, Lexington, Ky. Sold by Morris & Son, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 154, Cinnamon Stiok, solid red <>n onteide of stiok, not colored inside; made 
by J. v. . Lell, Lexington, Ky. Sold i>> ii.ih\ Vogt, Lexington, Ky, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



725 



Sample 150. Peppermint, red ; made by J. W. Lell. Sold by Henry Vogt, Lexing- 
ton, Ky. 

Sample 156. Decorated Creams, yellow, bine, pink, red, purple, brown, and wbite. 
Bought by Norris &. Son, of Thurber, Why land *fc Co., New York. 
Bought of Norris & Son, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 157. Pink Lozenges; made by G. G. Ehrman & Sous, Louisville, Ky. Sold 
by T. N. McClelland, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 158. Cinnamon Drops, red; made by Rheinhart, Newton & Co., Cincinnati. 
Sold by Norris &, Son, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 159. Peppermint Rings, red; made by G. G. Ehrman & Sons, Louisville, Ky. 
Sold by T. N. McClelland, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 160. Lemon Drops, straw color; made and sold by Beehive Candy Kitchen, 
Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 161. Lemon Drops; made by G. G. Ehrman & Sons, Louisville, Ky. Sold by 
by T. N. McClelland, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 162. Fine Candy, bright and dull greens; made by G. (•. Ehrman & Sons, 
Louisville, Ky. Sold by T. N. McClelland, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 163. P'rench Kisses, light red; made and sold by Montgomery & Bailey, 
Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 164. Verdant Squares, light green and white ; made by Hall, Hay ward & Co., 
Louisville, Ky. Sold by Hall, Hay ward & Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 165. Clove Drops, white, with red center : made and sold by Montgomery 
&. Bailey, Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 166. White Creams; made by Hawley & Hoopes, New York. Sold by Mont- 
gomery & Bailey, Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 167. Plain mixed, red, yellow, pink, white, straw color: made and sold 
by Hall, Hayward & Co., Louisville. Ky. 

Sample 168. Light-pink Creams ; made by Hawley A- Hoopes, New York. Sold by 
Montgomery & Bailey, Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 169. Dull-yellow Creams; made by Hawley & Hoopes. New York. Sold by 
Montgomery & Bailey, Louisville. Ky. 

Sample l?(i. (Jem Mixed, white, red-printed ; made and sold by Hall, Hayward & 
Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 171. Mixed Creams, purple, red and straw color, and pink: made and sold by 
Hall, Hayward & Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 172. Gem Creams, white; made and sold by Ball, Hayward A Co., Louis- 
ville, Ky. 

Sample 173. Maple Caramels; made and sold by Beehive Candy Kitchen, Lexing- 
ton, K j . 

Sample 17 1. Strawberry Creams; made by Hawley d Hoopes, New York, and sold by 
Montgomery & Bailey, Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 17.~>. fellow Creams; made by Hawley A. Hoopes, Sem York, and sold i>y 
Montgomery A Bailey, Louisville, Ky. 

Analytical data. 





Polarization. 


T< in 


Buoroae 


Reducing 


Water. 




[naolnble 
in cold 


( !oloi ii 

i.i. 

nie. 
Do, 

Da 


No. 


Direct Indirect- 


rare 

c. 

25. 5 

26 'J 

26. o 

•_'.".. ii 
24.5 


151 
152 
153 
164 

155 


ion. 1 2.0 

1.8 

106. i 1. 5 

Hi7. 1 I. ii 

112. fl 


1 

80.21 


6 N 

10. 7(1 

11. HI 


1 

2. 66 

ii |0 


ii. 11 

- 

0.23 


1 

0.91 







LSSOS—So. 13- 



726 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Analytical data— Continued. 



\,.. 



Polarization. 



Direct Indirect 



156 106.4 

i 

llc.4 



- 

i ;.•.» 
loo 

16] 
162 
163 
161 
165 
166 
167 
168 

ITd 
171 

172 
17.; 
17> 
175 



7:;. -j 

91.0 

80.8 

110.4 

100.8 

K>7.4 
111. 1 
106.4 
106.0 
100.0 



101.0 


91.2 


104.6 


107.0 



1.6 

29. •"> 
29. 3 

0. 7 

11.9 

29. 

15.8 

15 2 

8 6 

o.2 

4.5 

7. o 

- 

5. it 
4.0 
1.7 
1.5 

0.8 

12.1 
2.7 



Tem- 
pera- 
tmv 



Sucroee. R ^± 8 w **» r - 
Bugars. 



[oaolable \r* •> • 
Ash. hi cold Coloring- nial 
water. 



25.0 
21.0 
24. 2 
25.2 



Per cent. 
85. 51 
.-7. 65 

84. 28 
83.37 

82. 17 
78.47 

re. 42 

77.71 
83.31 

77. 1G 
79. 51 
77.43 

75. 9G 

76. 7:; 

77. 13 
GO. CG 
82. 35 
77.81 



Per cent. 
9. 09 
10.42 
10.53 

8.20 
11.75 
22. 22 
13.16 
11.36 
11.49 

9. 43 

8.G9 
iO.OO 

9.80 

- ■' 
G. 25 
10.10 

9.80 
11.60 
7.14 
9.60 



/'. r 



cent. 

4.42 

1. 72 
1.48 

3.9:5 
0.39 
3.15 
2.64 

2.71 

2. 88 
4.00 
2.50 
2.89 
2.41 
2.7o 
3.49 

:s. or, 

2. 56 
::. 85 
0.94 
2. 56 



Per 

0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 
0. 

(I. 

0. 
0. 
0. 






ANALYSIS BY s. p. SHARPLES, 
Description of sample. 



o.io 



12.40 



13.57 



Organic. 
) 

( mimical. 

Eosin. 

Cochineal. 

None. 

Do. 
Organic. 
Cochineal. 
< >i ganio. 
Cochineal, 
None. 
Organic. 
Cochineal. 
Organic. 

Do. 
Organ ic; 
some eoain. 
None. 

Do. 
aic 

Do. 



No. 






Price 

J.OlllI'l. 







... 



. 18 



Boughl of 

Cobb, Hal. B A V. r\a Doc k 

square, Boston, >' 
M a Williams, Tremont street, 

Boston M 
Mali in strei t stand, Wlntei itn el 

Boston, M' 



Win. w Ington troct, 

Boston, M ■ 

i [ausman 6 < look, 2197 Washing 
Ion street Uoxbui \ , Mass. 
■ .. ber, « !atnbrldg< 

I'.hu doin .si|u.n «•, Boston, 

M.i 



< Character. 



Colored sngar. Colored with s red coal tar color. 

Molasses chips ; of a bright-yellow < olor and very 

crisp. 
Molasses candy. This oandj was purchased of s 

fakir on the street. It looked well when first 

bought, but in the room softened and ran Into ■ 

solid mass. It had a li^lit yellow color and Con- 
tained a little flour and some grease. 

Stick candy. This was a white stick candy with 

a brighl red qovoi big, w inch appeared to be col- 

on il w ith a OOal tar color. 

Pipe < andy. Colored with vegetable colo 

Broken candy. Colored wltb vegetable oolors. 

Broken candy. This oaadj was stronglj flavored 
wrh peppermint and other oila. These oiks seem 
to bave a decided Influenoe on the polarisation; 

thc\ arc not r. moved lev the acetate oflead. 



SUGAK, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



727 



Description of sample — Continued. 



No. 


Priee 
per 


Bought of— 


('bait 






pound 








95.38 


$0.13 


Yerxa &, Yerxa. Cambridfjeport. 

Mas-. 


Broken candy. 




9559 





( !obb Bros., Hanover street, Bos- 
toD, Mass. 


Mixed candy 




9560 


.20 


C. F. Belcher, Cambridge, Mass. 


Do. 




951,1 


.25 


J. Savezzo, 91 Warren street, Rox- 
bury. Mass. 


Bed cinnamon drops. Colored a 1 > i i <r 1 » t 
■with cochineal or carmine. 


crimson 


9562 


.20 


C. D. Cobb fc Bros., 11 a n o v o r 
street, Boston, Mass. 


Mixed candy. 




9563 


.12 


J. S. BaTnpton,227l Washington 
street, Boston, Mass. 


Mixed soft candy ; some starch. 




9564 


.10 


Italian street-stand, Winter street, 
Boston, Mass. 


Do. 




95G5 


. 35 


Cobb Brothers, Boston, Mass 


Soft candy ; yellow, vegetable i olor. 




956) 


.20 


!■:. S. Grilmore, 29 Main street, 
Charlestown, Ma<s. 


Mixeil candy. 





9507 
9568 



9569 

957D 
9571 
9572 
957:: 

9571 



12 C. I). Cobb &, Bios., Hanover 

street, Boston, Mass. 
20 M. Cashin, Clark street, Boston, 

M iss. 



25 J- Savezzo, 91 Warren street, K<>\- 
bury.Mass. 

IS M. M. Eirsche,2019 Washington 

Btreet, Boston, Mass. 
,40 E. Babb, 97 Warren street, Box- 
bnry, Ma-s. 

20 .1. M. Bond, 2534 Washington 

-ti •• ■< t. Boxbnry, Mass. 
,35 M. Cashin, Clark street, Boston, 
Ifass. 



i" 



Car station, Bartletl and Wash 
Ington streets, Boxbnry, Mass. 



in Win. Sohrsffh, Blm street, Boston 



Mixed motto candy. The above were cheap loz. 

enges ; they contained some gum and starch. 
Lozenges: these contained considerable Starch; 

they were not very soluble in water, and the BO* 

lotion after the addition of acetate <>f lead was 

very difhenlt to filter. 
Lozenges; contained starch. 

Motto Lozenge*. 

Tablets marked "Cream ;" contained some starch. 

Motto Hearts contained starch. 

rink Lozenges; these were oolored witl 
The color was not removed l>\ lead acetate, but 

readily yielded to bone cbar. It gave the pink 

color and fluorescence of eosin. 

Tink Tablets mark, d " Musk ; " contained consid- 
erable staieli : colored with cochineal and tla- 
VOred with musk. 

ilored yellow with a vegetable color; 

lla\ Ored with lemon. 



28 



POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical data. 



So. 


Polarization. 


Direct 


Indirect 


9351 


100.3 


-33.0 


95.".2 


97. 5 


14.0 


9553 


118.6 


57.0 




100.0 


44.0 


!t55:. 


81.3 


-30.4 


9556 


107.8 


2.0 


9557 


87.5 


—27.0 


9558 


B 1 . 5 


—34.4 




83.4 


-31. 2 


9560 


106.0 


- 4.0 


9561 


100.2 


23.0 


9562 


99.9 


-17.0 


9563 


168.8 


1.8 


9504 


96. 7 


11.6 


9505 


93. 3 


— 9. 


9566 


102.5 


-8.4 


9",07 


164.2 


9.7 


9568 


90.8 


-18.9 


9569 


102.4 


17.0 



Tem- 

Vr ra - Sucrose. "S?fL c J?* 



9576 
9571 

957:5 
957 I 



166.8 
163.9 

104.2 

166.7 
95. 



-17.2 
4.2 
16.0 

- 0.4 
31.2 



t u re 



Per cent. 
99.97 
02. 03 
45.46 

78.10 
83.78 
78.71 
85.18 

84. 02 
80.16 
81.68 
92.10 
80.97 
70. 19 
80.90 
76.73 
82. 84 

85. 83 



sugars. 



8 (. 7" 
80.00 
94.87 



Traces. 

27.00 

23.12 

14.28 

14.74 

11.56 

9.92 

12.76 

12.48 

9.72 

5. 04 

4.96 

10. 56 

7.96 

11.32 

7.96 

4.90 

2. 43 

3.58 

3.79 

5.92 

4.86 

8. 56 

6.47 

Trace. 



Water. 



0.00 
0.50 
1.63 
0.74 
0.68 



A si, 



Insoluble ,, , 
« cold °£™I 

water. 



0.31 
::. 72 
2.98 
3.54 

1. 59 

2. 24 
3.32 
4.62 
3.50 
2.00 
2.50 
2.51 
1 . 82 
1.54 

1.49 

1.00 
1.62 
1 . 26 



Per ct. 
0.04 
0.45 
2.01 
0.28 
0.17 
0.12 
0.05 
0.08 
0.07 
0.18 
0.22 
0.14 
0.14 
0.16 
0.08 
0.20 
0.14 
0.15 
0.06 
0.67 
0.11 
0.62 
a 19 
0. 1 2 
it. 16 



/'• /• tn nL 



1 

2 
8 

i 



ANALYSES BY W. C. 8TUBBS. 
Description of samph 8. 



Bonghtof 



Manufacturer 



Remarks. 



Bernard Eotz &Co., 75 North Pe Bernard Kim/ a Co., 76 North Pe- 
Orleans, La. tors street, Ncm Orleans, La. 

<it> do Starch present 

.... do <l<> 

<1m <1<» . Copper present 

I'.w. Dlelmann A Co.,Tohoupiion P. W, Dlelmann & Co., Tchonpitou- 
\'« m Orleans, La. las street, Ne* Orleans, La. 



do 



.do 



M.u.ii.-i. Daopbineand St. Ann Jaeger & De l';is-, Common and i><> 

Orleans, La. Tohonpitoulas streets, Ncti Oi 

'. • .in-, i . . i . 

do (l » Starch present 

\ i Kenner, BienviUi and Bur- Bernard Klots & Co., 75 North Pe Copper present 

ganil Orli La. tors si reet Ne* ( hrleno 

I* W. Dlelmann d Co.,T< bonplton P. W, Dlelmann >v <'«>., Tohoupiton 
Eton < »i le hi ■ i.i i . . i .\.-s\ < Means, La. 

>i" do 

91 Decatur 

Mil. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



729 



Description of samples— Continued. 



No. 



Bought of— 



Manufacturer. 



Remarks. 



Domego, 165 Canal street, New 

Orleans, La. 
J. Sambola, 269 Decatur street, 

New Orleans, La. 

do 

do 

do 

Jaeger <fc De Pass, Common and 

Tchoupitoulas streets, New 

Orleans, La. 
do 



James J. Reiss & Co., 95 Decatur 

street, New Orb ans. La. 
J. Sambola, 269 Decatur street, New 
Orleans, La. 

do 

do 

do 

Jaeger &. De Pass, Common and 
Tchoupitoulas Btreeta New Or- 
leans, La. 

do 

do do 

do do 

do do 

do | do 

Da Monte, grocery ! Unknown 

Mrs. Du Val's, 1127 Magazine do 

street, New Orleans, La. 



Ultramarine present. 



Large amount of starch. 
Copper present 



Analytical data. 



No, 



Polarization. 



Direct. Indirect. 



130.00 

130.20 

132.00 

108. 80 

105. 00 

88.50 , 

89.20 

93.00 

1 •_'.'.. 2o 

91.80 

05. so 

97.40 ' 
88. 55 
88.40 

87.55 
90.40 

85.15 

LOS. 00 

01.50 

90. 20 



49.50 
49.92 
49.20 
51. 70 
7.70 

—21. J.J 
.-11.00 

—25. 85 
40. 20 

—13.20 

— 8.58 

24. 75 

— 11.55 

—28, 10 

—25. 19 
—23. 10 
—22. 88 
—31.02 
—25. 08 
24. H 
49. 72 
—23. 32 



Tem- 

Pf* Sucrose. R ?*™™* 



ture, 
°C. 



Per cent. 
59.62 
59.46 
61.56 
42. 29 
72.07 
81.S8 

80. 07 

78.05 

77. 71 

- - 

87. 16 

81.91 

84.79 

- 



bo gars. 

I'er cent. 
25.58 
25.84 
17.81 

18. 52 
15.31 
11.07 

7.97 
21.03 
11.97 

4 77 
(11 

10.95 

7. 88 

8. 16 
L0 18 

- - 

|] 21 



Water. 



I B 1 , . 



Ter cent. 
5.68 
5. 14 
4.34 

8.67 

5. 85 
5. 68 

4.34 
& 44 
0.50 

7.:::. 

2. 88 
1.77 



PercL 

0. 19 
0.27 
0.19 
0.20 
0.09 
0. 18 
0.10 
0.11 
0.20 

0.04 
o. 01 
0.12 

o ia 

c 04 
0.07 

0. 05 
0.06 

11 

0. 11 



Insoluble 

in cold 
water. 



Coloring 

matter. 



• 
1.02 
1.79 
0.97 
1.14 

0.61 
1. 10 
1.20 
o. 86 
1.74 
1.29 

1.81 
U 81 



730 



POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY SHIPPEN WALLACE. 

Description of samples. 





Kind. 


No. 


Kind. 


Stick, red and yellow stripes. 


14 


Mixture. 




• 1 


Stick, red stripes. 


15 


Lozenges, pink. 




:: 


Do. 


10 


Drops, yellow, violet, brown, 


green. 


4 


Stick, red and brown. 


17 


Broken Candy. 




."■ 


Stick, black. 


18 


Fruit Caramels. 






Stick, red, black, and yellow. 


19 


Cum Drops. 




7 


Stick, red. 


20 


Cocoanuf Balls, red. 






Candy Cakes, red and white. 


21 


Drops, green. 




9 


Sour Balls, red and yellow. 


22 


Mixtures, various colors. 




10 


( '.wamel, jiiuk. 


23 


Do. 




11 


Tally, red and pink. 


24 


Do. 




12 


Cream Tandy. 


25 


Do. 




13 


Sour Balls, led, green, pink. 









Inalytical data. 



Polarization. Tern- 
No. pera- Sucrose. 

Direct. Indirect. t ' 1 " ' 



IU ' ,lmi "- Water. 

sugars. 



106.5 
85.0 
97. 
99. ii 

102.0 

80. 5 
103. 5 
100.0 

•.,- ,, 
1I7.D 
101. I) 
110.(1 

77 

II LO 
101.0 

i 'I o 

127. 
103 
M 

no. 

106. (i 



Per cent. 
73.5 

78. 3 
- 

73.8 
77. (i 
74. 6 
75.0 
76. i 
79. 1 

- 
53. 2 
74.0 
72. 8 
62. o 

70.1 
27. i 
01.8 

81. 1 
- 

82, 



Asb. 



Insoluble ., , . 

in cold ( SlS g 
water. ttUkttm ' 



1'er cent. 
1G. 33 
12.78 
15.50 
18. 32 
19.88 
24, 62 

24. 48 
20. 50 
17. B0 
17.68 

38. 90 

23. 25 

B 

24. 75 

I - 
27. 30 

4.78 
B6. 80 

K. 77 
37. 22 
10. in 

10. HI 

10.60 
10.68 



Per cent. 



0.100 
0.155 
0.098 
0. 090 
0.172 
0.200 
0.120 
0. 142 
0. 106 
0.210 

c. LOO 

0.810 

0. L60 
0. 050 
0. 160 

0.861 
0.7*4 

0. 1"" 

0. US 

ii. 17:. 



Per cent 







... 














































10.22 
















20 52 












SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HOXEY. 
ANALYSES BY H. A. WEBER. 

Description of tampUs. 



731 



No. 

1 

2 
3 



Coloring matter. 



Other sub- 
stances. 

. I Dextrine 



Bought from- 



Description. 






•_>1 



chineal Dextrine, 

starch. 

Pink, corallin : cream, Dextrine 
methyl orange. 

Red, aniline red (Ben- ....do 

gal red). 
Red, corallin ; yellow, tui - do 

nieric; pink, corallin: 

salmon pink, cos in: 

green, aniline green ; 

lemon yellow. Victoria 

yellow. 
Starch 



J. G. 6c L. Bruwn, Hunter White Stick Candy, Snjder 
and 5th avenue, .fcCharlW. Columbus. Ohio. 
Columbus. 
do Da 



Henry Thropp. 845 South 

High street, Columbus. 

Esper 6c Sons, 403 South 

High street, Columbus. 

do 



Red, cochineal 



Pink, magenta 

Red, eosin; black, lam]) 

black. 
Pink, eosin 



Red, Bengal red; yellow, 

cht vsolin ; pink, eosin ; 

orange red, fluoi i 

brown, Bismarck brown. 
Bed, eosin ; pink, corallin ; 

brown, aniline brown. 
Pink, eoain 



Pink, corallin 



Dextrine. 

starch. 

...do.... 

Starch... 

Dextrine, 
starch. 

.. do .... 



Starch... 

Dextrine, 
starch. 

...do.... 



i Bonbons. Craft a, 
Allen, Philadelphia. 

Red and White Taffy, Leg- 
gett, New York. 

Cream Candy, L> 
York. 



George Babb, 32 East Peppermint Lozenges, white. 

Main street, Columbus. Wallace, Hew York. 
do Wwtergreen Losengt 



do Cinnamon Drops, pink. 

1. K Allen, Goodaleand Candy, red tad irnite mar* 

Bigfa streets, Columbus. hies. 

Thomas Bergen. 51 West Barber-pole Candy, pink and 

High Street, Columbus. white. 

EL K. Kaiser, 1520 North Imitation Almond Candy, as* 

High street, Colnmbos. sorted colors. 



59 North Candj Marbles. 
Btigh street, Columbna. 

do Candy Colored 



do 



• n-il, fluorescein . . do . . , 

Pink, eorallin r. d, Ban 
gal red. 

oobineal l dextrine 

Gre en , aniline green. Dextrine, 
i. metbj 1 oi ange starch. 

pink, oorallli 

gal : 

Pink, oochlneal do 



i Ire* n aniline Rreei 

pink, corallin. 



Bermaa streel Pink Flat stu'.v Candy. 
near Neil area i 
Iambus. 

do White I kttdy. 

<lo Imitation Almonds, white 

vs ith a tew oi ange and red. 
kratfa t'.n 
Bigh street, Colnmboa 

llieli l;, 
Colamboi 

ilo mdj . 



B. H. Babb, . <>rii. v ' .i ! bib 

and Hi-li 

I ami 

rllng, m<; North amihi.iI Candj 
Colambaa 



732 



Ko. 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTER A MS. 
iption of samples— Continued. 



Coloring matter. 



Other sub- 
stances. 



Bought from- 



I'.lack, nigrosiu •. red, Starch J. C. Dent, State street, 

cochineal, and Bengal Columbus, 

red : orange yellow, tur- 



1'ink, corallin. 



Dextrine . 

...do 

...do 



Description. 



Crimp Candy, Henry Hyde, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



Peppermint Creams, white, 
H. Hyde, Philadelphia, I'a. 

Wintergreen Creams, pink, 
H. Hyde, Philadelphia. Pa. 

liaple-sagar Creams. II. 
Hyde, Philadelphia. Pa. 



Analytical data. 



No. 



Polaii/.atiou. 



Direct. 



Indirect. 



Tem- 
pera- Sucrose. 
ture°C. 



Per cent. 
62.51 
57.99 
05. 98 
G9.64 
72. 13 
72.57 
80.43 
71.18 
81.53 
64.73 
55. 19 
81.09 

73, 08 

71.20 
82 06 

83. 03 

63. 79 

55 '.17 

01.00 



Reducing 
sugars. 


Water. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


11.11 


1.88 


15.87 


0.43 


9.90 


6.20 


11.4:5 


1.97 


7.41 


5. 45 


4.30 


0.08 


0.25 


1.24 


5.71 


1.80 


1. 85 


0.45 


12.50 


8. 00 


13.83 


2.31 


LOO 


0.79 


4.09 


2.91 


12. :i4 


3. 19 


12.73 


3.80 


11. st 




1. 11 


0.28 


10.03 


0.07 


9.62 


5.04 


11.81 


8. 54 


5.71 


1. 87 


10.08 


:;. 24 


r>. 38 






8. 7;t 


7.54 


7. ;«; 



Ash. 



Per. ct. 
0.09 
0. 11 
0.08 
0.10 
0.09 
0.07 
0.04 

H.02 
0. 10 
0.14 
0.10 
ii. 18 
00 

(I. 10 

.1. ii 
(i. L8 

(i. 10 
0. 12 
0. 25 
0. 14 

0.01 

00 
q Of 
ii. 18 



Insoluble 
in cold 
water. 



Colorinj 
matter. 



Per cent. 
0. 18 
0.25 
0.01 
0. 08 
0.07. 
2.15 
(i. 40 
1.57 
0.23 
0.27 

0.66 
2.94 
0.45 
0.34 
0. 08 
0.48 
ii 47 
0. 29 
0.20 
4.94 
o. 32 



SUGAK, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

ANALYSES BY F. G. WIECHMANN. 
Description of samples. 



733 



Price 
per 

pound. 



Bought of— 



Remarks. 



$0. 15 Fajens, mannfacturer, 1637 Columbus Selected from broken candy. Color, red and 

avenue, New York. white. Translucent. 

.15 Bosch. 770 3d avenue New York Cinnamon Candy. Color, red. 

.13 A. Jewell, manufacturer. 202 Grand street, Peppermint Cane. Color, white and led. 

Xew York. Opaque. 

(*) 322 avenue A, Xew York Musk Lozenges. Color.pink. 

. 15 Fajens, manufacturer, 1637 Columbus Selected pieces from broken candy. Color, 

avenue, Xew York. yellow and white. 

.15 do Selected pieces from broken candy. Color, 

red and white. Opaque. 

.20 H.Buckwalter, manufacturer, 437 6th av- Do. 

enue, Xew York. 

.30 do Lime-juice Bonbons. Color, green. Trans- 
lucent, 
do 



Violet Tablets. Color, lilac Opaque. 
3o J. Ahrens, manufacturer, 393 6th avenue, Cinnamon Drops. Color, red. 



Xew York. 
.40 do ' Lime-juice Bonbons. Color, green. 

(tj A. Carson, 223 West27th street, Xew York If nek Lozenges. Color.pink. 

.13 '231 West 27th street, Xew York Selected piece from mixed candy. Color, 

red. with small white stripes. Translu- 
cent. Some of the candies bear the name 
Gray. 

.do pieces from mixed candy. Color, 

yellow and white. Translucent. Can- 
dies marked Gray. 

13 do Selected pieces from mixed candy. Color, 

yellow and red. Opaque. Candies 
marked Gray. 
40 Stern & Saalberg. manufacturers, whole- Musk Lozenges. Color.pink. 
ujfectioneis, 489 8th avenue. v - 
York. 
.15 do Sel( - from mixed Candy. I 

white and red. Opaque. 



15 



.do 



i. H. Simpson, M Wmi ltd - 

York. 

H. Bnekwalter, manufacturer, 4:i7 6th 
avenue, New Fork 
.15 Weidmann, manufacturer, 1211 Bro 

Vork. 
EL Willenbrok. manufa. tttfl 
nue, Xew Vork 



.30 



d pieces from mixed candy; color, 
yellow, with red and white stripes. Trans- 
lucent. 
Lemon "lor, light yeOou . 

Inoeai 

sn broken candy, 
eruahed strawberry. Opaque. 

red and s hits 
Cinnamon Candy. I and sralta 



.do 



<"■ r jrrllow, with wl 

pink stripes i raneta aw 
Dairy kitchen manufacture, 44. Baal 14th Wintergn Color, lils 

street, bTew i"oi k. 

Hilt's manufacture, 47 1 Pulton street Pista o I schous I aim greet 
Brooklyn. Bought al hi 
• nue, New v 



i in tin i . sat. 



: foi i cent. 



> mipli 



T:;4 



POODS AND POOD ADULTERANTS. 
Analytical data. 



Polarization. 



No. 



151 

152 
153 
154 
155 
156 
157 
158 
15!) 



Tem 



Direct Indirect tare "</ 



B £SS l w » te * 



I Kiw le Co,orin8 

water 1 «*«■ 



114.0 
72.0 
80. 5 

114.8 
113.0 
108.0 
116.2 
101.6 



160 80. 2 

101 73.0 

162 107.4 

163 114.0 



18.0 
31.0 

-29.8 

— 0.G 

18. 1 

17.2 

3 (i 

32.4 

-20. 

—31.2 
-28.0 
- 5.4 

10.8 



104 
163 
160 
167 



168 

109 
170 

171 
If] 

173 
171 
If 5 



114.0 
118 6 

108.0 
82. 



84.1 

79 - 

110.8 

81.0 
74.0 

88.0 
102.6 



14.4 
26.2 
- 0.0 
-32.0 



-31.8 

-31.4 

32. 1 

—32. o 

—21.6 



/'<•/■ cent. Per 

77. 6 
87. 6 





83.9 
70. G 



85.9 



8:.7 



83. 6 

ii ■ 



/■ cent 


Per cent. 


/'. /• ■•'. 


Per cent. 




13, Bfl 


2 75 


0. 104 


0.29 


Starch. 


19.01 


2. 7;. 


0. 029 


Traco. 




7.94 


3 :,4 


0. 115 


i. o:> 


Do. 


5.55 


1.07 


0. 155 




Do. 


14.70 


2. 47 


0.097 


I'l'.U e 




14.49 


2.81 


0. 108 


0.39 


Do. 


11. 9G 


3.60 


0. 122 


Tract". 




22. 22 


0.97 


0.173 


Trace. 




3.72 


0.80 


0.184 


0.000 


Starch and 

violet color 


13. 70 


2.24 


0.036 


Trace. 




10. 45 


3.62 


0.043 


0.40 




5. 49 


1.71 


0. 148 


0.000 


Starch. 


11.08 


3.72 


0. 209 


0.41 


Organic im- 
purities 

not starch. 


10.71 


3.77 


0.198 


0.38 


Do. 


13. 05 


4.60 


0.208 


0.43 


Do. 


5.49 


1.51 


0.1-14 


0.000 


Starch. 


10.18 


3.05 


0. 030 


0.34 


Organic itu- 
pur i t i<s 

not starch. 


9. 92 


2. 92 


0. 025 


0. 49 


Do. 


12.92 


1.58 


070 


Truce. 





17.01 


..12 


0.155 


H.21I 


Coloring 

matter. 


9. 86 


3. 59 

1. 11 

2. 39 


0. 090 

0.025 
014 


Trace. 

Trace. 
Trace 

0. 000 




1 8. 25 




15.03 




ii. 25 


None. 


- 




ii. Of] 


0.000 


None. 



• Destroyed bj Ignition. 

ANALYSES BY DEPARTMENT OP AGRICULTURE. 
Description of tamp 



Nu 


Where bought 


Price 

pei 

pound. 


1. ibels > to. 




i:. iv White, corner 13th and m 


ftO. 18 


French Mixtnre. Soft oandj <>i fancy 
shapi 







.40 






O amble Market, corner 18th 




siicU Candy. 




r.S. Crocl ' ii kit 




tfolSSSI ! ( aiaim 1. I'.iown, paper 1 "\ 

eredenbesol a 10ft ami sticky conaUt 














enoe. 




s I Bradley, 1315 1 1 1 1 > 


. 50 


Gibson's Lime Frail drops. Light green 








In col.. i. Taste of spoiled limes. Con. 








tain tai lai i. and. 




... 'Im 


.20 


Mai -dimallou ^. 




■ • NW 


.50 


.ni, ,1 AlmomK Almonils -20. 58. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AXD HONEY. 
/" cription of samples— Continued. 



735 



No. 



87:54 



*7:;7 
8738 
8739 
8740 
8741 
87-12 
8743 

8744 
8715 
8746 
8747 
8748 
8749 
8750 
8751 



Where bought. 



Price 

per 

1)01111(1. 



Labels, etc. 



A. Gutekunst. 1324 14th street, NW... 

Birch ic Co., 1414 14th .struct NW 

do 

, 324 13th street NW 

, 327 13th .street NW 

, 1309 E street NW 

"SVaple & Co., coruer 11th and K 

do 

Huylers, 1103 Pennsylvania avenue — 
Witthaft, 1219 E street... 

F. Candiote, 1116 I street 

G. W. Weidmanu, stand 54 Center Market 

Vonieff, stand 538 Center Marke t [ 

G. J. Mueller, 314 Pennsylvania avenue. 

do 

J. P. Owens, 1363 C street SW 

Daly, 1369 C street S W 

Alliss, corner C and 13th street SW — 



Lemon dm 

.15 . Cum Drops. 

.20 I. Telly Beans. Bean-shaped and contain- 
ing gelatinous core. 
Rook Candy. Bather dirty. 

.20 Stick Candy. 

.20 Jaw Breakers. Large rounding pieces. 

. 10 Gum Drops. 

. 20 Peppermint Drops. 

.50 Lemon Cups. 

.lf> Florence Orange Drops. Bright yellow 
halls. 

.40 Cinnamon Drops. Colored with carmine. 

. 20 Tally. 

.15 Lemon Drops. Very slightly acid. 

. 20 Tally. 

.40 Wintergreen Wafers 

.30 Marbles. 

.15 Borehound Stick Candy. 

.18 Bock and Rye Balls. 



Analytical data. 



No. 



Polarization. Tern- 

I 
Direct. Indirect, ture, ' ' 



8726 
8727 
8728 
8731 
8732 
8733 
8734 

8737 

.-Tin 
8741 
.-71-' 
8743 
8744 
B74S 

B747 

8748 
8740 

87 :.l 



112.8 


12.7 


102.8 


24.4 


111.8 


0.0 




85. 6 


27. 3 


—30. 1 


io:t.4 




711 8 


26. 1 




7. 1 




103.2 










109.fi 


3.8 


112.2 




62. 1 


103.0 


Kil.d 









112.2 

109.2 

lol.o 

MI. 2 
104.2 
00. 1 



16.0 

11 o 
-18.6 

—8. 



10. o 
18.0 
19.0 

21.4 

19. 3 

L8.0 
2L0 

lit 4 
1!) 
17 

18. H 
1- I 
21.0 

21 i 
10 i 
19.0 
10.2 

18.2 

19.0 
20. 

l- 



74.3 

24. 7 

12 7 

20. 

78. 8 
21.6 



71. 1 





01. : 







Reducing 

- 


Water. 


: 




10 33 




13.81 




17. :.4 


3.24 




:.. 06 




8 01 




11.00 




.21 


■ 


4. U 


15.84 




- a 




0.00 




10.23 






a i7 












2 1- 


- 






4.01 


11 -- 




19.68 




16.13 
















16.61 





Insoluble .. 
Ash. . mcold 
vratei , 



matter 



.13 

. 1- 
.12 

1. 12 

- 

.7o 

. 10 

16 
.81 

.11 
. 09 

. 12 
1- 



! 

.16 

15.48 

.15 

17.10 
17 

.21 



736 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



REMARKS ON ANALYSIS OF CONFECTIONS. 

The question of the adulteration of candies and confections is hardly 
debatable. The general conception of a pure confection is oue that 
contains saccharine flavoring and coloriug matters, so mixed and ad- 
justed as to be attractive both to taste and sight. As long as these in- 
gredients are not harmful to the health they can scarcely be regarded 
as adulterations. 

Harmful ingredients and the admixture in confections of terra alba, 
kaolin, or other mineral substance calculated to give weight and vol- 
ume to the mass must be regarded as adulterations. 

Starches and gums, although insoluble in cold water, are not of 
themselves hurtful to the health, and their presence in certain kinds of 
confections may be regarded as necessary. Coloring matters are divided 
first of all into organic and inorganic classes. The metallic oxides 
comprising the latter class should never be used as pigments for con- 
fections. It has been claimed that lead compounds have been used for 
coloring candy, especially lead chromate, but our investigations have 
shown that inorganic colors are not used to any very great extent in 
this country. Were it otherwise more samples of it would have been 
found in the 250 samples, mostly colored, bought in open market in 
different parts of the country. The organic colors may be divided into 
innocuous and hurtful, but it is difficult to say where the line should be 
drawn. Harmless vegetable pigments, it may be said, can be used 
without endangering the health of the consumer. The same is true of 
the like compounds of insect origin like cochineal. Some of the coal 
tar colors are also said to be without injurious effect, but this state- 
ment can not be made to apply to the whole family of aniline dyes, 
perhaps the most frequent colors in candies. Among the colors found 
in the samples examined may be mentioned cochineal, eosin, and other 
aniline dyes, ami ultramarine. 

anai.n sis r>\ mk. BUSTON. 

Mineral coloring matter was found in Nos. lo.*; and 17o\ The nature 
of the base is not stated, hut it is noted that both these samples eon- 
tain ultramarine. Organic coloring matters were found in 20 of the 

samples equivalent to 80 per cent. 

One of the samples had an offensive odor. Sample No. 168 had 
nearly 15 per cent of Sour, winch accounts in part, also, for its large 
percentage of ash. Eleven samples contain notable quantities of 
glucose. < >ther samples containing large quantities <>f starch and gum 

arc ir>!>, 17L\ 171, 175, and 171). This latter sample contains nearly 7 
percent ol ash, which Is almost high enough to point to the use of terra 
alba. This Idea Is corroborated by the fact that the Insoluble portion 

and the ash are almost identical in amount. On the contrary, it can be 
Urged with better reason that the adulteration with SO small a portion 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 737 

of an inert earth would not prove financially profitable. The weight of 
the evidence is against the theory of such an admixture. Inasmuch as 
a mineral coloring matter was found in this sample, it may be that the 
high percentage of ash can be traced to this source. 

In nearly all the samples it is noticed that sucrose forms the bulk of 
the saccharine matter. In such a sample as No. 158 there is apparently 
a mixture of a gum with a small quantity of sucrose and a large quan- 
tity of flour. 

Id 1\o. 175 there is probably a mixture of starch with dextrose or milk 
sugar and a little sucrose. 

In only one other case, No. 174, does the percentage of sucrose drop 
below 50. In all the other cases the chief part of the substance is 
sucrose, with the additions of small portions of glucose starch or flour, 
coloring and flavoring extracts. 

Notk by Mr. Huston. — Samples of red and yellow coloring for candies were 
obtaiued. The red was a preparation of cochineal, and the yellow was a sirup Bat- 
prated with a lluorescent coal-tar product. Many of the pink and yellow candies 
gave fluorescent solutions. No indication of lead was found in auy of the yellow 
candies. 

ANALYSES BY H. H. NICHOLSON. 

All the samples contained organic coloring matter. Two of them 
contained a fluorescent pigment. Seven of them had large quantities 
of starch, four contained starch and gum, aud fourteen were entirely 
soluble in cold water. Eighteen of the samples were mixed with glu- 
cose, or some similarly polarizing sugar. 

Samples 1813, 1814, 1810, 1819, and 1828 were composed chiefly of 
gums. The composition of Nos. 1800 and 1807 is not sufficiently indicated 
by the analytical data. The principal part of all the other samples is 
sucrose. 

Some of the samples contained large quantities of water, notably 
Nos. 181 1, L822, L824, lsi><>, and L830. Only one appears with ash above 
1 per cent, viz, No. 1810, and the amount in this sample is too small to 
suggest any adulteration with an inert earth. 

The percentages of reducing sugars were doubtless chiefly derived 
from the glucose used in the process of manufacture, or partly from the 
low-grade sugars employed. 

AN \!.\ SES BY W. II. KISIV 

Nine of the samples contain notable quantities Of starch and g ii iii in- 
soluble in cold water, the largest quantity being iii No. L10, a stick 

candy colored red, and selling for 20 cents a pound. 

The smaller quantities of starch found in many of the other samples 
doubtless is incorporated their from the starch or Hour us.-d to |»iv\ nit 
sticking during the process of manufacture. <>ne sample. No. L12, 
labeled "gum drops,'' is almost pure confectioners* glucose, containing 
only 13.3 percent of added sugar, 



738 FOODS AND POOD ADULTERANTS. 

Seventeen of tbe samples contain glucose. In only one instance does 
the ash rise above 1 per cent, viz, No. 108. 

Water is not present in excessive quantities in any of tbe samples. 
Fourteen of tbe samples contain glucose and two contain gelatin. 

SUMMARY. 

Samples. 

Starch i 

Starch and pum ^ * 

Glucose 17 

Organic coloring matter 25 

Mineral coloring matter 

Glucose 14 

GelatiD "2 

ANALYSES BY M. A. SCOVELL. 

All of the samples except one, viz, Xo. 157, contained glucose. 

Only two contained notable quantities of starch and gum, viz, Nos. 
170 and 173. 

Nineteen of tbe samples bad organic coloring matter added. 

In no case did the percentage of ash reacb .90, showing tbe entire ab- 
sence of added earthy or mineral matter. 

Sucrose was tbe cbief constituent of all tbe samples examined. 

SUMMARY. 

Samples. 
Glucose 24 

< Organic coloring li> 

Of which — 

Cochineal 5 

Kosni X> 

Starch and gum 2 

LNALYSES in S. P. BHABPLES. 

Sixteen samples contained glucose and two or three others possibly 
a small quantity. 

Nearly all the samples (exact number not to be stated from data) con- 
tained organic colors, both vegetable and cochineal, and also many of 
them coal tar colors. 

Six of the samples contained considerable (plant it ies of starch and 

gums. Inonh one case was there an excess of ash, No. 9553 having 2.Q1 
per cent t hereof. 

A B in tbe other sets, the chief const it ueiit of all the samples is sucrose. 

In onl.\ one ease, No. 9553, docs this quantity fall below 5Q percent. 

SUMMARY. 

Samples. 

GHneote 16 

< !olorlng matter Nearly all 

Coal-tar colon ;» 

• ' ofa :ni<l ii inn <i 



739 

Notes jjv Mr. Sharples. — Ihave been unable to find a sample of candy colored 
)r adulterated Avith a mineral substance. Tbe use of a small quantity of glucose 
leems to be quite generaleven in candies that do not indicate it by their appearance. 

The starch found in almost all the samples is used to prevent the candy sticking to 
;he hands and tools during the manufacture : as in no case it exceeded a fe^Y percent, 
jo attempt was made to estimate it. 

We did not succeed in finding a single bright yellow candy. The yellows obtained 
nrere colored with vegetable colors. 

ANALYSES BY W. C. STUBBS. 

Eleven samples contained glucose, with two or three doubtful. 

Sample No. 24 has a peculiar composition. It contains apparently, 
udged by the analytical data, dextrose or lactose. In no case is there 
my considerable amount of ash present. 

In only two instances does the sucrose fall below 50 per cent. Un- 
fortunately no description is given of the coloring matters present. 

Copper was noticed in a number of samples, but the origin of the 
metal is not discussed. It comes probably from the copper vessels 
ised in manufacture. 

SUMMARY. 

Samples. 

Glucose 11 

Starch 3 

Copper 1 

Ultramarine 1 

ANALYSES BY SHIPPEN WALLACE. 

Twenty one of the samples examined contained glucose, but a few of 
tbem only small quantities. 

In only one instance did the percentage of sucrose fall below 50. 

One sample, No. 17, fruit caramels, had more than 2 percent of ash. 
this ash was probably derived chiefly from the fruit. The presence of 
the fruit also accounts for the large percentage of this sample (66.25) 
which was insoluble in cold water. 

Five samples had considerable quantities of starch and gum. 

No mineral pigment was discovered, 






BU M.MAKY. 

Sample*. 

ptluoose 21 

Starch and gam . r i 

Coloring matter (organic jn all oases). 



Notes in Mr. \\ uxack— Nos. 14,ir>, 1(5, 18, ID, 20, 22, 23, 24, nod 25 yield a reaction 

lor starch, Ihf remaining numbers <1<> not. 

The anion nt insoluble in water was bo slight that I bave onlj noted in oases where 
it was Large. 

The coloring agent wan, ;h stated, an aniline color or cochineal. No mineral coloi i 

used and no arsenic detected. 

The small amount of ash shows that no adulterant In the form of terra alba was 
used. 



74U FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY H. A. WEBER. 

Twenty-one of the samples contained glucose. It is assumed tbat all 
samples containing dextrin were mixed with glucose. Twenty-one sam- 
ples contained coloring matter, in every case of an organic nature. The 
particular color was determined in each case, making the observations 
of Mr. Weber on this point of great value. 

Seventeen of the samples contained starch, but only three any nota 
ble quantities, viz: Nos. 11, 16, and 21. Soluble starch was found in 
samples Xos. 5, 8, 11, and 20. 

SUMMARY. 

Samples. 

Glucose 21 

Insoluble starch, etc 3 

Soluble starch 1 

Coloring matters 21 

Of which— 

Cochineal 5 

Corallin 8 

Eosin 6 

Bengal red 5 

ANALYSES BY F. G. WTECHMAN. 

(Jf the 25 samples examined, 14, or 56 per cent, contain starch or 
glucose (starch sirup). 

Eleven samples contain more than 0.25 per cent of matter insoluble 
in water; this ranges in amount from 0.29 to 2.SS per cent, and with 
bat few exceptions consisted of starch. 

The coloring matters were in all eases destroyed by ignition, and 
were with but two or three exceptions wholly soluble in water, which 
would class them as of vegetable or animal origin or as coal-tar colors. 

Noil- i-.v Mi:. Win iim\.\n. N<>n. 154, 162, and L66 contain a fluorescent coloring 
matter— pink and yellowish green — probably co.sin. 

L58 and Kit were tested for copper and iron, but frith negative result. 
\u. L66 was examined for Lead, also with a negative result. 

The red Coloring matter in No. 70 is partially insoluble in water and in alcohol. It 
turn- purple with canst Ic potash ami pink with acetic and with hydrochloric acids. 

ami is most probablj a lake ot some vegetable color or cochineal. 

Th.- \ ioiet coloring mat tei in NO. 159 is insoluble in water. Testa made prove t hat 

it is not indigO, Prussian blue, Antwerp blue, smalt . or ul t ramai me. It is either 

oyanio, the natural ooloriug matter of the violet, or else a coal-tar product. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 741 

RESUME. 

Oat of the 175 samples analyzed there were adulterated — 

Per cent. 

Out of 50 sugars None = 00 

Out of 50 sirups and molasses : 

With glucose 30 

With tin 18 

With organic colors 5 

53 
Allowing for repetition 11 

3*2 ^ (34 

Out of 50 honeys 24 = 4S 

Out of 25 confections 14 — 50 

These figures need no comment, they tell their own story. 

In conclusion I would express my indebtedness to Messrs. E. G. Braiuerd aud K. 
Ziebolz for the valuable assistance they have given me in the execution of the ana- 
lytical work here recorded. 

ANALYSES BY CHEMICAL DIVISION, U. S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUL- 
TURE. 

But 3 samples of high-priced candies were bought. The others were 
cheap kinds bought at the small groceries. Polarization and glucose 
determinations were done in the main in the same way as for the other 
classes of samples. The gum drops and marshmallow samples pre- 
sented great difficulties in polarization, owing to the presence of the 
gum, presumably gum tragacanth. For these the method used was 
to place 13.024 grams of the minced sample in a 100 cc tiask, soften in 
about 50 cc of warm water, add about 40 cc of alcohol, mix, add lead 
acetate, cool, make up to the mark and lilter enough for polarization, 
an operation attended with great difficulty. 

For the inversion, a portion of the original an filtered mixture was 
poured in a 50 cc tiask up to the mark, 5 cc of acid added and the 
whole inverted as usual. Duplicates gave agreeing results, but of 
course the inversion numbers for such samples are practically worth- 
less. 

For the determination of insoluble matter a weighed portion of pow- 
dered candy was placed in a beaker, covered with cold distilled water 
and stirred vigorously, allowed to settle, the supernataut liquid ponied 
into a Grooch crucible, and the treatment repeated till all soluble matter 

was washed out. 

Finally the residue was transferred to the crucible and the whole 

dried and weighed. Drying was done either at 1<»0 in an air bath, or 
at ordinary temperatures over sulphuric acid, according to the nature 

pf the sample. After weighing it was ignited to get ash. Practically 

no ash was obtained from the portion of the Can dies insoluble iu water, 

demonstrating the absence of mineral filling, such as terra alba, kaolin, 

etc., which are reputed to be often used. Total ash was in DO instance 
18808— No. 13 8 



742 FOODS AND Food ADULTERANTS. 

high. No mineral colors could be found, although bright- colored and 
suspicious looking samples were bought in preference. Carmine was 
fonud in a sample of cinnamon drops, No. 8744. The acid drops, ex- 
cept in the case of " Gibson's lime fruit drops/' were soured with citric 
acid. That sample contained a small amount of tartaric acid. The 
gum drops contained no nitrogen and consequently no gelatine. 

Water in the hard samples was determined after powdering by dry- 
ing in a platinum dish at 100° ; in soft samples by first mincing the 
sample and then drying. 

The sucrose in the samples was determined from the inversion data, 
using the factor 144. 

a -a' 
b = 144-W 
2 
S= sucrose. 

repolarization of normal sugar weight in 200 mm tube before in- 
version. 
^ / = polarization of normal sugar weight in 220 mm tube after inver- 
sion with 10 per cent by volume strong HOI. 
f=temperature at which polarizations were made in degrees O. 
Twenty of the samples contained glucose. 

Twelve of these contained notable quantities of starch or glucose. 
No mineral coloring matters were found. 

SUMMMA.RY. 

Samples. 

Glucose 20 

* re 1 1 ;iml gum 19 

GENERAL ! CUM LRY, 

Total utimber of samples examined 250 

Contained glucoae i?:i 

Contained starch and cum "•-' 

Contained organic colors 218 

Contained mineral colitis g 

Contained grease 1 1 

Contained copper .' I 

Contained gelatine 

In so far as the coloring matter was examined, the following table 
shows tbe character of the pigments used and the relative number of 
times th»'\ respectively were found i 



Samples. Bstupl< 

< '•». IiummI li Ultramarine :i 

L2 Turmeric 2 

Coralliu 6 Methyl orange u 

• I red :» Coal tar colon 2 

Pluoreaoien :■; Carmin '2 

fluorescent color \i Cyanin 1 



Samples, 

Lamp black 1 

\ iotOl ia _\ cllow 1 

Magenta 1 

< Grange red 1 

Aniline brown 1 

Bismarck brown 1 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



743 



In connection with the coloring matters, however, it should be re- 
membered that in the great majority of cases no attempt was made 
to distinguish them further than to determine whether they were of 
an organic or inorganic nature. Only one analyst (Weber) deter- 
mined the nature of the coloring matter in each instance. Two of 
the number (Stubbs, Wallace) did not report the number of samples 
colored. In the general summary, this number was taken at 20 in 
each case. 

The following substances were found in the 250 samples submitted 
to examination : 



1. 


Sucrose. 


17. 


Musk. 


33. 


Corallin. 


2. 


Dextrose. 


18. 


Marsh mallow. 


34. 


Bengal red. 


3. 


Maltose. 


^9. 


Raspberry flavor. 


3:.. 


Fluorescein. 


4. 


Dextrin. 


20. 


Vanilla. 


36. 


Fluorescent color, 


5. 


Starch. 


21. 


Pistachio. 


37. 


Ultramarine. 


6. 


Soluble starch. 


22. 


Almonds. 


38. 


Turmeric. 


7. 


6am. 


2:5. 


Apricot. 


39. 


Methyl orange. 


8. 


Gelatin. 


24. 


Strawberry. 


40. 


Coal-tar colors. 


'J. 


Grease. 


25. 


Oil of wintergrcen. 


41. 


Carmine. 


10. 


Flour. 


20. 


Banana flavor. 


42. 


Cyauin. 


11. 


Copper. 


27. 


Lemon flavor. 


43. 


Lampblack. 


12. 


Mineral colors. 


28. 


Cinnamon. 


44. 


Victoria yellow. 


13. 


Citric acid. 


29. 


Cloves. 


45. 


Magenta. 


14. 


Tartaric acid. 


30. 


Cocoanut. 


46. 


Orange red. 


15. 


Peppermint. 


31. 


Cochineal. 


17. 


Aniline brown. 


16. 


Jlorehouml. 


32. 


Eosin. 


1-. 


Bismarck brown. 



The above list does not, by any means, pretend to be a complete cat- 
alogue of the materials found in the confections of commerce. It repre- 
sents only t he substances incidentally found in the 250 samples purchased 
in open market to supply the material for the examinations made. 



HONEY AND ITS ADULTERATIONS. 

The samples of honey described in the report were liquid or strained 
honey or comb honey packed in glass jars. The examination did not 
extend to comb honey in frames. 

Perhaps there is no other article of food which has been so gener- 
ally adulterated in the United States, during the last twenty years, as 
honey. The ease with which sophistication could be practiced, the 
cheapness of the material used, and the high price of the genuine prod- 
uct have presented temptations which the manufacturer, producer, 
and dealer have not been able to withstand. 

As long as houey was sold wholly in the comb, the difficulties in the 
way of successful sophistication were so great as to practically pre- 
clude its practice. The popular impression to the effect that comb 
honeys are adulterated was probably produced rather by ingenious 
attempts to manufacture the spurious article than by the commercial 
success of the enterprise. Artificial comb honey has been regarded as 
a possible article of commerce by many scientific men. 

Many samples of comb honey containing only glucose have come 
under my observation, but in all these cases the comb, presumably 
after the separation of the honey by a centrifugal machine, had been 
placed in glass bottles and the glucose then added. I have never vet 
found a sample of comb honey, sold in the frame, which was artificial, 
except in the use of comb foundation. 

Mi. 0. i >. Perrine secured letters patent, No. 176347, issued April 18, 
1876, lor a device for storing comb honey in glass jars. His idea was 
to have these vessels made a part of the hive and to be filled by the 
bees. Cylindrical comb foundations are to be inserted in. the jar in its 
central portion so that the cells may have equal depth on all sides. The 
packages arc to be placed in the hives over suitable openings to allow 
the bees to enter. 

The true friend of the apiary interests of the country is not he who 
shuts his eyes to patent adulterations, but rather he who recognizes 
fads, even if Unpleasant, and who, having seen the enormity of the 

extent of honey adulteration, supports the labors of those who seek to 
detect and prevent it. 

In this connection, it is only just to say that the fact of the extensive 
adulteration of honey in the last lour or live yea's has not been suffi- 
cient I \ recognised by that pari of the agricultural press devoted to 
Til 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HOXEY. 745 

apiary interests. In an editorial in the American Bee Journal, of July 
25, 1888, the following language occurs : 

We are not ignoraut of the fact that extracted honey was quite generally adulter- 
ated when it brought higher prices, but.now its price is so low that it will not pay to 
adulterate it, and it is, in consequence, hardly ever done. Persons will not adulter- 
ate any article when it will not pay them to do so. Adulteration of honey (now a 
thing of the past) we fought with all our energies until it ceased to exist. 

This also appears to be the opinion of Mr. C. O. Perrine, expressed in 
a letter found on another page. Evidently, however, it still pays to adul- 
terate honey, as the data obtained in the following tables clearly indicate. 

METHODS OF JUDGING OF THE PURITY OF HONEY. 

Although not a matter of national legislation, the standard of pure 
honey is not hard to fix. By universal consent it may be stated that a 
pure honey is the nectar of flowers and other saccharine exudations of 
plants, gathered by bees and stored in cells built at least in part by the 
bees themselves. Honey made by feeding bees glucose, sugar, invert 
sugar, or other saccharine substances is not pure honey. Nor is that 
pure honey which is made by adding to an empty or partially filled 
honeycomb glucose or any other saccharine substance. 

Strained honey, that is, honey separated from the comb, is pure when 
it contains only the materials of a liquid nature mentioned in the defi- 
nition of pure honey given above, with such accidental solid particles, 
such as pollen, parts of bees, fragments of comb, etc., as would natur- 
ally be found therein. 

PROPERTIES OF PURE HONEY. 

Polarization. — A pure honey has, with rare exceptions, at ordinary 
temperatures, a slight left-handed rotary effect on a plane of polarized 
light. This kevo-rotatory power is less than that produced by pure in- 
vert cane sugar. Measured as degrees on a cane-sugar scale, with 
normal sugar weight, a pure honey will rarely show more than — liO° 
at 20° C. A greater number than this may not be conclusive of adul- 
teration, but may well be looked on with suspicion. 

Water, — The content of water in a pure honey may vary from 12 to 
20 per cent. It is rarely as low as L2 ami does not frequently exceed 
20 per cent. 

Color. — The color of pure honc\ may vary from almost a water white 
through various shades of amber to deep brown or black. The source 
from which the honey is taken, the manner in which it is stored, and 
the length of time it has been kept arc the chief factors in determining 
variations in color. White clover gives almost a colorless honey, while 
golden rod and other highly colored Mowers produce a deeper-colored 
article. 

.-i.s7/. — The content of ash is very small, varying from a mere trace to 
0.30 per cent. A higher content of ash than this will be due to dust 



74G POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

silting over the flowers while the bees are at work, or to some tamper- 
ing with the product after the bees have finished with it. 

Sucrose. — The amount of eane sugar varies from nothing to 8 to 10 
per rent, according to quantity of cane sugar in the nectar and the ex- 
tent of inversion to which it is subjected in passing the organism of the 
bee. 

Reducing sugar. — In a pure honey there should be a large percentage 
of reducing sugar measured as dextrose. This reducing sugar should 
consist of dextrose and levulosenaturally existing in the nectar. When- 
ever the dextrose is in excess of the levulose it points to its artificial 
addition in the form of the glucose or grape sugar of commerce. The 
total quantity of reducing sugar, measured as dextrose, should gener- 
ally fall between the limits of GO and 75 per cent, although there are 
many cases where these limits may be transgressed. 

Pollen. — Some idea of the purity and source of honey may be derived 
from a microscopic examination of the pollen grains which it contains. 

HISTORY OF ADULTERATION. 

Some points in the early history of honey adulteration may not be in- 
appropriate in this connection. 

HISTORY AND RESULTS OF THE ADULTERATION <>K HONEY.* 

About twenty years ago I sent 6 or 7 barrels of extracted honey to Mr. IVrrine, a 
dealer of Chicago, at 1? cents a pound, and som.' time after saw at a grocery in Ham- 
ilton 1 or 2 dozen small glasses containing liquid honey, sent by the same linn, at It) 
Dents a pound. This adulterating business was a paying one, the glucose added 
being sold al 16 cents a pound, with a profit of about 11 cents per pound. 

Nine or ten years later, in St. Louis, I saw comh honey in small glass jars tilled 

with Liquid glucose, sold by Messrs. Thnrber & Co., of New fork, cheaper than 1 
asked for my extracted. I bought one of these bottles and exhibited it at a meeting 
of beekeepers held at Burlington. 

It wasal about the same time th.it Mr. A. 1 >. h'oot invented his eomh-foundat ion 

machine. The announcement <>f this new step in bee culture gave t<> many people 

the idea thai it produced COmh and we could dispense altogether With bees, espe- 
cially when it was hinted that paraffin could be used instead of wax. Vet paraffin 
OOn discarded by those who used il, not only because the bees objected to 
it, but « ,n account of i I s low melt i ng poiu t , for the smallest addition increased the 
ductility Of the Wax and the OOmb dropped in a mess to the bottom of the hive. 

Having obtained Mr. Perrine'8 present address from Mr. II. 0. Ban- 
mini of Chicago, l wrote Irim tor information on this Bobject, and re- 
ceived the following courteous reply: 

Riverside, Cal., Augttti 26, 1890 
Dear Sir: Your esteemed favor of June 3, inclosing letter of introduction from my 

in- ml, Mi. il. c. Bannard, is at hand. 

in regard to the adulteration of honey as pracl iced in the United States, .ill I Know 
i^ what I did myself. 



•chailo Dadant, American Bee Journal, August 15, L888, p. 637. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 747 

During the year 1865 I received the idea from a friend that the common dark honey 
theu on the market could be much improved by the addition of a large per cent (some- 
times 75 per cent) of good white sugar. I took the idea up, and after making some 
experiments I worked up quite a large trade among families by selling from house to 
house ; in fact I bought all the cheap honey I could find in the neighborhood (Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio), and finally I had to send East and South for supplies of honey. 
Where 1 pound was used before I commenced, I afterwards sold 100 pounds, as it was 
much more palatable. 

After a few years I introduced my jjoods into several of the larger western cities, 
and still later on I opened business in Philadelphia and Brooklyn, N. Y. During all 
this time I handled large quantities of comb honey, giving customers their choice. 

This peddling business was done in wagons, two men to each wagon ; each man 
selling 50 to 100 pounds per day, 90 per cent of which was the mixed article generally. 

I have met hundreds of persons who could eat the sugared article, but to whom 
pure honey was almost a rank poison. I suppose it is like strong black coffee, com- 
pared with a milder decoction, with plenty of cream and sugar. 

About the year 1870 I tried some French and German glucose, using it as a part 
substitute for sugar, and when good glucose was made in this country I became pa- 
triotic and used only goods of home manufacture. 

There were two objects in view in the mixing business; one was cheapness, the 
other was the production of a more popular grade of goods: for it was a fael that if 
1 made; the mixture too strong of honey objection was made. 

I have known of many recipes for making imitation honey; one was, Blippery elm 
bark with some sugar, flavored with one or more of the flavoring extracts; but I 
never knew of any quantity being sold. 

While honey was an expensive luxury there was a profit in mixing, but now that 
comb honey at wholesale is worth but 10 to 15 cents and liquid honey 1 fco6 cents per 
pound, there can bo but little profit in mixing. 

I think that the most of the mixing is done in the larger business centers, 

I know of no successful experiment in feeding bees a mixture to bo filled into 
combs ; pure liquid honey is sometimes fed to complete unfinished combs after the 
How of honey has ceased in the dowers. 

Ivespect fully, 



C. O. Peukine. 



Prof H. \Y. Wiley, 

Washington, I>. ( . 



NOTES RELATING TO HONEYS OP DIFFERENT ORIGIN \.\1> TO ARTI- 
FICIAL HONEYS. 

<>\ mm PRODU< nOK OF ARTIFICIAL RONBT. 

About L870 the author made the observation thai the action of the mineral acids 
an starch was somewhat different from that of the stronger organic acids, By the 
action of oxalic acid on wheat, maize, buckwheat, and other cereal starches, be 
obtained sugary products, which, alter two or three weeks standing, wero exactly 
like an old honey in appearance and taste. In order to avoid giving an] assistance 
to adulteration, he retrained from publishing the results of his observations, conv 
municating them only too few. friends. For some years, however, honey, especially 
American, has been exposed to the risk of adulteration with the Bugar from corn 
starch. About a year previously, the author obtained information that in North 
America :i maize starch sirup was made and much used as a substitute for honey. 
A periodical thai he had lately read gave I review of the situation <>f the condition 



* II. Hager, Pharm. Centralhalle, 26, 303; (hem. Centralblatt, Lfc 



748 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

of t lie maize glucose industry, and made the statement that the sirup in question 
resembled honey. It was stated that a mixture of this sirup with an equal amount 
of honey was exported to Europe as Americau houey. Furthermore, the method of 
manufacture of the sirup was stated to be a secret. The author therefore thought it 
hie doty to explain this secret, and to publish the fact that by using oxalic acid 
instead of sulphuric acid a honey-like glucose was obtainable. Potato starch could 
not be used. It is well to be on the watch for adulteration in American honey. 

MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL HONEY.* 

An English patent. No. B863, July 22, 1885, prescribes the mixture of 35 parts of 
dextrose and 40 parts of levnloee, a fruit ether, and enough cane sugar to make a 10 
per cent solution and give a rotation of 1- on a Soleil Ventzke polariscope. The 
mixture may be crystallized by adding some granulated honey. 

8UGAB HONEY, t 

At the tenth annual meeting of the Independent Association of Bavarian Repre- 
sentatives of Applied Chemistry, held at Augsburg on July 17, Theodore Weigle re- 
ported on sugar honey. This material has lately been brought to the notice of the 
public as a cheap substitute for genuine honey. It consists of water, invert sugar, 
(races of mineral matter, and free acid, flavored so as to imitate the odor and taste of 
genuine honey. Dextrine, sucrose, or other bodies foreign to genuine honey could not 
be found iii the artificial product and it is apparent that both chemically and phys- 
ically the substitute so closely approximates honey that it can not be distinguished 
from it. K. Kayser, of Nuremberg, substantiated the above and claimed that if the 
manufacture of sugar honey remains in the hands of reliable men, it would soon re- 
duce the production of genuine honey materially.; 

HONEY ANALYSIS. $ 

An English firm, A. Lyle & Co., has put on the market a so-called ''artificial 
honey" made from cane sugar, and consisting of levulose and dextrose like the 
natural honey, which it closely resembles in every respect except as to taste and 
smell. To differentiate between this substance and honey, can be used tin' total 
Lack of phosphoric acid in the former. Natural honey contains between 0.01-1 and 
0.035 per cenl phosphoric acid. On the other hand the starch sirup, also used as an 
adulterant, contains from 0.01 to 0.107 per cent. The ash of pare honey and thai of 

Lyle's substitute are heavily alkaline : that from glucose or glucose mix t uivs is always 
neutral. 

EUCALYPTUS HONK'S am> lis expose. || 

In L887, Dr. Thomas ( laraman, commnnioated to the Paris Academic de ftffe'deoinean 
aoconni of finding a giant colony of hitherto andescribed bees (named by him Jpii 
nigra hn llifica i in euoalypl us t rees in Tasmania. In one instance a hi\ e was said to 
contain 11,000 ponndi of honey. This honey was described at a thick, transparent 

• Pharm. Centralhalle, 28, 92. 

• 1 fentsehe Zllekei imllistl le, 10, 1043. 

periments in the manufacture of sugar honej on a large scale were made as 
early as 1885 by Dr. A. Herzfeld and were reported in Deutsche Zuckerindustrie, I --.">, 
So, 33, p. 1120. 
$ o. Hehner, Analyst, 1885, 211 : Report, anal, ('hem., 6, n : abs. ('hem. Central* 

Matt, L885, 204. 
| Pharm. Era, Feb. 15, 1891, p. 107. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY 749 

sirup of a deep orange color, smelling like eucalyptus oil. Analysis by Ch. Heri- 
son gave — 

Sugar (mostly levulose; 01. 16 

Ash 18 

Moisture 21.66 

Active principles (eucalyptol, eucalyptene, cymol, etc) 17. 10 



100. 00 



Rotatory power, 22° [direction not given] ; sp. g., 1.44. 

Doubt was at the time expressed that a honey gathered from the blossoms should 
contain priuciples peculiar to the leaf of the eucalyptus, and iu Australia there was 
an opinion that eucalyptus honey was a mixture of ordinary honey and eucalyptus 
oil. Prof. T. P. A. Stuart (University of Sydney, New South Wales) investigated the 
matter and found that, while honey was really collected from eucalypti, such stu- 
pendous hives had not been heard of. The native bee (Trigona carbonaria) collects 
not above an average of 5 pounds of honey per hive. The comb presents an inter- 
laced looking structure, not resembling the hexagonal structure of comb made by our 
hive bees. Analysis gave : 

Water 13. 63 

Levulose, dextrose, etc 78. 9d 

Cane sugar 0. 00 

Wax, pollen, and inorganic matter 2. 15 

Ash 31 

Undetermined 4. 93 



100. 00 



The specimen was clear, homogeueous, dark red, and semitluid. No trace of es- 
sential oil, terpene, rosin, or similar substances could be found. 

DATE HONKY (DATE BIRUP).* 

Date honey was on exhibition at the- last Parisian World's Pair among the pro- 
ductions of Algeria. In Algeria it is used largely for medicinal purposes, mostly as 
a specific for pulmonary troubles. It has an unpleasant smell and taste, the latter at 
fust reminding one of "syrupus Hollandicus," afterwards of the date. The usual 
annua of honey is absent. The color is brownish yellow. On long keeping it grad 
Daily candies. It feebly reddens bine litmus. In al to *2 solution it rotates the 
solarized ray 20 to the left. It contains traces of dextrin; chlorine in tolerable 
quantity, 0.95 per cent (calculated as NaCl, L.53 per cent); snlphario acid, 0.19 per 
cent. The product though called " date honey " appears to be the exuded sap of the 
date tree and is therefore ;i sirup, and not a honey. 

POISONOUS SONET. ' 

That the poisonous honey which Xenophon mentions in his Anabasis j s collected 

by bees from the blossoms of the Rhododendron ponticum or the dtdtoa ponHea was 
pretty generally recognized even before t ho poisonous ingredient of this plant was 
known. Plogge has demonstrated from Investigation with honey collected from t hoe 

lowers that the honey is really poisonous anil that Its poisonous qutlity is Aw,' to 
sndromedotoxiu. 



• Karl Qaab, (hem. Zeit., Jan. 88, 1891, p. 118. 

t P. C. Plngge. Arch. Pharm., L891, W», 664; aba, Chem. Zelt., 1891, v.. 



750 POODS AM) food ADULTERANTS- 

POISONOUS HONEY.* 

A case was reported from Brauehville, S. (J. A number of people ate honey gath- 
ered from gelsemium flowers, Three died and 'it) were rendered ill. Analysis of the 
honey showed large quantities of gelseinin. 

FENNEL HON! 

Fennel honey consists of 500 grams purified honey; malt sugar, 1,000 grams; fen- 
nel oil, 5 drops, and a little glycerin. 

TINTED HONEY. 1 

Tinted honey of great beauty and delicacy has been produced. The comb is vir- 
gin, the wax almost white, the honey limpid, pure, and of the color of pale red cur- 
rant jelly. The secret of its production is not revealed, except that it is the result 
of artificial feeding. 

ANALYSIS OF ETHIOPIAN HONEY.§ 

This honey is the product of an insect resembling a large fly and is deposited un- 
derground. No wax is secreted. Tin- honey gave on analysis : Water, 25.50 percent; 
fermentable sugar (lev nlose "with one-sixth dextrose, but no cam 1 sugar), 32; man- 
nite, :5 ; dextrin, 27.90 ; ash, 2.50 ; and other substances and loss, 9.10. 

HONEY FROM SUMATRA. || 

This sample was the product of Apis in die a and was gathered during the rainy 
season. When it came into the author's bands bait' a year later it was fermenting, 
but was nevertheless analyzed. It contained 26.6 per cent of water; levulose and 
dextrose in the ratio of 5.92 to 7.41, ami traces of wax, starch, and pollen grains. 
Neither cane sugar nor dextrin could be detected. The ash amounted to 0.23 per 
cent. 



U. em. Zeit, 1886,27. 
t Pharm. Zeit., 1879,719; Am. Jour. Pharm., March, 1880,132; ProcAmer. Pharm. 
Assoc., 1880, 00. 

; Pharm. Jour. Loud., Dec, 1 -TO ; Abs. in Proo. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1-71, 313. 
$A.Villiers, Comptes rendn, 88, 292; abs. Chem. Centralblatt, 1879, 229. 
II A. P. \. Franchimont, Chem. Centralblatt, L883. 138. 



HONEYS. 

ANALYSES BY MR. H. A. HUSTON. 
Description of samples. 



No. 


Bongbt of. 


Price 

per 
pound. 


Source. 


Description. 


Remarks. 


1 


Bogan Ac Johnson. 


$0. I.', 


Fuller & Fuller. 


Strained Indiana 






La Fayette, Ind. 




Chicago, 111. 


Honey. 




2 


David Hill, La Fa- 
yette, Ind. 


. 30 





Pare Strained Hone; 










3 


Longgear & Co., La 


.25 


Dan. Stuart, Indian- 


Strained Bnckwheal 






Fayette, Ind. 




apolis, Ind. 


Honey. 




4 


W. Q.Brown, LaFa 

yetto, Ind. 


. lo 




California Honey . . . 






The Fair, Chicago, 111. 


.18 


Apiary of A.Chris- 
tie, Southland. 
Iowa. 


Honey (strained) . .. 







....do 


.18 


Apiaryof J. S.Crnch. 


Pare Honey gath- 
ered from white 
clover. 




7 


Chas, H. Slack. Chi- 


.25 


I'u! up by Chas. II. 


Strained Honey .... 




50, 111. 




Slack. 






8 L. M. Brown a- Sons, 


.25 


< ', :ic-t A 1. 


...do 




La Payette. 




Cbeneysvillo, HI. 









... do 


.2.'- 


Loa A ngeles, Cal . . . 


Henderson's I'u re 
White (' lover 


Bad odor; ash bron n. 








Ilonev . 




](i Schwann a II. in 






Pure i 1 




miller, LaFa 




New Foi k. 


Bom 1 1 




n 


Pottlitzer Bros., La 


. '-'."> 


Pa- Iced \<\ Hildreth 


Bxti a c t ed 






. 1 1. 




Bros, a Legelken, 

\' ink . 


Honej . 




12 


Bodeman a < lonrad, 

( Ibicago, 111. 






Strained 11,.,,. 






('. Jevne a ( !o., Chi 

JO ill. 


. 80 




:el\ P II 1 e 
' .111;: 


















bone) . 




1 1 


II. C Honerlah, Cbi- 
oago, in. 


. If. 


Jno. K. M. .Miisi, r, 
1 blcago, III. 


Ik. in \ (strained) . . 




I 


I [asset! 'a,( Ihica go 111 
Joyce A Co I 


. 20 
20 




si rained Ho i 

IIoihx (gf rained ).... 




1C 




iie.i\\ precipitate of 
d. itrin 




111. 








17 


J. H. Wella a Co 
< Ihica 


. 80 





• inn. <i Hone] 




18 


I). uts< h A]imi beke, 
Chicago, ill. 






Pine ii. .ii' \ (strain* 










ed) 


• 



751 



752 foods 


AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 






Description of samples — 


Continued. 








Pi ice 








No. 


Bought of. 


per 


Source. 


Description. 


Remarks. 


_ 




pound. 








19 


Sprague Warner A 


« 




California Honey . . : 


Sprague Warner &• 




Co., Chicago. 








Co. stated tliat Tlie 
sample contained 
glucose; heavy pre- 
cipitate of dextrin 


20 


F. Prussing, Chicago, 


0.25 


Put up by P. Truss- 


Pure Strained Honey 


Stated to he country 




111. 




ing- 




honey. 


21 


Ordway & Wallace, 


.15 





California Strained 


Stated to be pure 




Chicago, 111. 






Honey. 


goods. 


22 


D.B. Scully, Chicago 


.15 




do 




23 


Bock wood Bros., Chi- 


.30 


G.K. McMechcn & 


Old Virginia Pure 


Sign around neck of 




cago, 111. 




Son. Wheeling, 
W, Va. 


Honey. 


bottle, "These 

goods ate absolute- 
ly pure." Heavy 
precipitate of dex- 
trin. 


24 


A. R. Bremer &. Co , 






Pure Ca lif o r n i a 






Chicago, 111. 






Honey. 




25 


....do 






Mixed Honey (Glu- 
cose). 


Bremer \ Co. stated 










that this sample 












was mixed goods. 












Contain dextrin. 


2G 


P. J. Ryan, Indianap- 
olis, Intl. 


.25 


P. n. Leggett&Co., 

New York. 


Strained Honey 




27 


Sink well, Indianap- 


.25 


Bradshaw & Wait, 


White Clover Honey, 


Contains some comb. 




olis. Ind. 




Chicago. 


California. 


Fluid clear. 


28 


N. A. Moon <fc Co., 
Indianapolis. 


•" 


ilo 


...do 


Contains sotm comb. 
Fluid not clear. 


29 


C. W. Coulter, In- 


.'JO 


Refined and packed 


Mississippi Valley 


Contains some comb. 




dianapolis. Ind. 




by Dobaon & Bils. 


White C 1 o \ er 
Honey. 




30 


Indianapolis Market, 
House. 


.20 


..do 


.do 


Contains no comb. 












31 


Harwich [cdianapo- 

lil Market Houet 


.20 


Portland, Ind 


WhiteCloTer Honey 


Stated to be pure. 


32 


.. do 


. 128 


Yineonnc-, Ind 


Spanish N e •• d l e 

HolieV . 


Do. 


:j:< 


. . do 


.1.'5 
. 1 5 


I'hunix, Ariz 

California 


Sagebush Honey — 
W h i t e Sagebush 

Honey. 


l»... 


84 


.. do 


Stated to be pure and 






extra tine. 




.. do 


. L25 
.15 


Plionix, Ai iz 


Ail. ill. i Honey 

Golden Rod Honey 


Stat, d to be pure. 


86 


.. .I.. 


Static! to io n i a i n 








glucose and with- 












drawn from sale. 












< lives heavy pio- 












cipitate of dextrin. 


37 


Geo, P, Tranl., In 


.41) 




Strained Honey ... 


Sample put Dp lie 




dianapoils, fad. 






hind prescription 

a s e : contained 












tWO distinct lav eiH, 












top one apparently 












u ater. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
Description of samples. — Continued. 



753 



Bought of 



C.T.BedfordJndiau- 
apolis, Ind. 

P. H. Kelley, Indian 
apolis, Ind. 

Remedy Drug Store, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

H.H. Lee & Co., In 
dianapolis, Ind. 

J. M. Balfour, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

E. Pasquier, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

A. J. Ferrell, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

W. F. Clem, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

John Houk &. Son, 
Indianapolis, Ind. 

J. B. Hoover, Indian- 
apolis, Ind. 

Edward Meeker, In- 
dianapolis, Ind. 

Jamison Brothers, La 
Fayette, Ind. 

Louis Schism, La 
Fayette, Ind. 



Price 

per 

pound. 

$0.40 
.50 



Source. 



Description. 



Remarks. 



| PureStrained Honey 
Strained Honey 



20 Hamilton Co., Ind ..! do 



.25 
.15 
.20 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.15 
.20 
.15 



XG and RX White Gave no testfordex- 
Clover Honev XX. trin. 



Near "Wellington, Pure White Clov. r 

Ohio. F.oney. 
j California Honey . . 



Illinois Illinois Honey 



i Pure White Comh 

Honey. 
Walter S. Prouder, Pure Extracted 



Indianapolis, Ind. 
...do 

...do 



From mountains, 
California. 



Honey. 
....do 

....do 

California Honey. 
....do 



Contains some comh. 
Sample fluid. 
Sample solid. 
Do. 

Odor had ; heavy 
prec. of dextrin. 

Stated to ho pure 
honey. 



754 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANT& 

Analytical data. 



No. 



Polarization. 

rempera 

Direct Indirect. ,ure < ° c - 



Sucrose. 

Per vent. 
1.010 

2. 560 
0.617 
8.100 

3. 210 
3. 600 

3.640 

L.330 

2 9-10 
0.153 
0. 020 

10. 240 
0.020 
4.090 
2.560 
1.470 
0.344 
0-210 
9.710 
2.660 
3. 190 
trace 

11.380 
4.450 

11.400 
3. (WO 
3. 750 
7 610 
5.0.^0 
3.800 
4.210 
1.470 

2. 290 
traoe 

1.210 

2 120 

7. ('.on 
:». B70 

10.296 

I 200 



Reducing 
sugars. 

81.800 
76. 056 
70. 056 
65. 425 
75. 380 
77. 140 
78. 260 
77.140 
65. 850 
72. 970 
72. 000 
67. 500 
70.410 

65. 850 
03. 529 

66. 840 

77. 140 
72. 970 
61.430 

78. 26o 
72. 000 
79.410 
62. 790 
81.370 
60. 000 
80. 597 

69. 230 
07. 500 
85. "';n 

82 375 

79. 110 

70. 056 
79. 110 

01. 300 
70.080 

79. 110 
!.06G 

60 

79. 110 

CO. (11)11 

si. BIO 
06. 640 



Water. 


Ash. 






13.56 


0.126 


81.59 


0.073 


18.80 


0. 141 


16. 60 


0. 239 


14.77 


0.209 


14.66 


0.159 


14.04 


0. 003 


15.15 


0.167 


21.46 


0.363 


18 97 




17. 95 


0.152 


17.50 


0. 063 


16. 16 


0. 039 


16.54 


0. 140 


16.49 


o. 191 


16.24 


O. 225 


16.88 


0. 07.-, 


16.11 


0. 069 


14.93 


0. 156 


14.77 


0.063 


14.40 


0.099 


14.97 


0.063 


14. 18 


0.109 


12.10 


0.049 


15.82 


0. 340 


15 85 


0. 079 


21.00 


0.233 


19.25 


o. 225 




0. 136 


18.85 


0.281 


16.34 


0. 075 


10.91 


0.205 


14.29 


0. 057 


14.68 


058 


11.21 


0. 072 


16.80 




21.73 


on 


1 I. 57 


0.201 




0. 027 


1 :.:.! 


0.064 


I • »5 


984 


16 io 


0. 143 


17.89 


n. 188 




061 




0.078 




0. 070 


l i 80 


0.208 


16 09 


0. 108 






21. I- 


on ,7 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND BONEY. 



755 



No. 

1756 
1757 

1758 
175!i 
1760 

1761 
1762 
1763 
1764 
1765 
1766 
1767 
1768 
1769 
1770 
1771 
1772 
177.; 
1771 
177.-, 
1776 
1777 
1778 
1779 

1781 
1782 

1784 

1785 
1786 

17-7 
178« 

1790 
1791 
1792 

17-; 
179S 

17'.*.; 

1799 

,-u-, 



ANALYSES BY II. II. NICHOLSON. 
oription of samples. 



Bought of. 



Wholesaler or manufacturer. 






us. Lincoln Ritter Conserve Co., Philadelphia 

Starrett Bros., Lincoln . 

Clark & Son, Lincoln McMechen 



do 



Jas. Miller, Lincoln 

0. J. King, Lincoln 

W. A. Klock. Lincoln McMechen 

J. D. Johnson, Lincoln 

"Win. Hotsling, Lincoln McMVchen 

•J no. Nightengale, Lincoln X. 30. Uelick, Davey, Nebr 

J. D. Garner, Lincoln 

do 

Fnllerton Bros.. Lincoln N. E. Melick, Davey, Nebr 

C. M. Seitz, Lincoln 

baler, Lincoln 

John Nightengale, Lincoln .. .. 

J. I). Garner, Lincoln IfcMechen 

Fnil-i ton Bros., Lincoln do 

A. C. Schiller, Lincoln 

J.C.Mc largar, Lincoln 

Arenson Bros., Lincoln 

1. E. Joli 11-0:1 Si < 'o . Lincoln 



EH 8. Yose, Crete Chan. Fisher 



.do 



. Bartling, Beati Los Angeles. 

ce 

L L. Flak, Beatrice 

Anderson & Co B trioe 

Petting) eatrice 

set, Beatrice 

Robertson Mc4 din 

Win. Fleming It Co., Omaha Virginia 

Little Sl Williams, Omaha McMechen 

C.B.M ... Liti. r, California 

Henry Pundt, Omaha do 

Heimrod A Co., Omaha do 

J. D. Wilde, Omaha v C. Davidson, On 

I • 1. ilia 

Fred, K. Baboook, Omaha 

D I.. < .11 penter, 1 >m ihs 

Fi ■ ■■!. K Bal Oma 

1' M Back, Omaha 

A. Benm ker, Omahs . . 

Wiehert 

iilm. Oman . , 

M. II. Gross, ( Hb ib 1 

Jens Jen ion • >maha 

King Bros., Omahs 

Mi Mi. in. \ Banner, Lincoln 

' lark \ Son. Lincoln 



Pure Honey, CaL 
No labeL 

Old Virginia. 
Pure Honey. 

Do. 

Do. 
Old Virginia. 
Pore Honey. 
Old Virginia. 
Pure Honey. 
No label 
Purr Honey. 

Do. 
No label. 

Do. 

Do. 
Pure Homy. 

Do. 

Do. 
No label. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do, 
White I l" 

NO label. 

California homy. 

1.. 
No label. 

Do. 

Do. 
Pure Hi 

Do. 
While Clo 

I... 

Do 
Pure Honey. 
No label 
Wbiti I 

No label. 

Do. 

ho 

Pars Hon. v 

Do 

Do. 

Do 

Pare H 

Do 

D.. 



756 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical data. 



No. 


Polarization. 


Direct. 


Indirect. 


1756 


29. 8 


-12.5 


1757 


46.1 


36. 2 


1758 


-23.0 


—28.5 


1759 


-2^.5 


—29.2 


1760 


-2 ». 9 


—29. 3 


1761 


12.4 


36.9 


1762 


—24.9 


-28. 6 


1763 


-24.8 


-28. 8 


1761 


61.2 


52.0 


1765 


-23. 5 


-28.1 


1766 


57. 5 


56.5 


1767 


—24.8 


—28.4 


176S 


—23.7 


-28.1 


1769 


72.3 


66.6 


1770 


—23. 5 


—25.3 


1771 


-23.3 


-28.8 


1772 


43.2 


33.7 


1773 


42.4 


34.4 


1774 


—23. 3 


-28. 3 


1775 


— 12.5 


—20.7 


1776 


-26.8 


-29.1 


1777 


—23. 


—28. 8 


1778 


—19.8 


—26. 3 


1779 


76.0 


70.3 


1780 


75.5 


70.4 


1781 


1 9. 9 


28.1 




82.0 


77.4 


1783 


83.8 


79.0 


1784 


16.4 


26. B 


1785 


7.4 


29.3 


1786 


82.8 


77.1 


1787 


01.9 


52.8 


1788 


:io.9 


i _). L> 


1789 


31.8 


12.0 


179U 


12.6 




1791 


17.1 


27. 3 


179 2 


15.6 


20. 8 


179'! 


116.2 


102,0 


1794 


i2.9 


21. 


I'M 




57.7 


1796 


28.1 


11.4 


17<.i7 


2.1. 2 


29. 


1798 


81.6 




1708 


72, <; 






B1.1 


22. 7 


1801 


i . ; 














76. 5 


- 


47.2 






28. 


28. 7 



Tempora- Ci 
ture, =C. bl 



Reducing 
sugars. 



Percent. Per cent. 

57.16 

I 66.64 

71.60 

! 72.80 

72.80 

57.16 
70.50 
80.00 
60.40 
76.80 

62. 40 
70.00 
70.00 
59.20 
71.90 
59.90 
61.60 
62. 40 
71.60 
74.20 
71.90 
78.10 
77.50 
56. 50 
55.90 
69.90 
54. 30 
52, 30 
66.20 
74.10 
51. 70 
59.50 
51.50 
59.50 
69.40 
60. 60 
77. 90 

(to. 50 

1.1. 00 

7::. 5o 

;»■. 88 
64.60 
02. 5o 
74. lo 

63. 2o 
81.30 
67. 60 



Water. 

Per cent 

19.06 
18.07 
23.39 
20.93 
20.38 
16.00 
20. 10 
22.71 
14.81 
17.79 
32.78 

19. 27 
14.56 
19.98 
15.81 
22.12 
20.27 
22.10 
22. 36 
22. 7 1 

27. 59 
16.11 

22. 12 

20. 62 
2917 
34.99 

29. 43 
26.81 
36. 70 

28. 46 
27. 39 
17. 31 

30. 64 

89. 2<; 
23.01 

32. 67 

20. 62 

23. 95 

22. 67 

J8. 77 

33. 90 

22. 92 
27. 88 
19. 17 
19.35 
80.49 



0.24 
o. 18 
0. IS 
12 
0.14 
0.14 
0.14 
0.17 
0.14 
0.08 
0.56 
0.19 
0.14 
0.24 
0.19 
0.10 
0.17 
0.08 
0.07 
0.02 
0.09 
0.13 
0. 12 

».» 

o. 2:; 

0.16 

0.21 
0.21 
0. 07 
o.oc, 
o. 22 
0.1"' 
0. 16 
0. 06 
0.21 
0. 10 

0.26 

o. 25 

".:■.-> 
o 21 
0.08 
o. 18 
0. 19 

ii in; 

0. 13 
0. 15 
0.26 

o. I 9 

0. 18 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

ANALYSES BY W. B. RISING. 
Description of samples. 



757 



S T o. 


Label. 


Where bougbt. 


Price. 


Color, etc. 


1 


Fine Extra \V bite San Diego 
Honey ; bottled by Phila- 


Eichwede, Mubr cfc Co., 


$0.25 pint 


Brown liqnid. 




Adeline and 7tb, Oak- 






delphia Manufacturing 


land. 








Company, 110 Ellis street, 










San Francisco. 








2 


Los Angeles Honey, in cans. 


Congdou ft Co., Berkeley. 


$0.10 pint 


Light yellow. 


11 


Pure California Honey, Till- 
man &. Bendel, San Fran- 
cisco. 


Hadler Bros., lGlb and Mis- 
sion, San Francisco. 


$0.20 J pint 


Palo yellow liquid. 


VI 


Orange Blossom Honey, San 
Jose Fruit Packing Com- 


do 


....do 


Dark amber liquid. 










pany, San Jose, Cal., 










(Trade-mark, eagle and. 










two bears.) 








u 


Los Angeles Honey, in cans. 
Pure Extracted Honey, put 
up byRisdon, Cahn& Co., 


Stewart Bros., Berkeley .. 
Ainswortb Bros , Market 


$0. 15 pint 


Yellow. 


15 


tO. 20 pint 


Pale yellow. 




and 1 4th, Oakland. 


$0.25 pint 


Pale yellow liqnid. 




San Francisco. 






. 


i<; 


Schacbt&Lemke,Sau Fran- 
cisco, Monarcb Brand. 


Palmer ft C o ., Market 
and 14th, Oakland. 


$o. 10 per pint. .. 


Do. 


17 


Xo label 


A. "WjilliiKiii Adeline And 










14th, Oakland. 




18 


No label. 


M. Walsh, Peralta a a d 
14th, Oakland. 


$('. 10 i pint 


Very pale. 


19 Same label an No. 12 


"itli and Kirkham, Oakland 


tO. 25 | pint 


Dark yellow. 


20 Para Extracted Honey, Cas- 


Northeast corner Cypress 


$0.15 J pint 


Yellow. 




tie Bros., San Francisco. 


and 10th, Oakland. 






21 


Honey, bottled by Philadel- 
phia Manufacturing Com- 
pany, 118 Ellis street. Ban 
Francisco. 


Northwest coiner 1.-th and 
Valencia, San Francisco. 


00.25 pint — 


Do. 


22 


Extra White Los Angeles 
Honey ; bottled by Phila- 
delpbia Manufacturing 
Company, San Pranoieco. 


Southwest cornel 18th and 
Mission, San Francisco. 


....do 


Do. 


23 


No label : said to be from 
Sonoma County. 


C. Butt, corner l'.'th and 
Stevenson, San Fran- 


t0.1t i pint 


Pale yellow. 


21 


No label 


Southwest corner 1 Ot h and 
Mission, San PranoiaOO. 


....do 


Pale fellow, semi 

solid. 


25 


No lal>rl ; said to be from 


Southwest corner lHthand 
Valencia, San Francisco. 

South* eat 001 nerlOtb and 
liiaaion, Ban Praneiaoo. 


t0.20pial 


Pala yellow 
1 > 1 o w n. 


San DiegO. 

\'i, 1 ilnl 


pint 


.> O JitlM 1 ................... 




27 


do 


C. Dellwlgg, v.i I e no la, 
10 ai 18th, San Praneiaoo. 


$i'.-0 pint 


Lighl yellewj 
cr\ italHaod 


26 


As i ii No. 1 2 


Sou t Ii West (Oilier 1 '.'1 1 1 all" I 


....do 


Brawn, pari 

talli. 1 .1 






■ n, s.ui Pranoiaoo. 




29 


No label 


P. Panleea, \ Blent la and 

istii. San Pranoiai o 


do 


v. i j pal. yellow. 


M 


do 


18th and kfiaaion 

Pranoiaoo. 


$0 M p< i 1'iui 


Light rellon 


:ti 


s.niH" label aa No. 1 


A. Bly, LSthand Boff, Ban 
Pranoiaoo, 


to. 2."> par I'iui 


fellow. 




do 


I'uiit* l)i ih. liitli.uitl Mi- 


do . 


Do. 






sion. San Praneiaoo. 






83 


N>> label . in Una from Los 
Angela* 


Lincoln fl Pal kiii-oii. Pit li. 

neat M laaion. 


... do 


Light, .M'llli.Mdl.l. 


V 


Ban Diego Bone; 


il. Boa -'1. Ittb and Bon- 
del, San 1 | 


da 


Alni' -' 



jsxus_Xo. \;\- 



758 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 





Description of samples— Continued. 




No. 


Label. 


"Where bought. 


Price. 


Color, etc. 


35 


Orange Grove, Los Angeles, 
guaranteed to be pure. 


A. Aldrich, 16th, near Va- 
lencia, San Francisco. 


$0.25 per pint 


Yellow. 


36 




do 


do 


Yellow, turbid 


Los Angeles ; in tins. 






?7 






$0. 10 per £ pint . . . 








del, San Francisco. 




38 


do 


A. Bly, 16th and Hoff ave- 
nue, San Francisco. 


---.do 


Light yellow. 


3ft 


do 


17th and Valencia, San 
Francisco. 


...do .. 


Do 










64 


No label; in 5-gallon tins; said 
to be from Los Angeles. 


E. G. Sim, 18th and Mis 
sion, San Francisco. 


$0. 10 per pound. .. 


Golden yellow. 


65 


Pure San Diego Honey ; bot- 
tled expressly for family 
use by C. Q. "Williams <fc 
Co., 417 Washington 
street, San Francisco. 


2d and Mission, San Fran- 
cisco. 


$0. 15 per i pint . . . 


Pale yellow. 


cm 




E. V. Mehden, 4th and 
Mission, San Francisco. 




Do. 










128 




Schacht & Lemcke, Sacra- 
mento and Drumm, San 




Do 




arch brand. 










Francisco. 






129 


No label 


do 




Brown yellow. 


no 


In pint cans labeled Pure, 
Extracted Queen Bee 
















Honey, put up by Russ, 










Sanders, & Co. , San Fran- 










cisco. (Red can. ) 








131 


SameasNo. 130. (Greencan) 
Same as No. 128 






Golden yellow. 
Yellow. 


13? 


Schacht &- Lemcke, San 








Francisco. 






133 


Strictly Pure Extracted 


Sullivan Bros 




Reddiah. 




Honey, Sullivan Bros., San 










Franc isco. Trade mark, 










R.* C. 








134 




do 




Yellow. 


135 


do 


do . 




Keel. 


1M 


do 


do 




Yellow. 


137 


Pure Los Angeles honey, 

v. Marten's, r>t; Washing- 


Frist \ ricslin, Washing- 
ton Market. 


10. 26 per pint 


Reddish candied. 




ton Market. 






13R 




Goldberg, Bowen a Co., 

Tine, near Keani.-s, Sin 


$0. (i. r > per ipiai t . 














Francisco. 






139 


N'n label , said lo lie from 
Loi An-ilis . iii li ml jai. 


a. w. Fink, Washington 
Market, Ban Franolaoo. 


|0.45 per quart 


Pale yellow. 


140 


Nn label . in , r i gallon cans ; 


Hewlett a < Iraber, Cali- 


$it.. r )0 per quart ■ - 


Dark yellow. 




sani to lie from Loa a d 


fornia Market. 






gelee. 






141 
142 


No label ; in tin i t jais 

No label 


Bennett, California Market $;». i:. per qnarl 

Asinann &. Oesting, Call- 

r.iinia Market. 


Tale yellow. 






1 II 


do 






Pais yellow. 






ier, San Franolaoo. 




l'J'J 


I, os A n^eles lnine\ 


California Mai ket, Ban 


$0. 30 per pint . . . 


Yellow. 






Franc Laoo, 







SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 759 



Analytical data. 



No. 



1 
2 
11 
12 
14 
1G 
15 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
•J 7 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
3f) 
36 
37 
38 
39 
64 
85 

12H 
129 
130 

132 

134 
135 
134 

137 
138 

IK) 

in 
142 

192 



Polarization. 



Diiect. 



- 13.75 

- 21.00 

- 15. 20 
30.60 

- 18. 50 

9.40 
32.50 

- 20. 00 
46.40 

- 16. 20 
18.00 

- 17. 60 

- 12. 80 
58.80 

- 18.90 

- 1G.50 

- 22. 50 
68.10 
16.20 

- 16.40 

- 12.30 

- 22.40 

- 19. 60 

- 21.10 

- 21. 50 

- 16.40 

- 18.90 

- 16. 90 

- 18.20 

- 16.00 

- 20. 60 
87.00 

- 21. 60 
17.90 

17.60 

- 18.50 
19.10 
18.50 
20. 00 

17. !'() 

20. i" 

119.211 

it;, no 
17.50 
L4.90 



Indirect. 



Tempera- 
ture °C. 



Sucrose. 



Reducing 

sugars. 



— 17.25 

— 24. 97 , 

— 21. 34 
19.80 

— 24. 75 

3.30 I 
24.75 

— 20. 90 
41.47 

— 20. 02 
14.70 

_ 18. 32 

— 27. 28 
52. 03 
18.90 
27. 50 

— 22. 50 
63.30 

— 19. 58 

— 24.09 

— 23. 54 

— 24.64 
23.65 
23. 54 
23. 60 

— 21.80 

— 23.65 

— 20. 35 
23. 76 

— 25. 19 
L':». in 
87.10 
2::. 00 
23. 6.-, 

21. 1L' 

22. 1 1 

21.67 

23. i" 

23. Id 
23. 1") 

23. 1" 
23, 40 

112.80 

■_•:.. 7o 
23. 6o 
23. 10 



Per cent. 
2.50 

2.35 

4.49 

8.00 

4.28 

4.49 

5.71 

0.72 

3.57 

2.86 

1.30 

0.93 

10.77 

3.49 

0.00 

8.14 

0.00 

3. 4l> 

2. 4'_' 

5. 64 

8.30 

1.80 

3.00 

2.41 

!.7i' 

4.00 

3.49 

2.49 

4.00 

6.77 

3.35 

0. 00 

1.42 

1.14 

L88 

2. 1 1 

:;. 7-.i 

1.03 

7. i:. 

t;. tin 



Per cent. 
66.7 

68.5 

68.5 

64.1 

67.6 

61.0 

62.5 

78.1 

:>3. 8 

69.0 
64.8 
65.8 
64.1 
58.1 
68.5 
67.6 
67.5 
64.9 
69.1 
64.1 
64.9 
70. 4 
71.0 
71.4 
73. 5 
60. 4 
64.4 
t;:;. 7 
71.4 

65. 4 

66. -' 
32. 9 

ot;. 2 

51'. 6 
64.8 

64. 1 

c,:.. 7 
07. l 
<;»."> 
i;4 l 
64.9 

c.l. o 



Water. 


A sli. 


Per cent. 
15.34 


Per cent. 
0.800 


17.83 


0.103 


14.95 


0.110 


17.66 


0.290 


14.00 


0.080 


'21.95 


0.090 


14.30 


0.320 


17.97 


0.140 


17.25 


0.230 


16.45 


0.140 


17.40 


0. 130 


21. 75 


3.800 


16. 72 


0.070 


14.66 


0.210 


16.41 


0.160 


15.56 


0.080 


17.08 


0.820 


15.51 


0.510 


15. 22 


0.110 


14.39 


0. 060 


14.20 


0.080 


12.80 


0. 090 


13.97 


0.100 


15.58 


0.050 


14.96 


0.060 


15.22 


0.110 


16.25 


1.420 


15.15 


0.090 


13.33 


0.040 


15.42 


0.080 


13.03 


0.080 


22, 09 


0.200 


16.25 


0.090 


15.09 


0.84" 




0.060 




0.118 




0. 12') 


15.78 


0. li" 


17.17 






o. 950 


17. |fl 


0. 250 


14. it; 




21.36 


0.840 


18 24 


c. 050 










17.17 












17.21 





760 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY M. A. SCOVELL. 

Description of samples. 

Sample 101. McMecheu's Old Virginia Pure Honey, prepared by Geo. K. McMechen 
& Sou, Wheeling, W.Va. In bottle. Label around neck reads, "These 
goods are absolutely pure." Signed, Geo. K. McMechen & Son. Sol< 
by Joseph R. Peeble's Son's Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 102. Pure California Honey, from Los Angeles, Cal. Sold in bulk by Hamil 
ton, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 103. Choice Comb Honey ; made by Githens & Reamer, Philadelphia, Pa 
In glass jar. Sold by R. J. McCombs, Cincinnati, Ohio. There is somt 
comb in the bottle, but the greater portion is liquid. The liquid only 
was taken for analysis. 

Sample 104. Pure Machine-Extracted Honey, from the Italian apiary of Chas. F. Muth 
976 and 978 Central avenue, Cincinnati, Ohio. Sold in bottle by Jo- 
seph Peeble's Son's Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 105. Pure California Honey, from Los Angeles, Cal. Sold in bulk by R 
Schudeldecker, 230 Elm street, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 106. Bought of Stephens W. Hollen, commission merchant, Cincinnati, Ohio 
Country honey in tin buckets. 

Sample 107. Pure honey, prepared by Diokerson & Tyler, Bowling Green, Ky 
Sold in bulk by John Edwell, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Sample 108. California honey. Sold in bulk by E. T. Poynter, Bowling Green, 
Ky. 

Sample 109. Honey prepared by Hanna, Lexington, Ky. Sold in bulk by W. H. May, 
Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 110. California Strained Honey, product of the San Diego apiary. Sold ii 
tin cans by L. G. Yoe, Chicago, 111. 

Sample 111. Honey, sold by Arthur Peter & Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 112. Honey, prepared by James Downing, Lexington, Ky. Sold at market 
house, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 113. Pure Machine-Extracted Honey, from the Italian apiary of Chas. F. Mnth 
&, Son, corner of Freeman and Central avenues, Cincinnati, Ohio. Sold 
in bottle by H. Wedekind A. Co., Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 114. Pare California White Sage Honey. Thurber<& Whyland, New York City, 
In bottle ; label around Deck reads, " This honey is absolutely pure and 
unlike Liquid honey that has been mixed with glucose to keep it fron 
granulating. It will naturally candy or granulate and become a soli^ 
mass in course of time. If preferred in its liquid state, remove tin 
<dik ;m»l place the bottle in hot water until the honey is melted." Sold 
by Schuabacher, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 11".. Buckwheat Honey, from NYw Fork. Bold by J. B. Wuraeh, Louisville, 
Ky. 

Sample I H'>. Pure Sage California Honey. Sold by Goooh A Edwards, Franklin, Ky 
Bought of II. ( • Armstrong, Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 117. Linn California Honey. Through Castner & Gage, Louisville, Ky. Eta 
tailed bj L. I .ohm-, Louisi llle, Ky, 

Sample 1 18. California White Clover. Through Castner A Gage. Retailed by S.Scholta, 
Louisville, K > . 

Sample 119. Honey, prepared i>y Graham. Sold by J. I. Younglove 6 Bro., drug- 
gist, Bowling Green, Ky. 

Sample 120. California Honey. Sold by T. II. Watkins, Louisville, Ky. 

Sample L21. Honey, prepared i>y Campbell. Sold by J. I. Younglove A pro., How- 
ling Green, Ky. 

Sample 1$2, pure jroney, from i>i. k..i. Spurr, Greepdale, Ky. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 761 

Sample 123. Almond Blossom Honey, from Los Angeles, Cal., in bulk, by J. B. Wnrach, 
Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 124. Honey, from Mrs. Read, Montgomery, Ohio. Sold In bulk by L. T. Grif- 
fiths, northwest corner Sixth and Central avenues, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample 125. McMechen's Old Virginia Pure Honey. Prepared by George K. Mc- 
Mechen & Sou, Wheeling, W. Va. Sold by II. Huueke, Cincinnati, 
Ohio, in bottle with label around neckjhat reads, "These goods are 
absolutely pure." Signed, Geo. K. McMechen. 

Sample 126. Muth's California Honey. Sold in bulk by S. Scholtz, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. 

Sample 127. Honey, put up by Charles F. Math & Son, Cincinnati, Ohio, in bottles. 
Label on neck of bottle reads " Warranted pore ; n red lahel on stopper 
says. " Warranted pure honey." 'Sold by Sterritt, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Light straw color. 

Sample 128. Pure Orange Blossom Eagle Brand Honey, put up by Strohmeyers, New 
York. Sold by E. W. James, Louisville, Ky., in pear-shaped bottles. 
Label around neck reads, " Pure extracted honey ; all pure honey will 
congeal, especially when exposed to light and cold ; in such cases re- 
move cork, place bottle in cold water and let it boil ten minutes and 
the honey will regain its liquid state.'* 

Sample 129. Pure Extracted White Clover Honey, from the apiary of Charles Hill, 
Mount Healthy, Ohio. Sold by the Peebles' Son's Company, Cincin- 
nati, Ohio. Put up in glass jelly jars ; light colored. 

Sample 120. Honey, put up by James Hanna, Lexington, Ky. Sold by S. K. Coxine, 
Lexington, Ky., in bottles. Light color. 

Sample 131. Honey, put up by J. R. Vanmeter, near Lexington, Ky. Sold by John 
Hutchinson, Ky. Light colored, beginning to candy. 

Sample 132. Honey, put up bj Dr. B. L. Price, near Lexington, Ky. Sold by Scully 
& Yates, Lexington, Ky. Light colored; sold in bulk; candied. 

Sample 133. Honey, put up by Brown Vanmeter, Fayette County, Ky. Sold by G. 
H. Kinuear, Lexington, Ky. Light colored, somewhat candied. 

Sample 134. Honey, put op by Brow n Vanmeter, Fayette County. Ky. Sold by 
Henry Vogt, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 135. Comb Hooey, put up in glass jars byGithens & Etexsamer, Philadelphia, 
Pa. Sold by Henry Hnneke, Cincinnati, Ohio. Light colored, some 
comb in it and tilled with strained honey. Liquid only taken for 
analysis. 

Sample 136. McMecbens Comb Honey, old Virginia. Sold by G. W. Jefferson, 

Louisville, Ky. Sold in glass jar-; light Colored. 

Sample 137, California Water White Honey. Boldbj J. B. Wnrach, Louisville, Ky. 

Brought in bulk from Los Angeles, Cal. 
Sample 138. Honey, pnt up bj Joe Downing, near Lexington, Ky. Bold by Henry 

Vogt, Lexington, Ky. Light colored. For analysis liquid onlj was 

taken. 

Sample 139. California Clover Honey. Bought in 50- pound cans; said t<> tome from 
Los Angeles, Cal. Soldbj George Collet d Bro., Bowling Green, Ky. 

■ample 140. Choice Comb Honey. Githei - A Etexsamer, In quart jars with glass ooi 
era. Some comb, and jar filled np with strained honey. 

Sample in. Pure machine extracted rtoney, from the Italian apiarj oi Chai 

If uth, corner Freeman and Central avenues, Cincinnati, Ohio. Sold in 
1-pound bottle by Hambergei a Newburgh, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

■ample 142. Alfalfa Honey, from Arizona. Soldbj J.J. Hunt. Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 143. Pure California Honey, from Los Angeles, Cal. Put up in 50-pound pack- 
ages, and ^<>hl by Colter A Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Sample ill. McMechen's Comb Honey, <>hl Virginia. Pnt up in glass jars Sold 
bj Henry Hnneke, Cinoinnat i. 



762 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Sample 145. Honey, put up in bottles, with label arouudtbe neck which reads, " War- 
ranted pare," signed by Charles F. Math & Son. Sold by B. H. Kroger, 

Cincinnati, < )hio. 

Sample 14(5. Honey, pnt up by J. Hanua, near Lexington, Ky. Sold in bulk ; retailed 
by McClelland, Lexington, Ky. 

Sample 147. Honey, put up by A. C. Kumnian. Sold by Louis Roessler, Cincinnati, 
Ohio. Light colored. 

Sample 148. White Clover Honey, pal ap by Thomas Austin, Nichols »V. Co., Albany, 
N. Y. Sold by George Geltins, Louisville, Ky. 

Sample 149. Honey, put up by Charles F. Math & Sod, in bottle. The label on neck 
reads, " Warranted pure." Sold by A. Barnes, northwest corner Sixth 
and Elm streets, Cincinnati, Ohio. Lightcolored. [Beginning to candy. 

Sample 150. California Honey. Sold in bulk by M. J. Doyle, Louisville. Dark col- 
ored. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY 
Analytical data. 



763 



No. 


Polarization. 


Tempera- 
ture ° C. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Watrr. 


Ash. 


Direct. 


Indirect. 










Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


101 


54.0 


46.5 


24.0 


5.75 


62.50 


9.86 


0.08 


102 


—17.4 


—22.7 


24.8 


4.07 


75.47 


14.36 


0.06 


103 


92.8 


89.0 


24.8 


3.08 


52.63 


16.09 


0.21 


104 


51.0 


45.3 


24.8 


4.38 


61.54 


13. 99 


0.11 


ior, 


—15.6 


—18.3 


25.0 


2.08 


73.39 


14.88 


0.12 


106 


-13.1 


—16.8 


25.2 


2.85 


75.47 


13.83 


0.07 


107 


—12.2 


-14.8 


24.8 


2.00 


74.07 


13.15 


0.05 


108 


—15.2 


—20.8 


24.8 


4.31 


72.73 


13.77 


0.08 


109 


-16.8 


-18.4 


24.2 


1.23 


75.47 


14.31 


0.0b 


110 


72.6 


67.9 


24.8 


3.62 


56.34 


18.54 


0.16 


111 


-18.0 


-21.6 


24.5 


2.77 


73.39 


13.97 


0.04 


112 


—13.2 


—16.4 


25.2 


2.46 


74.76 


15.77 


0.03 


113 


—11.2 


—18.5 


24.8 


5.61 


74.07 


16.21 


0.19 


114 


— 7.2 


—15.1 


24.8 


6.08 


75.47 


11.76 


0.20 


115 


— 3.4 


—18.1 


24.4 


11.29 


65.57 


13.95 


0.12 


116 


75.2 


71.1 


25.2 


3.16 


57.97 


13.81 


9.19 


117 


—19.6 


—22.5 


24.6 


2.23 


72.73 


17.78 


0.07 


118 


—15.6 


—21.7 


24.8 


4.69 


74.07 


15.08 


0.08 


119 


-1.2 


- 7.0 


24.4 


4.45 


72.07 


15.64 


0.08 


120 


—17.0 


—21.6 


24.8 


3.54 


71.43 


19.28 


0.07 


121 


—13.6 


—15.3 


24.6 


1.31 


72.73 


17.37 


0.08 


122 


-11.0 


—14.4 


24.8 


2.62 


65.57 


22. 57 


0.04 


123 


-14.8 


-16.7 


24.8 


1.46 


71.43 


16.00 


0.13 


124 


—15. 8 


—19.3 


24.0 


2.68 


81.63 


13.51 


0.07 


125 


- 9.2 


-12.4 


24.0 


2.45 


65.04 


26.90 


0.19 


126 


93.4 


89.5 


24.8 


3.00 


56.34 


13.01 


0.25 


127 


41.0 


37.7 


24.2 


2. 53 


64.51 


13^87 


0.12 


128 


- 14.8 


-18.8 


14. 2 


3.07 


74.07 


13.35 


0.08 


129 


— 14.0 


—16.7 


24.8 


2.08 


75.47 


13.31 


0.06 


130 


- 13.2 


—16.4 


24.2 


2.45 


72.73 


14.28 


0.02 


131 


— 10.4 


—15. 


24.8 


3.54 


74.08 


14.65 


0.02 


132 


- 14.2 


—16.9 


24.4 


2.07 


73.39 


16.86 


0.02 


183 


— 10.4 


—14.6 


24.0 


3.22 


72. 73 


14.30 


0.03 


134 


- 11.2 


—16.4 


24.0 


3.99 


73. 39 


14.15 


0.01 


135 


92. 4 


88.0 


24.6 


3. 38 


56.34 


13.94 


o. 27 


136 


103. 8 


97.6 


24.8 


4.77 


50. 63 


16. 42 


0.36 


LSI 


1.8 


-19.7 


24.8 


16.54 


60.61 


15.88 


0.05 


138 


12.2 


— 15.2 


24 ii 


2.30 


75.47 


12. I.". 


0.03 


ISA 


— 18.2 


—21 5 


24.6 


2. 58 


72. 73 


13.96 


0.08 


L40 


-l l 


80.1 


24. •; 


3.31 


54. 78 


15.46 


o. 18 


141 


46. 4 


40.2 


24. i 


4.77 


64. 51 


13.11 


0.07 


142 


- 12.4 


— 19. 8 


24. 2 


5. 67 


7i,. »] 


16,68 


0. 10 


143 


- 17.2 


—23. 2 


24.8 


4.61 


7:'.. 47 


12. 83 


o.Ol 


144 


117.1 


113.:. 


24. 6 


:t 00 


50. oo 


1 1 . 66 


il. is 


145 


12.6 


1 7 2 


24. (» 






1 1. 68 


". 66 


146 


118 


—17.4 


2 I 2 


2.00 


74. 07 




0.04 


117 


- 10.6 


—15.4 


24.8 


:i. 88 


74.76 


1 5. 51 


0. lit 


148 


14.8 


—19.0 




3. 23 


72. 73 






149 


10.0 




24. t; 


:t. 69 


66.67 


14.30 


II 11 


150 


- 15.8 


—17. 5 




1.31 






o. 16 



7G4 



Foods AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
ANALYSES BY S. P. SHARPLES. 

Description of samples. 



No. 


Bought from— 


Label. 


Price. 


Remarks. 


9501 


Richard Tubman 6c 
Co , Roxbury, Mass. 


F.P.Adams 6c Co., 230 Dover street, 
Boston, Mass. Warranted Pure 
Florida Honey. 


$0.15 


In tumbler, candied. 


9502 


J. F. Johnson, 25G 


Sold as Pure California Honey. No 


.10 


In tumbler, not can- 




Shawinut avenue, 


label. 




died. 




Boston, Mass. 








9503 


A.N. Swallow & Co., 
1 2 City square, 
Charlestown, Mass. 


No label. Sold as California Honey. 


.10 


Do. 


9504 


Broadway Market, 30 


No label 


.15 


Pieceof comb in honey. 




Broadway, South 






In tumbler. 




Boston, Mass. 








9505 


E.W. Favor, 150 Cam- 


E. W. Favor, groceries, teas, coffees, 


.18 


In tumbler. Comb in 




bridge street, Bos- 


and Hour a specialty, 150 Cambridge 




honey and candied. 




ton, Mass. 


street, Boston, Mass. 






9506 


Ware, Eliot square, 
Boston, Mass. 


No label 


.15 


In tumbler with comb; 








clear ami thin. 


9507 


C. P. Cobb Sc Bros., 
Union street, Bos- 


do 


.10 


In tumbler; clear and 
dark-colored. 








ton, Mass. 








9503 


J. F. Johnson, 256 
Shawmnt avenue, 


do 


.10 


In tumbler, clear. 








Boston, Mass. 








i/50'J 


Chas. Smith, Cam- 
bridge street, Bos- 


do 


.10 


In tumbler; clear, good 
flavor. 








ton, Mass. 








9510 


J. R. Bampton, 2271 
Washington street, 


......do 


. 10 


In tumbler, clear. 












Boxbnry, Mass. 








9511 


Ballard's grocery, 
Broadway, South 


do 


.10 


Do. 












Boston, Mass. 








9512 


J. R. Bampton, Wash- 
ington street, Box- 


do 


.'J3 


Comb honey in pound 
box. Candied after 








bary, Mass. 






extraction. 


9513 


Cobb, Aldrich .v. Co., 
223 B Washington 


do 


.22 


Do. 








s t roe t , Boxbnry, 










Haas. 








0..14 


0. 1). Sw;iin A Co , 


choice ( tomb Honey iron) B, J. Smith, 




Comb honey in pound 




Boxbnry, afaa • 


Grand Vlen Apiary, Addison \ t. 




box. Candiednearly 

solid alter extraction. 


9515 


F. o. White a Co., 


White clover Money from the apiarj 




Comb honey in wooden 




Dudley Street, B"s 


ofV. v. Blaekmer, Orwell, Vi 




DOX ; candied neai ly 




ton, Ifasa 






solid after extras 

tion. 


9510 


W.S. M.-l.hr. A CO 


CboioeComb Hones from Bnei sfonn 




Comb honey in ponnd 




Boxbnrj , sfass. 


tain Api.u\ , Stnnlevanl A Thoinp 

son, Weybridge, vt. 




l>n\ , slightly can 

• lied. 




i tobb, Bates 1 Ferxs 


white label printed la red < tomb 


. 25 


( tomb honey in boi , 




Doob square, Bos 


Honey tr the apiarj ofB 1 » Bpen 




. 1. at 




ion, staai 


. il , OOI ellll \ \ 1 1 If. \. v. 







SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 765 

Description of samples — Continued. 



No. 



Bought from- 



Labt-1. 



Price. 



951 8 



951!) 
9520 



Robert McCullagh, 
Roxburv, Mass. 



J. H. Wythe &. Co., 
Cambridge, Mass. 

Tisdale, Washington 
street, Roxbury, 
Mass. 



White label printed in red. Comb 
Iloney from the apiary of Ward Lan- 
kin, Goodyears, Cayaga County, 
N.Y. 

Xo label 



9521 
9522 
9523 

9524 

9525 
9526 



J.Dana FTovey, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

J. A. Holmes, Cam- 
bridge, Mass. 

H. D. Gloyd, 395 Ruth- 
erford avenue, 
Charleetown, Mass. 

S. S.Pierce & Co., Bos- 
ton, Mass. 



F. O. White A Co., 
Dudley street, Rox 
bury, Mass. 

Tighc \ Burke, n 
Charles street, Bos- 
ton, Mass. 



9527 



952H 






J. Sullivan, 1 I'.mi I i, 

uioiitsii.fi Boston 
Maes 



Cobb, Bates >v y.i \.,. 
«'<>urt street, Bos 

ton, Mass 



Gilt Edge Brand Pure Iloney. State 
assayc-r's office, 2!)7 Franklin street. 
Boston, Mass., Oct 24,1890. ToJ.G. 
Turner, Medford.Ma.-s. [The sample 
of honey submitted for analysis has 
been carefully examined with the 
following results: It gives all the 
tests of pure honey. We find no 
traces of any foreign substance in 
it whatever. The sample : 
fresh and has a very fine odor. II. 
S. Bowker, State assayer. Pot up 
by J. <;. Turner, Medford, Mass. 

Pure Honey, -T. G. Turner, Medford, 
Mass. 
■ Warranted Pint-. Pare Honey, J. G. 
Turner, Medford 

Pure Strained Honey, put up by II. 
D. Gloyd, 395 Rutherford avenue, 
Charlestown, Mass. 

Mi.-] de Table Suisse, from J. .1. Hurli- 
inaun, Bapperswyl, Switzerland. 
Purveyor to hotels throughout 
Switzerland. S. S. Pierce a Co., 

sole agents for the United Stat. - 
do 



This honey is absolutely pure and un 

like liquid honey that has been 

mixed with glucose to keep it from 
granulating, it will naturally 

candy or granulate and become a 

Solid mass ill OOUrse Of time It 

preferred in Its liquid state, remove 
the cork and place the bottle in hot 
water until the boney is united. 
Pure California White Sage Bonej 
Tburber, Whyland a Co 

Vol k 

Extracted California Honey, war 

ranted pure, 1>\ K. T.('o\\dte\ Co , 

manufacturers <>t' pickles, pre- 
serves, ami canned l'oo.Ih .->> Broad 
Beaton Mass 

do 



Remarks. 



$0.25 Comb honey in blue 
pasteboard pound 
box .- clear. 



.30 In Mason jar, pint; 

clear. 
16 Put up in small wide- 
mouthed bottle; 
clear. 



Do. 



. i~ in medium-mouthed 

bottle. 
.18 In medium ■ mouthed 

bottle ; clear. 

4" Wide-mouthed bottle; 
clear. 



in Char, and working 
shgh t 1 j w be n 
opened. 

25 In wide-mouthed hot- 
tie ; ( leal and dark 
< -olol . .1 



20 In wide mouthed bot- 
tle 



7G6 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Description of samples — Continued. 



No. 


Bought from— 


Label. 


Price. 


Remarks. 


9529 


afendum, HI Hamp- 


( Warranted Pure Honey, 1>. Otis Hoge, 


$0.17 


One-half pound bot- 




den street, Boston. 


Brooklyn, X. Y.) on cork. On neck 




tle : dear. 






of bottle: B.Otis Hoge, 264 Wil- 
longbby avenue, Brooklyn, X. V. 
On side of bottle : Pure Extracted 
Houey. Tins honey ia obtained by 
shaving off the delicate capping of 
the tells, pnttingtheeomba intotbe 
little wire baskets illustrated above 
and revolving by means of a crank. 
Tlie boney thus thrown out by con* 
trifugal force runs down the sides of 
the can and is put into jars. "We 
guarantee it absolutely pure. Ouce 
tried always used. Tbis boney is 
the pure liquidminustbewaxcomb. 
B. Otis Hoge, 264 Willoughby ave- 
nue. Brooklyn, X. Y. 






9530 


Robert McCullagh, 

corner Dale a D «1 
Washington 

Boston. M. 


do 


.10 


Quarter-pound bottle; 

clear. 


9531 


John Gilbert, Tre- 


Pure Honey. Should tbis honey gran- 


.25 


Wide-mouthed bottle; 




mont Row, Boston, 


ulate, set the bottle in bot water 




clear. 




ftfaSS. 


until Liquefied. A. J. Raymond, 
K\ Brett, Mass. 






9532 


Haynea & Ifurphey, 


do 


.25 


Do. 




corner Mount Ver- 






non and < b a rlea 










rtret t- B os t on. 










kfaaa. 










A I. I.o veil. C a Ml 

bridge atrei i Boa 
ton, v 


Label same as sample Xo. 9531 




Wide mouthed bottle; 

. Lear. 




w.s.M.-i. lor, 65 w... 
i .ii itreet Boaton, 


do 


.18 






















B i Jerome & 


Vermont Honey. Particularly for 


.18 


in wide-mouthed bot- 




i »i7 Tremonl 


medicinal use. i>.i\ Id Holla ad, 




tle ; char 




Rozbnry, M 


P< s< bam, vt 








I Hi-.- 
treat Boaton 


Strained Hoftey, warranted pure. 
Reid >v Co., Boston, M i 


. u 


in fancy bottle with 
•sren top i clear. 




Richard T a b m i a, 
Roxbury, ii 


do 


.88 








in fancj bottle with 
screw top; granula- 




C a Adame, Berke 
lej itret 1 Boston 


do 


.1'. 


ted. 






Small, wide mouthed 

bottle ; granulated. 




Benny, Eliot square 
Roxbnry, Id 


Whits Clover Rone; iron W. J. Lamb 




In wide-mouthed bot- 
tle ; dear. 




ii \ . Davenport, 


Pure ii vsnokls Honey front w..r. 




In sc lew top bottle ; 




\\ ai n d itreet) Boa 


I, ami. 




•lightly cloudy. 




loir. 









SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

Description by samples — Continued. 



767 



No. 


Bought from— 


Label. 


Price. 


Remarks. 


954 1 


Sibley, 1339 Tremont 


Pure White California Honey, ex- 


$0. 25 


In screw-top bottle ; 




street, Boston, Mass. 


tracted and bottled expressly for 
family use. F. P. Adams & Co., Bos- 
ton. Mass. 




clear. 


9542 


F. S. Pisteen, 529 Tre- 


Pure California Honey 


.30 


In wide-mouthed bot- 




iuont street, Boston, 






tle ; slisrhtly candied. 




Mass. 








9543 


Winthrop Market, 


Cuarauteed Strictly PureWbite Honey 


. 35 


In wide-mouthed bot- 




Roxbury, Ma—. 


from the celebrated Monte Blanco 
apiaries of Wm. T. Richardson & 
Co., Santa Barbara, Cal., Jno. A. 
Andrews &. Co., Agents, Boston, 
Mass. Should this honey granulate 
set the bottle in water and beat 
gradually until liquefied. 




tle, screw top : clear. 


9544 


C. D. Swain &Co., 2364 


Pure Honey, put up by C. D. Swain >v 


.15 


Wide-mouthed bottle; 




"Washington street, 


Co., grocers, 2364 Washington 




da rk- colored and 




Boston. Mass. 


street, Boston, Mass. 




clear. 


9545 


Cobb, Aldrich & Co., 


Pure Strained Honey, put up by H. D. 


.18 


In wide-mouthed bot- 




2233 Washington 


Grloyd, 395 Rutherford avenue 




tle ; candied. 




street, Roxbury, 


Charlestown. M 








Mass. 








9540 


A. W. Peabody, 112 P. 


No label 


__ 


In wide-mouthed bot- 
tle : clear. 




EL Ifarkel Boston 








afasa. 








9547 


Fesaenden, C o n i t 


These goods are absolutely pure. 


. 25 


W idc-mout bed bottle; 




street. Boston, Mi--. 


rge K. MoMechen & Son. 
Mincemeat, jellies, pw - 
ketchups, pickles, hyden salad. 
MoMechen's Old Virginia Pure 
Soney. Prepared by Georg< K 
Mi Mechen &. Son, Wheeling, 

W. \ a 




clear. 


9548 


C. D. Cobb, Thomp- 


Strained Honey, warranted pure by 


. 10 


Wide-mouthed bottle: 




son square, Charles- 


the packers Colgate A < '<>.. Boston 




candied. 




tows, Mass. 








954!) 


l . P. m. uill, Cam- 


Warranted Pure Honey. Analysis: 




In wide-mouthed hot- 




briil.: 


Stoneham, Mass.. An 
New England Sane Co., M Beaoh 
street, Boston, U u 1 Gentle- 
men : We bare examined a sam- 
ple of your pure extracted hone] 
and found it to be absolutely purr. 
and a rery anperioi m tioli \ 

■ I .it the laboratory of 1 1 i 
I'ati h Co., pnl u|> by ti • 
.Tui Sauce Co Boston 1 




tie; candied. 




Woreester Count j 


Label sun.' as sample No. B549 


l- 


small bottle 1 1< u 



< Ireamerj . Bei U> lej 
-ti. si Boston, Mass. 



768 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
Analytical data. 



So. 



9501 
9502 
9503 
9504 
9505 
9506 
9507 
9508 
9509 
9510 
9511 
9512 
9513 
9514 
9515 
9516 
9517 
9518 
95)9 
9520 
9521 
9522 

9524 
9525 
9526 
9527 
9528 
9529 
9530 
953] 
9532 
9533 
9534 
!i5:r. 
9536 

9538 
9539 

9541 

9 n 

9545 

'.•;.i7 



Polarization. 



Direct. 



Indirect. 



T em Pf™ Sucrose. Reducmg 



— 6.70 

— 17. 20 

— 20. 30 
68.20 

— 16.60 
60.50 

— 11.00 

— 19.00 

— 18.40 

— 17. 30 

— 17.40 

— 16.00 

— 13. 10 

— 7.80 

— 15.10 

— 13.20 

— 16. 30 

— 13.90 
- 16.60 

— 18. 30 

— 18. 80 

— 19.80 

— 14. 10 
113.00 
109.50 

42.00 

— 21.80 

— 12.80 

— 13.80 

— 16.50 

— 17.60 
17.80 

— 15.30 

— 15.60 

— 13. 40 

— 18.10 
21. » 

— 19.80 

— 16. 10 

— 2.30 

— 16.00 

v:. BO 
18 30 

Hi BO 
L4.80 

ll BO 



-12. 50 
—20. 10 
—24. 50 
64.20 
—21.50 
58.40 
-12. 00 
—20. 60 
-22. 60 
—21. 80 
-23.00 
—20. 40 
-21.80 
—14. 60 
—18.60 
—15.60 
—18. 00 
—14.00 
—20. 20 
—24. 20 
-24. 20 
—23. 20 
—17. 60 
92.00 
00.20 
40.00 
—22. 00 
—14. 60 
—16. 20 
-18.00 
—22. 00 
—21.60 
—21.60 
—20. 40 
17. (it) 
20.60 

20. 00 

-21.60 
— 6.00 
-21.60 
-14. 60 
20. 60 
—12.00 

17.60 

U 66 
16.00 

—21.611 



ture ° C 



sugar 8. 



Per cent. 



Per cent. 
73.36 
74.77 
76.23 
58. 91 
74.77 
58.91 
74.77 
74.77 
75. 06 
76.08 
76.08 
76.23 
76.38 

72. 00 
77.45 
76.23 
76.08 
79.55 
73.22 
76.23 
75.00 
77.45 
74.48 
40.50 
39.83 
67.03 
77.47 

73. 56 
72. 26 
75. 06 
79. 23 
79. 39 
74.77 
76.08 
72. 00 
78.67 
B1.00 
7.".. 06 
7ii. 18 
71.73 
74.77 
74.94 
70. 66 
77. 76 
72. 00 
74.77 
62.71 
74.77 

77 78 



Water. 



Ash. 



Per cent. 
16. 02 

16. 12 
16.12 
21.34 
14.66 
23.52 
16.80 
17.32 
15. 62 
16.38 
14.94 
14.72 
13.57 
20.60 
17.00 
14.92 
16.09 
16.18 
14.08 
16.68 
18.40 

17. 32 
20.68 
16.54 
20. 94 

15. 39 
18.09 
18.56 
15.82 
16.32 
15.60 
13.90 
15.64 

16. 48 
19.14 
14.76 
L8 m 
17.40 
26. 04 
21.70 

18. L8 
15.28 
15.82 

IK. 98 

26 U 

17. 12 
15.05 
15.66 
in. Bfl 
14.90 



Per cent 
0.08 
0.04 
0.10 
0.11 
0.20 
0.09 
0.13 
0.09 
0.08 
0.08 
0.07 
0.08 ' 
0.06 ; 
0.15 
0.07 
0.07 
0.08 
0.16 
0.07 
0.07 
0.10 
0.10 
0.13 
0.26 
0.26 
0.24 
0.08 
0.20 
B. 24 
0.10 
0.07 
0.09 
0.06 
0. 07 
0.09 
0.07 
0.13 
0. 12 
t>. 18 
8. 20 
O. OH 
0. 16 

08 

0. 13 
0.09 
o. 14 
0.11 

O. IK 

0.10 
0.10 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 769 

ANALYSES BY W. C. STUBBS. 
Description of samples. 



No. 



Bought from- 



No. 



L A. S. Field & Bro., Rampart Sc DeLord 
streets, New Orleans, La. 

! B. Fehnbacher, Dryades street, New Or- 
leans, La. 

J John Lagan, 191 Oilcans street, New Or- 
leans, La. 

4 Southern Drug Company, New Orleans, La. 

5 j Alfred Levy, Saint Charles street, New 

Orleans, La. 

6 Leon C. Peres, Magazine street, New Or- 

leans, La. 

7 I. L. Lyons <fc Co., Camp Street, New Or- 

leans. La. 
B D. M. Holders, Canal street, New Orleans, 
La. 
J. F. Seekman, 75 South Rampart street, 
New Orleans, La. 

10 J. M. W. Otto, Gravier street, New Orleans, 

La. 

11 Joseph Taber, 198 Rampart street, New Or- 

leans, La. 

12 j J. A. Florat, 12 New Basin street, New Or- 
leans, La. 

William Graner, Baronue street, New Or- 
leans, La. 

F. C. Godbold, 361 Magazine street, New 
Orleans, La. 

"William C. Harrison, Thalia street, New 
Orleans, La. 

William If. Levy, 420 Magazine street, 
New Orleans, La. 

J. I). BrOWlee, Felicity street, New Ofleans. 



A. J. BLeenaa, 860 Magazine street, N< m 

Orleans La 
H. B Gi toe A Co., in:; Hagai Ine -tie. - 

New Orleans, La. 
C.d. Mattingly, Napoleon avenue, New ( n 
lean 

K. II. Bosenfeld, 1H8 Ifagaaine street 

Ne\s ( Orleans, La, 
J. u. Sehmldt, Magazine street, Kev Or 

leans, I. a 

L.B. Dies, Perriston street New Orleans, 

La. 

<;. I). Kel.ln. i. B88 M.i^a/m. itTOi ' 
Orleans, La. 
'-'• H. Danneinann, Chippewa »tre< t N. 
leans. La. 



Bought from- 



McDufTs Pharmacy, Annunciation street 
New Orleans, La. 

H. Homberg, 859 Magazine street. New Or- 
leans, La. 

George F. Brown, Magazine street, New 
Orleans, La. 

Mrs. F. Stunger, Seventh street, New Or- 
leans, La. 

E.Sauter,913Magazinestreet, New Orleans, 
La. 

Eugene May, Canal andExchange streets, 
New Orleans, La. 

Bogh Drug Company, 111 Canal street, 
New Orleans, La. 

St. Cry. Fourdade, 215 Canal street, New Or- 
leans, La. 

American Diug Store, Canal street, New 
Orleans, La. 

L.C. Peres, 238 Canal street, New Orleans, 
La. 

L. C. Cusachs, Canal and Baronne streets, 
New Orleans, La. 

A. Grill's, 299 Royal street, New Orleans. La. 

Marcel Mag. an, I>u Maine and Bourbon 
streets, New Orleans, La. 

M. T. Breslin, Dauphine ami St. Peters 
streets, New Orleans, La. 

Legeudre As Co , Dauphine and Custom- 
House streets, New Orleans, La. 

P. H.Jensen, St. Charles and Girod streets, 
N--w i h leai 

Tames Wilson A Co., I'rytania and Felicity 
streets, New Orleans, I..i. 

Law renoe'a Phannaoj . Jackson and I'ryta- 

nia streets, New Orleaii 

Wright's Pharmacy, in Prytania street, 

N . m 1 1 1 lei i 
E. Tnrpln, New Orleans, I . 
H c mi. i tsippl street, New 

< ii leai 
J. F. Christine, l>n ICalneand Osloei - 

•, ., | i , 
i i '.ni-iii. Mo Maine and Claiborne 

. t - N . n I 'i loan - I ■ 
Unreel Ifagoan, Bonrbon and i * • i Ifalne 

■tl . • •: - I | 

L Laddo.Ni La 



770 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical data. 



No. 


Polarization. 


Tempera- 
ture °C. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Water. 


Ash. 


Direct. 


Indirect 










Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


1 


— 6.40 


- 8.25 


19 


1.38 


69. 00 


24.14 


0.12 


2 


65.80 


21.85 


20 


32. 05 


33. 30 


24.02 


0.17 


3 


— 5.30 


— 9.40 


20 


2. 94 


01 tid 




0.61 


4 


— 2.51 


—26. 10 


■Jo 


0.97 


74. 00 


24. 19 


0.35 


5 


53.80 


51.128 


20 


1.14 


62.40 


29.74 


0.29 


6 


55.00 


51.70 


20 


2.47 


64.60 


25. i' 


0.15 


7 


— 1.50 


— 4.40 


10 


2.16 




21.31 


0.24 


8 


6.40 


—15.29 


20 


12. 33 


56.20 


22.40 


0.08 


9 


—17.00 


—20. 20 


12 


2.18 


73. 30 


22. 00 


0.21 


10 


25. 20 


—27. 83 


12 


1.90 


71.72 


22. 04 


0.28 


11 


52. 20 


49.94 


_'l 


1.69 


67. on 


22. i ; 


0.22 


12 




— 6.82 


21 


2. 11 


71 7 t 


20. 27 


0.08 


13 


4.00 


1. 65 


23 


1.77 


71.72 


24.44 


0. 43 


14 


— 9. 40 


-10.67 


26 


O. 00 


74. 28 


21. 62 


0.24 


15 


3.20 


1.65 


23 


1.09 


72. 9h 


21.27 


0.36 


10 


— 11.30 


—13.31 


26 


1.56 


74.66 


23. 17 


0.11 


17 


—12. 90 


— 13. 86 


26 


0.73 


76.36 


22. 69 


0.02 


18 


79.60 


77.00 


26 


1.90 


64.00 


23. 93 


0.09 


19 


—15. 50 


—17. 82 


25 


1.7.; 


72.99 






20 


—11.30 


—13. 09 


26 


1.36 


74.37 


23. 92 


0.09 


21 


64.70 


61.82 


26 


2. 19 


63. 03 


24. 17 


0.23 


-: 


-14.40 


—15.40 


26 


o. 76 


70.50 


25.76 


o. 35 


215 


3,60 


0.70 


20 


2. 16 


67. 20 


25. 30 


0.07 


24 


63.40 


61.05 


25 


1.78 


59.29 


25. 45 


o. 88 


25 


64.50 


5ii. 80 


25 


1.5: i 


61.09 


27. 25 


0.65 


26 




)-. Hi 


10 


1.36 




31.82 


0. 27 


'J 7 




13.75 


25 


29.31 




31.77 


0.16 




—16.00 


— 13. 94 


25 


o. 5:{ 


73.30 


22.91 


0.06 


29 


1.50 


6. 38 


10 


3.51 


04. 00 


24.74 


0. 22 


80 






25 


1.65 


57. 00 


29. 95 


0. 25 


31 


12.00 


-13.97 


IS 


1.46 


75. 22 


22. 93 


0.16 




LI. 30 


-12.65 


17 


0.99 


70. 48 


27. lit 


0.08 


B3 




57.97 


.7 


1. 12 






11 




r.'. tin 


14.30 


17 


1 . 25 


74.69 


23. 25 


0. 05 






52. so 


20 


1. 19 






0.20 




-13.00 


15. 10 


25 


1.82 




21.63 


2 1 




43. 30 


11 00 


25 


1.22 


51.09 


87.84 


0.31 




43. so 




20 


1. 32 




29. 40 


0. 10 


■ 


8. 50 


12. 10 


15 


2. 70 


72.51 


84.91 




10 


i I 




15 


2 10 






:;i 


i; 


2. 30 


— 0. 55 


20 


2 1" 






o. 17 








20 


1 32 




2i. i; 


o. 14 








20 


1.00 




83 S7 


0.11 


ii 


ii :,o 




20 






27. 53 


0.11 


16 






20 


1.75 




27. 00 






71.65 




10 


9.61 






12 


i 


11. 60 




15 


1.83 


72. 52 




1 




10, -7 




in 


1.47 


7". IS 












15 


2. 52 




38. 32 


0. 19 









16 




72.51 




0.36 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
ANALYSES BY SHIPPEN WALLACE. 

Description of samples. 



771 



No. 



Label. 



Pure California Honey 

XXX California Honey 

"White Clover Honey 

Honey 

Virginia Honey 

Pure Extracted Honey 

Honey 

do 

White Clover XXX Honey 

White Clover Honey 

Pure Honey 

do 

California Honey 

White Rose Honey 

Choice Extra Northern Hone}'. 
Superior Extracted Honey 



Bought from- 



P. J. Hitter Company, Philadelphia. . 

No maker 

Sleeper, Wells 6c Altlrich 

Arthur Todd, Philadelphia 

Philadelphia Pickling Company 

T. S. Borden, Burlington, X.J 

Xo maker 

Philadelphia Pickling Company 

Sleeper, "Wells <fc Aldrich 

W. G. Griffiths, Philadelphia 

Anderson &. Co., Camden, X. J 

Xo maker 

do 

New Jersey Preserving Co., Camden. 

Geo. D.Powell, Xew York 

Walker, McConkv, Co.. Philadelphia 



XXX White Clover California J.O.Schimmel Preserving Co., Philadelphi 

Strictly Pure Extracted Honey Vustin, Nichols >fc Co., Now York 



Pure Honey j Stevenson & Co., Burlington, X*. J 

California Honey 



Choice Northern Honey — 

Choice Honey 

Choice Los Angeles Honey 

California Honey , 

Choice California Hone}-.. 
Pure Old Virginia Honey . 

Pure Clover Honey 

XX White Clover Honey . 
Honey 



E. T. Condrey ,v Co., Boston 

Geo. I). Powell, New York 

Wm. Collins, X'ew York 

John Long, New York 

No maker 

P. J. Bitter Co 

Geo.1T. RtfcMechen & Son, "Wheeling, W.Va 

No maker 

<i. .\ B , Philadelphia 

chas. G. !•". Denk, Philadelphia 



(lolileu Rod Homy Win. Thompson, X w York ... 



Wittman's Superior Honey 

l'ure California Honey 

Extracted Homy 

Pure Boaei 

California Honey 

Absolutely l'ure Virginia Honey 



Philadelphia 

Tints. Martingdalo, Philadelphia . 
c. II. Lnttgers, Hammonton, N .1 
]■ LG irrettson, Hillsboro N I 

No maker 

( ie .. K. McMeclieli & SOS 



Strained Money Max A ins. New York 

('ah I'm nia Honey In glass tumblers, m> makei 

Pure Honej do 

White Clover Homy do 

1 1 one v dO 

Golden Bod Honey do 

strained Honey do 

Honey do. 

do do. 

Pore Honey <h> 

Extracted Honej do 

California Hum \ dn 

Clover ■ II \ do 

Pure Honey !!• 



Price. 

$0. 25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.15 
. -jr. 
.10 
.10 
.25 
.25 
.15 
.20 
.20 
.20 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 

• .25 
.25 
.25 
. -j 
.15 
.25 
.25 
.15 
.25 
.10 
.20 
.10 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.10 
.25 
. 20 
. 10 
.10 
.10 
.15 
.10 

. lit 

. 10 
.10 
.10 
.10 

in 

M 
. IS 



772 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Analytical data. 



No. 


Polarization. 


Tempera- 


„ 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Walt i. 


Ash. 


1 »ir«*et. 


Indirect. 


ture. C. awiLvan - 


1 
2 
3 
\ 
5 
6 
7 
8 
9 

10 
11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 

30 

31 

33 

85 

B6 
87 
88 

JO 

II 
12 
i; 
it 
18 
16 

48 

t 1 


29.0 
06.0 
9.0 

— 4.0 
110.0 

— 10.0 
19.5 


13. 
61.0 

— 10.0 

— 6.0 
27.0 

— 16.0 

— 19. n 




]'. r c nt. 

31.3 
3.7 

14.1 
1.4 

61.9 
4.4 
(?) 
7.0 
9.4 
2.9 
0.3 


Per cent. 
38.50 
51.20 
47.54 
62.60 
41.38 
69.85 
70.10 
44. 20 
72. 30 
69.85 
71.50 
71.50 
72. 75 
35.50 
31.50 
29.85 
45.78 
65. 70 
40.25 
67.22 
38.80 
29. 05 
45.92 

72. 50 
51. 65 
27.50 
71.95 
68.22 
74.80 
33.75 

73. 10 
71.50 
70.95 
67.80 

84.80 

71.77. 

10. 15 

(».->. 20 
88. 25 

41.27. 

11.60 

io. IS 
86.50 
19, 15 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 
5.21 
0.17 
0.15 
0.09 
0.12 
0. 15 
0. 27 
0. 10 
0.08 
0.05 
0.20 
0.22 
0. 27 
0. C8 
0.15 
0.10 ' 
0.18 
0.07 
0.09 
0.20 
0. 12 
0.18 
0.09 
0.28 
0.18 
0.2! 
0.25 ! 
0.18 i 
0. 22 
9.17 
0. 23 
0.28 
0. 85 
0.81 
0.15 
0.19 
0. 82 
0.18 
0. 15 
0.20 
0. 27 
0.18 
0.14 
ii. 16 
o. 82 
o. 17. 
o. 15 
O.20 
o. 18 
0. 27 


























102. | 92. 6 

- 3. 5 | — 1C. 

— 8. ; - 12. 
13.5 _ u.a 


















— 13.0 

— 18.5 
78.0 
83.5 
51.0 
19.0 

— 7.5 
41.0 

— 9.5 
92.5 
53.5 
10.5 

— 11.0 
30.5 
52.0 

— 14.0 

7.5 
1!) 
71.0 
17.0 

— 15.0 


— 13.0 

— 20.0 
72.0 
70.0 
47.0 
16.0 

— 9.0 
31.0 

— 10.0 
58.0 
41.0 

— 8.0 

— 12.0 
13.0 
32.0 

— 14.0 

— H.O 

— 19.0 
G4.0 

— 17.0 

— 15.0 








1.1 
4.5 

10.0 
2.9 
2.2 
1.1 
7.4 
0.3 

25.7 
9.3 

13.8 
0.7 

13.0 

14.9 

































































16.0 








5. 2 














— 12.0 L4.0 

— 10 ii.u 




1.4 

0.7 
14.5 
19.4 








102.5 
11.0 

u 

1 

8.3 
10.0 

lio.o 
L02.0 

11.0 


[5.0 
14.0 
20. 
LO 
16 
17.0 
16 o 

2 7 

83. e 

70.0 
















57. 8 
88. 

it.;. 
8.8 

18.1 

:t:t. 5 

13. 4 

81.9 

7 ii 

11.1 
0. 7 














































SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



773 



ANALYSES BY H. A. WEBER. 



Description of samples. 



So. 


Bought from — 


Label. 


Remarks. 


1 


Procured by Dairy and Food Com- 


California Honey, put up by Williams' 


Dextrine reaction. 




pany, in Cleveland, Ohio. 


Brothers, Cleveland, Ohio. 




2 


J. H. Haner, State and 4th street, 


Warranted Pure Extracted Honey. 






Columbus, Ohio. 


Apiary of S. R. Morris, Blooming- 
burg, Ohio. 




3 


J. G. & S. Brown, Hunter street 


Pure California White Sage Honey, 


Do. 




and 5th avenue, Columbus, Ohio. 


Thurber, Whyland 6c Co., New York. 




4 


do 


Superior White Clover Honey 




5 


Henry Thropp,345 South High street, 
Columbus, Ohio. 


Honey, Leggett's, New York 










6 


Esper & Sons, 403 South High street. 


White Clover Honey, Warranted 






Columbus, Ohio. 


Strictly Pure, Leggett's, New York. 




7 


J. M. Babb, 267 South High street, 


McMechen'sOld Virginia Pure Honey, 


Do. 




Columbus, Ohio. 


Wheeling, W. Va. 




8 


A. J. Evans, 236-238 East Long 
street, Columbus, Ohio. 


California Honey 










9 


A. M. Montgomery, 618 East Long 


Strained Honey, Francis H. Leggett, 






street, Columbus, Ohio. 


New York. 




10 


Atlantic Tea Company, 190 South 


Pure California White Sage Honey, 






4th street, Columbus, Ohio. 


Thurber, Whyland & Co., New York. 




Jl 


Saul &. Eberly, 74, 76, 78 Main street, 


Strictly Pure Extracted Honey, Aus- 


Do. 




Columbus, Ohio. 


tin, Nichols Si. Co., New York. (Old 
sample.) 




12 


Holdeu Brothers, North High street, 


McMechen'sOld Virginia Pure Honey, 






Columbus, Ohio. 


Wheeling, W. Va. (Old sample.) 




13 


Aug. Boesel, 1352 North High street, 


White Clover Honey. (Jarcontained 


Do. 




Columbus, Ohio. 


piece of comb honey.) 




u 


McDonald & Steube, South High 
street, Columbus. Ohio. 


White (lover X X Honey 










15 


V. EL Allen, Goodalo and High 
street) Columbus, Ohio. 


None. Said to be pure 










16 


J.C.March, 26:! North High street, 


Strained Honey, F. H. Leggett's, New 






Columbus, Ohio. 


York (Bottle.) 




17 


Thos. Berlin, 61 North High street, 

Columbus, Ohio. 


White Clover Honey. (Jar) 


Do. 


18 


H.J. Wood wo i th. Nelsonville, Ohio. 


Luti Brothers 1 Pure Honey. (Jar.) 

(Dark.) 


Do. 


19 


do 


Luti Brothers Pure Honey. (Jar.) 

(Light ) 


Do. 


20 


do 


None, Said to be packed by Gai mei . . . 




21 


M. A. Stirling, lllii North High 
street, Columbus, < )iii<>. 


White Clover Honey. (Jar) 


Do. 


22 


J.M. Bell A Son, 1188 North High 


Pure California White Sage Honey, 






street, Columbus, Ohio. 


Thurber, Whyland 4 Co., fcfeu Fork. 




23 


K.J. afeComb a Co., east corner 


PureMaebine Extracted Homy, Ital- 






Syoamore and 4th, Cincinnati, 


ian Api.u j . c. W, Ifutfa a son, Cin- 






Ohio. 


cinnati, Ohio. 




24 


! do 


Wai ranted Pun Hones , c. v. sfuth 

.v BOD < 'inriiinati, ( Hiio. 


Do, 


25 


Joeeph EL Peebles' Sons Co., Pike 


PureHonej from the Italian a.piary, 


Do 




Building, Cininnati, Ohio. 


C. F. liuthl Bon Cincinnati, Ohio. 





L8808— No. 13- 



10 



774 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS, 

Description of sample* — Continued. 



No, 


Bought from — 


Label. 


Remarks 


26 


Joseph R. Peebles' Sons' Co., Pike 


Pure Extracted White Clover Honey. 






Building, Cincinnati, Ohio. 


from the apiary of Charles Hill, 
Mount Healthy, Ohio. 




27 


do 


Absolutely Pure, MeMeehen's Old 
Virginia Pure Honey. 


Dextrine reaction. 


2H 


Chas. F. Muth <fc Son, Cincinnati. 


California Sage Honey. (Sample from 






Ohio. 


original package.) 




29 




White Clover Honey. (Sample from 
original package.) 




30 


do 


Orange Blossom Honey from Califor- 








nia. (Sample from original pack- 












31 


' do 


Mangrove Honey. (Sample from orig- 

nal package.] 










32 


do 


Aster Honey. (Sample from original 
package.) 










33 


. 


Tine California White Sage Boney, 
Thurber & Whyland.New York. 


Ho. 


34 


W. L. Banner, Newark, Ohio 


None. Called Licking County Honey. 


Do. 


15 


do 


Pure Honey, Luti Brothers 

White Clover Honey. (Chicago) 


Do. 


36 


Black & Roe, Newark, Ohio 


Do. 


37 


■T. 11. Sites, Newark, Ohio 


Strained Honey, Francis B.Leggett'8, 
New York. 










38 


Georgo P. Herman, Woodland and 


Pure Honey 










39 


Euclid stat inn Grocery, Euclid and 


Pure California White Sage Honey, 






Wilson avenues, Cleveland, Ohio. 


Thurber, Whylaud &. Co., New York. 




40 


Fred. Valentine, MS Central avenue, 


Warrranted Pure Boney, Geo. C. Wil- 






Cleveland, Ohio. 


lard, Cleveland, Ohio. 




41 


Chandler &- Co., Euclid avenue, 


Warranted Pure Boney, from Apiary 






Cleveland, Ohio. 


of L. H. Brown, Biaaell, Ohio, 




42 


Woolverton & Bohaeffer, Prospect 


White clover Hone\ , Mooi e Brothers, 






and P ri v streets, ( !leveland,Ohio. 


Rockawaj , Ohio. 




43 


P. O'Brien, Case Building, Clove* 


Pure Extracted Boney, J. B. Haines, 






land, Ohio. 


Bradford. Ohio. 




44 


do 


<;. and K. White Clover Boney 




45 


Klaustennyer,Prospeo1 and Brown* 


Wai ranted Purs Boney, Bi si p >•. n 






ell itraetSi Cleveland, Ohio. 


Apiais, 11. Bosworth A Sons, Ford. 
Ohio. 




40 


W. H. Graham, L14 Mam street, 


Purified Honey 


Do. 




ZanesN ille, ( IhlO. 






47 


Bailej Brothers, itj Main street, 
Zanesville, Ohio. 


Pure llonev . 


Da 








4- 


G B 1 leliients, /mi. -.villi-, < »hio 


White CloTer Boney, \x 


Da 


49 


w T. Graj A Co., Zanesville, Ohio. 


Purs Machine K\\ noted llonev It.il 

Ian Apiary, Chas. F.lfuth a Son 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 




50 


< ionners Brothers, Cumberland, Ohio 


MeMeehen's Old Virginia Boney. 
These goods are absolutely pure 
(Thin i. rmoDting). 





SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
Analytical data. 



lib 





Polarization. 


Tempera- 
ture, °C. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Water. 


Ash. 




Direct. 


Indirect. 


1 








Per cent. 
2.79 
0.00 


Per cent. 
48.08 
76. 92 

70. 42 
50.00 

73. 52 
71.11 
59.52 

74. 62 
74.62 

71. 42 

60. 24 
65.78 
49.50 
53. 76 
71.42 
72.46 
49.05 
50.51 
52.08 
74.62 
47.61 

(?) 
64.93 
64.93 
60.97 
75.75 

61. 72 
71.42 
72.46 
72.46 

74. 62 
73. 52 

62. 50 
60.97 

50. 51 
37. 79 
73. 52 
75.75 
74.02 
78. 52 

75. 78 
71.42 
71 M 
81.78 

71.42 

51. 84 


Per cent. 
21.16 

17. 12 
21.19 
24 16 
16.95 
18.56 
17.12 
20. 67 
18.02 
18.06 
23.39 
27.93 
22.23 
18.11 
20.37 
20.28 
23.76 
20.13 
20.51 
16.55 
22.08 
18.64 
18.61 
18.74 
16.95 
18.23 
16.37 
17.80 
18.30 
17.79 
20.96 

18.14 

18. 23 
17. 0G 
26. 75 

19. 21 
17.74 
17.17 
2a 88 
18.47 

18.51 

l- n 

17.40 
18 88 
1137 


Per cent. 
0.05 
0.01 
0.26 
0.23 
0.05 
0.06 
0.11 
0.08 
0.04 
0.08 
0.21 
0.11 
0.13 
0.05 
0.04 
0.04 
*0. 17 
0.15 
0.26 
0.10 
0.17 
0.11 | 
0.10 
0.11 
0.08 
0.02 
0.06 
0.07 
0.06 
0.05 
0.16 
0.35 
8. 25 
0.11 
0.45 
0. 22 
0.16 
0.22 
0.08 
0.09 
0.20 
0.13 
0.23 
0. 22 
0.41 
8 18 

O 17 
0.23 


2 








3 








4 








2.48 


5 
6 
7 
8 














3.34 
2.09 














q 










10 








3.04 
2.89 
1.57 


11 








12 








13 








14 








18.77 
5.22 
3.12 


)5 








16 









17 








18 
19 
20 
21 
22 
23 
24 








4.78 






















.88 
4.23 























25 








2.20 


26 
27 
K 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
88 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
41 
4 r > 

4t; 

47 
48 
49 
50 














3.04 




















1 


2.18 



















2.97 
2.64 










































2. 1 1 














:t. in 




























LI. 88 



































776 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY F. G. WIECHMAXN. 
Description of samples.. 



No. Price. 



Bought from— 



Manufacturer, etc. 



101 


*C 


.20 


102 




.'JO 


103 




.25 


104 




.35 


105 




.20 






.25 


107 




.20 



108 

109 
110 
111 
112 
113 
1U 
115 
110 
117 
118 



119 
120 

121 
121 



.30 

.15 
.20 
.25 
.18 
.25 
.25 
.25 
.25 
. 2.") 
.18 



.20 

.25 
20 

. 20 



A. Brasch, 1632 Columbus 
avenue, New York. 

do 

H. BoeseUger, 794 3d ave- 
nue. New YoiK. 

Alliens, 784 3d avenue, New 
Yoi k 

L. Kicke. 4th avenue and 
11th street, New York. 

F. C. Rahe, Broome a: For- 
syth streets, New York. 

L. Gieseler, Wythe avenue 
a n d South 1st street, 
Brooklyn, E. I). 

P. CLMontorsi, 60 South 5th 
avenue. New York 

Tompkins, 70 Sou th 

avenue, New York 
Bergonzi Bros., 58 Grand 

street, New York. 
R. C. Hewitt, 201 3d avenue. 

New York. 
A. Becker, 283 Avenue A. 

New York. 
Junghertchen, 310 Avenue 

A New York. 
Charles & Co.. r<(> ! 

street, New York. 
11. Iliddendorf, ii5 3d ave- 
nue, New York. 
Yermilya, 15'J8 Columbus 

avenue, New York. 

11. Bieohers, 243 7th avenue, 

N. m York. 

Sprees, 275 7tli ave- 
nue, New York. 



A. Bollenbaoher, 298 7th 
ae, BTeti Vmk. 

F. Daiineinann A < !o 9 10 
8th arenas, Ni m fork. 

0. Blfert, 100 w • 
street) N.u Fork. 



Fayen >v Bitw km< yei 1 " 

.1 N.u 
York. 

D. W.C. Ward, 088 0th ave- 

lilie, Ni u \ Hi lv. 

Bou ton a Steinle, 771 Otfa 

aue. BTen Yoi u. 



Basswood Pure Extracted Honey ; B. Otis Ho£e. 264 

Willoughby avenue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Choice Extracted Northern Honey ; ]>ut up by George D. 

Powell. 

Turpin's Genuine Strained Honey : manufactured ex- 
pressly for family use. New Y'ork. 

Choice Extracted Clover Honey \ put up expressly for 
table use. Leslie, Dunham &. Co., Pittstield. Mass, 

Choice Honey ; E. A. &. P. Walker, 137-141 Oakland ave- 
nue, Brooklyn, N. Y'. 

Turpin's Genuine Strained Honey; manufactured ex- 
pressly for family use. New Y'ork : Ernest Turpiu. 

XXX Pure Honey: put up by Charles Israel & Bro., 
New York. 

Strained Honey; Francis H. Leggett & Co., New York. 
"Should this honey become candied, it will be restored 
to its natural state if immersed in warm water." 

White Clover Honey. (No name of manufacturer given.) 

Pure Hone\ ; Max Am>. New Y'ork. 

Choice Extracted Clover Honey ; put up expressly for 

Robert C. Hewitt, by Leslie, Dunham Sc Co. 

Choice Honey ; E. A. Walker &. Bro., 135 Oakland street, 

Brooklyn, N. Y. 
White Clover Homy : E. A. Walker, New Y'ork. 

Choice Extracted Clover Hone] ; put up expressly for 

Charles .X Co., by Leslie, Duuham ,x < .>. 
Strained Honey ; Francis H. Leggett A. Co., New York. 

Leslie, Dunham & Co., Orange Blossom Hone] ; war- 

ranted strictly pure. 
California White Sage Homy: E. Brommond 

California White Sagfl Honey ; E. Brommond. This 
honey is absolutely pure, and, unlike liquid honey that 
baa been mixed with gluoOM to keep it from i:ranulat- 

lng.il will naturally candy or granulate ami become a 

Solid mass in OOUrse of time. If preferred in its liquid 
state, remove the oork ami place the bottle in hot water 
until the honey is melted 

Choice Bone; : put up by «■ L & J. Distler, 228 an 1 228 
.lava Street, Brooklyn. Choioe extracted homy from 

N.U Vol k Sl.lt, 

Strained Honey; Francis H. Legged a Co., Sen Fork. 

Choioe California Honey. B. L, Johnston >^ Co., New 
Stork. "This honey bj oi an excellent flavor and put 
ap expresslj for ti"- best trade. 

Choioe Extracted Clovei Honey; put up expressly for 

table use. Leslie, Dunham \ Co., I'ittslield, liaSS. 

on,- pound Pnre Honey 1 put ap expressly tor table use. 

a. a B. Thomson, Bfen Canaan, ct. '•From Hive to 

Table. ' 
L. J. Wyeth, Jr. Pure Extracted Honsy ; Cr. s. Wyatt * 

< .. . Skgents, Ns* York. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
Description of samples — Continued. 



777 



Vn 


Price. 


Bought from— 


Mauufactuier, etc. 




125 


$0. 20 


Perceval & Co., 769 6th ave- 


Francis H. Leggett A* Co., New Yoik. Should this honey 






nue, New York. 


become candied it will be restored to its natural state if 
immersed in warm water. 


126 


20 


W. Simpson, 757 6th avenue, 


Leslie, Dunham & Co., Pittsfield, Mass. Choice Extracted 






New York. 


Clover Honey ; put up expressly for table use. 


127 


.25 


J. W. Lohse, 752 6th avenue, 


Basswood ; B.Otis Hoge, 264 Wilioughby avenue, Brook- 






New York. 


lyn, X'. Y. ; warranted pure honey. 


128 


.25 


H. Diestel & Co.. Columbus 


Basswood; Pure Extracted Houev ; B. Otis Hoge, 264 Wil- 






avenue and 92<1 street. 


ioughby avenue, Brooklyn, XT. Y. ; warranted pare 






New York. 


honey. 


129 


.25 


do 


Choice Extracted Clover Honey; put op expressly for 
table use ; Leslie, Dunham <fc Co., Pittsfield, Mass. 


130 


.20 


C. Adam, 1563 Columbus 


Choice Extracted Northern Honey. Put up by Ceo. D. 






avenue, New Y'ork. 


Powell. 


131 


.23 


Mackenzie &. Bohrick, 1559 
Columbus avenue, New 
York. 


Strained Honey. Francis H. Leggett & Co., New York. 


132 


.25 


J. C. Lille.V& Co., 1542 Co- 


Basswood; Extracted Honey ; B. Otis noge, 264 Wil- 






lumbus avenue, Xew York. 


loughby avenue, Brooklyn, X'. Y. ; warranted pure 
honey. 


133 


.25 


do 


Orange Blossom Honey: warranted strictly pure; Les- 
lie, Dunham &- : Co. 


134 


.25 


AY. Meyer, 1533 Columbus 


Pure Honey ; d. A. & J. Distler, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; choice 






avenue, New YTork. 


extracted honey from New Fork State. 


135 


.25 


N. Rebelling, 15HH Columbus 


Basswood; Pure Extracted Honey; B. Otis Hoge, 264 






a\ enne, New York. 


Wilioughby avenue, Brooklyn, N.Y-j warranted pure 
honey. 


13G 


.25 


W leaner &. Frese, 1482 Co- 


Orange Blossom Honey; warranted strictly pure; Leslie 






Iambus avenue, New Fork. 


Dunham & Co. 


137 


.24 


do 


Basswood; Pine Extracted Honey: B. Otis Hoge, 2»i4 Wil- 
loughby avenue, Brooklyn, X T . Y.; warranted pure 
honey. 


138 


.25 


H. J. Ohlckers, Columbus 
avenue and 86tli street. 
Xew York. 


Strained Honey; Francis H. Leggett & Co., New Yoik. 


139 


.25 


do 


< Mange Blossom Honey ; warranted strictly pure j Leslie, 
Dunham >v 1 !o. 


140 


.25 


Midler, 1G06 Columbus ave 
one, Xew Ym k. 


Choice Comb Honey; Chas. Israel >v Bro., New Yoik. 


141 




B. Ken,],, lid- Amsterdam 


Choice Extracted Northern Hone] put op by Ceo. D. 






a\ enne, New York. 


Powell. 


142 


.25 


11 Kit/en L392 Amsterdam 


Hitters Pare California White Clover Honey: the P.J. 






hue New Yolk. 


Rittei Conserve Company, 2184 2188 Bast Dauphin 
street, Philadelphia. 


143 


.20 


do 


Pure Bonej CI. A. A J. Distler, Brooklyn, N. Y, ; choice 

toted hones from New Yoik State. 


144 


.20 


do 


No label; said i>_\ seller to be t c. A. 8 J, Distler, 

Brooklyn, \ J 


145 


. 15 


Bbhnborst, 1413 Amsterdam 


Choice Golden Rod Bone] \ from Win Thompson, Wayne 






avenue, New Fork. 


Count] . N. \ 


14C 


.25 


1822 Amsterdam avenue New 
Fork. 


Pure Honey M in AllM, Xew Yolk 


147 




II. Boeeelager 71M :.>• 


Pure Comb Honey; from tie ap iry of J, c. Whitten, 






nue. New Ym k. 


Qenos N. Y. 


11- 


. 17 


l) Bi mill .in 788 3d avenue, 


No label; said bj sriiei to be rrom c. A. 4 J. Diatler, 






Neu York. 


Brooklyn, N 1 


149 


.20 


li Ahrens, 7H4 :t.i avenue 

\« u \ ork. 


No laiiei , -mi i>\ seller '<» be from Leslie, Dunham 8 
Co, 


150 


.88 


do 


l'n. in tin- apiary of Henr] 1 Dobson, manufacture of 






i ui, i Count] n B 



778 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
Analytical data. 



No. 


Polarization. 


Tempeia- 
ture, ° C. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugars. 


Water. 


Ash. 


Direct. 


Indirect. 










Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


101 


- 19.0 


— 23.6 


20 


3.46 


71.93 


20. 58 


0.104 


102 


104.2 


100.4 


20 




52.08 


20.57 


0.313 


103 


96.3 


92.2 


20 


3.09 


50. 00 


24. 22 


0.324 


104 


84.2 


81.2 


20 


2.26 


54. 35 


22.65 


0.277 


105 


108.9 


105.2 


20 




50.00 


20.60 


0.648 


100 


103.2 


99.4 


20 




49.50 


23.35 


0. 292 


107 


— 16.5 


— 20.6 


20 


3.09 


72.46 


21.35 


0.090 


108 


- 19.7 


— 24.6 


20 


3.69 


72.99 


20.20 


0.050 


109 


122.6 


119.4 


20 




44.64 


21.82 


0. 220 


110 


71.2 


69.4 


20 


1.35 


56.82 


23.00 


0.245 


111 


8.4 


5.6 


20 


2.11 


66.66 


19.76 


0.137 


112 


92.4 


89 


20 


2.56 


52.63 


22. 27 


0.238 


113 


96.5 


93.8 


20 


2.03 


52.08 


21.65 


0.385 


114 


- 14.0 


- 18.4 


20 


3.31 


69.93 


21.78 


0.144 


115 


- 19.4 


- 25.0 


20 


4.22 


72.46 


20.22 


0.065 


11G 


- 19.6 


- 23. 


20 


2.56 


70.42 


21.78 


0.140 


117 


43.6 


28.2 


20 


11.61 


53.76 


23.60 


0.205 


118 


63.3 


52.0 


20 


8.51 


55.87 


20.78 


0.220 


119 


107.6 


104.4 


20 




50.00 


20.60 


0.205 


120 


— 19.6 


- 24.2 


20 


3.47 


72.99 


20. 15 


0.065 


121 


12.0 


7.0 


20 


3.76 


67.56 


22. 35 


0.097 


122 


91.0 


88.4 


20 


1.95 


50. 00 


23.13 


0.277 


123 


— 13.8 


— 18.0 


20 


3.16 


72.46 


24. 75 


0.263 


124 


— 12.0 


- 17.2 


20 


3.92 


71.94 


23.53 


0.090 


125 


— 20.4 


- 23.0 


20 


1.95 


73. 53 


23.09 


0.083 


120 


88.2 


86.2 


20 


1.51 


51.81 


23.13 


0.288 


127 


— 15.8 


— 18.4 


20 


1.94 


71.94 


22.13 


0.198 


128 


- 17.2 


— 21.0 


20 


2.86 


71.48 


22.98 


0.122 


129 


!.. .', 


- 14.0 


20 


3.31 


68.50 


23.65 


0.097 


130 
131 


106.2 
— 19.6 


104.0 
— 24.6 


20 
20 




51.54 
71.94 


22. 10 
22. 00 


0.288 
0.043 


3.76 


132 


— 18.8 


— 23.6 


20 


3.62 


73. 53 


22. 10 


0.101 


133 


- 16.0 


- 19.4 


20 


2.56 


OS. 50 


23.98 


0.198 


134 


- 12.6 


- 17.6 


20 


3.76 


73.53 


11.88 


0.104 


186 


— 16.0 


— 20.0 


20 


3. 01 


72. 46 


21.53 


0.115 


136 


- 11.8 


— 17.2 


20 


4.06 


68. 50 


B i" 


0.158 


187 


- 17.8 


21.0 


20 


2.41 


71.94 


20. 88 


0. 126 


138.. 


- 19.6 




20 


3.46 


71. ill 


23.05 


0.043 




u 


— 29. 6 


20 


4.22 


78. :.:: 


20. 55 


0.061 


140.. 


98.4 


94.4 


20 


3.01 


51.02 


21.00 


0. 223 


Ill 




- 1 1 


20 


2.41 


Si, ii.". 


21.60 


0. 234 




I - 


10.0 


80 


11.91 


56. 50 


21.20 


0. 115 


111 


115.4 

K7. H 


112.2 


80 
20 




44.64 

r*,9S 


24.61 

21.7:: 


0. 198 
o L»8 


2.41 


145. . 


lii. 


u.o 


20 




80. til 


22. 16 


o LSI 


lit; 


59. H 




20 


I ll 




27. 00 


0.342 


147 


- 10.8 


— 13.2 


20 


1.81 


72. 46 


21.75 


0.198 


14K.. 








:i 76 




21. OH 


0. 205 


149. 




24. 




2 n 


63.68 


24.24 


0. 259 


1M 


18 "J 


- 10.6 




:i. :i2 


73. 53 


24. 59 


0.054 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



779 



ANALYSES BY CHEMICAL DIVISION, UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF 

AGRICULTURE. 

Description of samples. 



Xo. 



Where bought. 



Description. 



Price 
per 
pack- 
age.* 



8515 

8516 

8517 

8518 

8519 

8520 

8521 

8522 

8523 

8524 

8525 

8526 

8527 

8528 

8529 

K. r >:so 
8531 
8582 

8538 

8588 

8540 

8578 



Waple <fe Co., E and 11th streets W. Made by W. O. Anderson, Lanham, Prince 

George County, Md. 
Elphonzo Yonngs & Co., 428 9th street Orange Blossom Honey, warranted strictly 

X W . pure ; Leslie, Dunham & Co. 
do Hoge's Horehound Honey, Gr. D. Po well, 81 3d 

street, Brooklyn, X. Y. 
F. Bitter, K Street Market i Xo label; made by W. O. Anderson, Lanliam, 

Prince George County, Md. 
Stadelmann, K Street Market Grown by brother in Yirginia and bottled by 

seller. 
Wilson <L Schultz. 9I'.4 7th street X\V. Pure California White Sage Honey ; Thnrber, 

Wbyland & Co., Xew York. 

Spignul <fc Co., corner Xew York ave- Pure Orange Blossom Honey, Eagle brand 

nue and 7th street. 
M. <fc P. Metzger, 417 7th street Xo label ; said to be gro w n in Montgomery 

County, Md. 
do Choice Extracted Northern Honey put op by 

George D. Powell. 
Chas. I. Kellogg, 602 9th street N'W... Strained Honey : Francis 11 Leggett 4 Co., 

New York. 
W. H. Coombs. 924 9th street XW ' Choice Extracted Clover I lone \, put up by Los- 
lie Dunham & Co., Pittstield, Mass. 
Outton. 811 9th street XW Old Yirginia Pare Honey, put up by Geo. 

K.McMechen & Son. Wheeling, W. v., 
T. H. W.iikeiA (O., 946-950 Louisiana Pure California Honey, from T.H.Walker 

avenue. &. Co., Louisiana avenue. 

I'.enj. Pettit stand Xo. 588, Center Strained by seller from Virginia comb honey.. 

Market. 
Stand No. 63, Center Market Warranted Pure Honey, from KM. Pitman. 

Centerrille, 7a. 

.Joseph Fish, stand 486, CentO) Market. Strained by seller from Virginia comb hone\ .. 

Stand 42, Center Market Strained by seller from Virginia comb honey. 

502 11th street Pure Sow J j A. < . 11. »o(.es 



a. Heitmiili. i i it ii stn et . . Choice Clovei Bonej ■. Israel 8 Bros., New York 

P.irch k. Co., 1414 14th street No label; said to be bottled by sellers from 

California honey. 

Cottage Market, 818 14th street . Striotly Pure Honey; Thnrber, Wnyland 4 

\.\\ York. 
Alexander C. Clark, corner 7th street Put up b\ W.O. Anderson, I.anham, Prince 

arid Florida avenue. George County, Md 

i:. Kennedj A Sons. r.'oo f Choice Extract Northern Sosey, put up by 

street Nw, el > Powell. 

Matthew Goddard ooi ner ii and 18th Bttter'a PnreCalifomia White Clover Hooej ; 

streets The P. J. Bitter Conserve Co., Philadelphia, 

P, 

Wilht 8 Gwynn Circli Market. cor choice CombHonej . chas. Israel 8 Bra., 

in r Vermont avenuo and L street Fork. 

Franklin Barrel corner Won Fork California Bodoj 

avenue and l'Jtli street. 

l'or w . Ight oi sack sample, exclusive of package, see following table 



$0.15 
.25 
.25 
.15 
.20 
.25 
.25 
.2:. 
.25 
.25 
.25 

.25 

.15 

.15 

.40 

.15 

15 

25 

.12 
.25 
. 15 

. 85 



780 


Foods AND Fool) ADULTERANTS. 
Detcription of sample— Continued. 










Price 


No. 


Where bought. 


Description. 


pei- 
pack- 
age.* 


8019 


Klplioii/.o Youngs, Washington, D.C. 

t Baltimore 


Horehound Honey 


$0.25 


8678 


(Land 11. Whits ('lover Honey XX 


.25 

.20 




Edmonston & Gosnell, 304 Biddle at., 


Choice Golden Rod Honey from Win. Thomp- 




Baltimore, Md. 


son, Wayne County, N. V. 




86«0 


P. A. Aguew, corner Eutaw and Pratt 
streets, Baltimore. 


No label 


.18 








B682 


Reiter & Co., 709 Baltimore street, 


California Pure Honey ; Jas. Miles, Monroe 


.10 




Baltimore. 


street, San Francisco, Cal. 




808:5 


Beits l'>ros.,206 North Eutaw street, 


Pure Orange Blossom Honey; F. O. St rob- 


.25 




Baltimore. 


meycr, New York. 




8684 


Win. Preston, Lexington market, Bal- 


Made in Reno County, Md., and bottled by 


.13 




timore. 


seller. 




8085 


A. Katzenberg, 218 Kutaw street, Bal- 


Choice Extracted Honey, strictly pure; E. G. 


.25 




timore. 


Hazard, Xew York. 




8080 


L. Strauss, 220 Eutaw street, Balti- 


Pure White Comb Honey: I'.O.Strohineyer 6 


.35 




more. 


Co., Xew York. 




8687 


Hopper, McGaw & Co., 220 Charles 


No label : packed at Ellicott City, Md., for 


.25 




street, Baltimore. 


seller. 




8688 


Edmonds, corner Lexington and Pearl 

streets, Baltimore. 


Orange Blossom, Eagle Brand. 


.25 








8683 


T. Stabler, corner Eutaw. Madison 
and Garden, Baltimore. 


Xo label ; California Honey v 


.20 


8890 


Stadelmann <fc Co., Lexington Mai 
kct, Baltimore. 


No label ; Maryland Honey 


.20 








80!tl 


Hopper, .Mcliaw & Co., 220 Charles 


Pure Clover ; pnt up expressly for Hopper, 


.25 




Street, Baltimore. 


McCaw &. Co. 




K0<J2 


do 


Xo label : Maryland Honey.. 


.25 




I: V II. Lawson, corner Charles and 
Hamilton, Baltimore. 


Orange Blossom Honey; Leslie, Duuham A: Co 


.25 


8094 


1.. H P. it/, 227 Hanover street, Balti- 
more. 


Bulk Honey, bought in Florida 


.15 








6685 


B.s. Shambnrg, 613 Lexinjrton, Balti- 


Put up in Philadelphia 


.25 




more. 
A. O.Wright, 1683 14th Rtreet, Wash- 


Strictly Pure Extracted Honey; Austin 


.2. r . 




ington, I ' 


Nichols A Go- 




8007 


.1 I' LOTC 1884 llth Street Washing- 


Pure Extracted Honey; R. W. Weir, South 


.12 




ton. i» c 


Rirer, Md. 






k. L Yewei), ii h Btb street, Wash- 


Bitter's Pore California White Clorei Honey 


.25 


-71 1 


ington, D.C. 
Coi stni i Market, Washington 


Comb 1 1 one V . . .... .... .................... 


. 18 




D.C. 








Benjamin Pettit, Center Market, 


do 


.25 




Washington, D.O 








Joseph Pish, stand 864, < tenter Market, 
Washington, D.C. 


Bottled by seller from Virginia Honey 


.20 




• on, stand 43 Center Mai set, 
Washington, D 1 


do 


.15 



lash - "t psokage, see following table. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 781 

COPIES OF LABELS OX HONEY SAMPLES. 

No. 8515. Honey bought from Waple & Co. , corner E and Eleventh streets NW. 
Price, 15 cents. Label: "Pure Extracted Honey. Should this honey granulate, place 
;he jar in hot water and it will liquefy. If the honey in this jar be found impure, or 
n any manner adulterated, I will forfeit $10 to the one discovering it. Bees and 
loney always for sale. W. O. Anderson, Lanham's, Prince George County, Md." Sam- 
)le put up in Rum ford's baking powder bottle. Golden-yellow in color. 

No. 8516. Honey bought from Elphouzo Youngs & Co., 428 Ninth street. Price 25 
sents. Label: "Orange Blossom Honey, strictly pure ; Leslie, Dunham & Co." Sam- 
)le golden-yellow in color: put up in wide-mouthed pickle bottle. 

No. 8517. Honey bought from Elphouzo Youugs & Co., 4*28 Ninth street N\V. Price 
J5 cents. Label: " Hoge's Horehound Honey ; balsamic, expectorant, and soothing. 
\. speedy, effectual, and pleasant remedy for coughs, colds, asthma, bronchitis, con- 
sumption, hoarseness, and all affections of the throat, chest, and lungs. A product 
)f nature secreted in the petals of horehound blossoms and gathered by the honey 
>ee. Price 25 cents. G. D. Powell, 81 and 83 Third street, Brooklyn, N. Y." A circu- 
ar inclosed contains among other things the following: 

"Hoge's Horehound Honey. — The story is rife that horehound honey is a myth, 
3ut we take the responsibility of assuring the world that pure horehound honey is a 
? act known to many of our citizens, and that it is produced in large quantities in 
several canons in this county, where the horehound plants grow in such profusion as 
jO entirely cboke out anything else around them. Mr. Hoge has gone to great pains 
ind devoted several years to horehound honey, and has secured control of all that is 
produced in this country, and is creating a good demand for it. We therefore fee] 
pat be is justly entitled to any advantage which may come from our indorsement of 
lihe fact that pure horehound honey is a bona lido production of this county. — Yen- 
Jura County (Cal.) Republican. 

"This is to certify that to my personal knowledge the locality referred to by Mr. 
Hoge is covered with flourishing growth of horehound, from which large quantities 
■ pure horehound honey are gathered by his bees. S. M. W. Easier, notary public, 
venture County, Cal. 

"Hoge's Horehound Honey. — Wherever a bee flies within the virgin wilderness of 
Boge's Canon, along the banks of the river, along the bluffs and headlands and deep 
leafy glens, the horehound plant blossoms in lavish abundance. It is the work of 
the honeybee to gather the sweet treasure, horehound honey, so divinely prepared, 
and bear it oil', saying to those suffering from coughs: ' Eal ! It is the soul of the 
blossom." 

Tliis sample, us will be seen from the analysis, was composed of a solution of cane 

sugar and some alcohol. 

No. 8518. Honey bought from F, Bitter, K Street Marker. Price 15 cents. \<> 
label; made by same man as 3515. This man sells bottles labeled and unlabeled; 
lays the honey is the same in each cast-, bul that it is more expensive to label, con- 
sequently does not label all samples. ( Solor Of sample golden yellow ; contains slight 

light-colored precipitate. Pui up in Romford's baking powder bottle. 

No. 8519. Honey bought from stadtdman, K Street Market. Price 20 cents. Grown 
by brother in Virginia and put up by seller injurs with tin cover. Color, golden 
yellow ; (dear. 

No. 8520. Honey bought from Wilson A Sobults, '.'"-1 Seventh street. 1M, 
cents. Label: " Pure California White Sage Honey. This honey is absolutely pure 
and unlike liquid honey thai has been mixed with glucose to keep it from granulat- 
ing, it will naturally candy or granulate and become ■ solid mass in course of time. 
If preferred in its liquid state, remove the cork and place the hot tie in hot water un- 
til the honey is melted. Thurber, Why land d Co., manufacturers, Ne* JTork. M Color, 
light brown: put up in pickle bottle; slightly lluorescent. 



182 POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

No. 3521. Honey bought from Spigntu & Co., corner New York avenue and Scv] 
enth street. Price, 25 cents. Label: " Pure Orange Blossom Honey, Eagle Brand! 
Neck label : " Pure Extracted Honey. All pure honey will congeal, especially wliei 
exposed to light and cold. In such cases remove cork, place bottle in cold water, le 
water boil ten minutes and honey will regain its liquid state." Color, brown ist 
yellow, clear. Put up in pickle bottle. 

No. 8522. Honey bought from M. & P. Metzger, 417 Seventh street NW. Said to 
be grown in Montgomery County, Md. No label. Price 25 cents 
low. Contained piece of honeycomb. Put up in jar with tin cover. 

No. 8523. Honey bought from M. A: P. Metzger, 417 Seventh street NW. Trie 
.nts. Label: " Choice Extracted Northern Honey put up by Geo. D. Powell 
Color, golden yellow, clear. Put up in wide-mouthed bottle with metal coyer. 

No. 8584. Honey bought from Chas. I. Kellogg, 602 Ninth street NW. Price 
cents. Color, golden yellow. Put up in wide-mouthed bottle. Label : " Strain J 
Honey. Francis H. Leggett & Co., New York." Neck label : " Should this honey be 
come candied, it will be restored to its natural state if immersed in warm water." 

No. 8525. Honey bought of W. H. Coombs, 924 Ninth street NW. Price, 25 cent! 
Put up in wide-mouthed bottle. Color, light brownish yellow. Label: "Choid 
Extracted Clover Honey. Put up expressly for table use. Leslie, Dunham & Coj 
Pittsfield, Mass."' 

No. d.V2(». Honey bought from Dutton, 816 Ninth street NW. Price, 25 ceuti 

Put n[) in wide-mouthed bottle. Color, golden yellow ; clear. Label: " McMechen 
Old Virginia Pure Honey, prepared by George K. McMechen & Sou, Wheeling, W 
V.i." Neck label: ''These goods are absolutely pure. Geo. K. McMechen & Sou 
Sealed with plaster of Paris and tin foil. 

No. 8527. Honey bought from T. H. Walker & Co., 94(5-9oO Louisiana avenu 
Price, 25 cents. Put up in wine bottle. Color, pale yellow ; clear. Label : " Pur 
California Honey, from T. H.Walker & Co., grocers, 946-950 Louisiana avenn 
Washington, D. C." 

No. 8528. Honey bought from Benjamin Pettit, stand No. 569 Center Market 
price, 15 cents; no label ; strained by himself from Virginia comb honey ; put up 
wide-monthed bottle; color, golden yellow; contains afew fine particles in suspejj 
sion. 

No. 8529. Honey bought from Joseph Fish, stand No. 465 Center Market : no label 
strained by himself from Virginia comh honey; put up in niekle bottle; eolo 
brownish yellow ; slightly cloudy ; price, 40 cents. 

No. 8531. Honey bought from stand No. 42 Center Market ; price, 15 cents; strains 
by seller from Virginia honey; no lahel; put up in small bottle with " Hum ford 
blown in glass; color, very dark brown : opaque. 

No. 3532. Honey bought from No. 50g Fourteenth street NW.; price. 15 centt 
label, "Pure Honey, A. C. Hoopes." Put up in small bottles; color, dark brown 
t ranslucenl . 

No. 8533. Honey bought from A. Heitmuller, 1333 Fourteenth street. Price, I 
cents. Put up in wide-mouthed bottle. Color, light yellow. Sample has complete! 
candied. Label: "Choice Clover Hoin-\ packed bj Chas. Israel & Bro.,New York 
Neck label: "Notice.— This honey being pure, is liable to granulate, particularly (I 
cold weather. If En said state place the bottle in cold water, set on hoi stove, and 
allow the bottle to become hoi with the water, and let boil for ten minutes, which 
will bring the honey to its Liquid form. Be sure to remove cork before placing in 

water." 

No. 8534. Hone\ boughl from Birch A Co., 1414 Fourteenth street, Price, 12 
cent-,. No label. Said to be " bottled by ourselves from California honey." ((dor, 
pale yellow ; (dear Put up in bottle with " Kunil'or.i " blown in glass. 

No. 8535. Honey boughl from Cottage Market, ^ is Fourteenth street. Price, 25 
cents. Color, golden yellow. Granulated throughout. Put np in bottle. Label 



AND HONEY. 783 

"Strictly Pure Honey. Thnrber, Why land & Co., New York." Neck label: This 

label is torn, but a fragment adhering shows, " Choice sr ," and "from Los A ." 

Sealed with plaster of Paris, of which a little dropped in in opening. 

No. 853G. Honey bought from Alexander C. Clark, corner Seventh and Florida 
avenue. Price 15 cents. Color golden yellow, clear; put up in bottle with " Rum- 
ford" blown in glass. Label: "Pure Extracted Honey. Should this honey granulate, 
place the jar in hot water and it will liquify. If the honey in this jar be found im- 
pure or in any manner adulterated, I will forfeit $10 to the one discovering it. Bees 
and honey always for sale. W. O. Anderson, Lanham's, Prince George County, Md. w 
See serial No. 8515, same as this sample. 

No. 8538. Honey bought from George E. Kennedy &. Sous, 1209 F street. Label, 
"Choice Extracted Northern Honey, put up by George D. Powell." Color, golden 
yellow; clear. Put up in metal-capped wide-mouthed bottle. Price, 25 cents. (See 
No. 8523.) Retailer would not guarantee purity, as price was too low. 

No. 8539. Honey bought from Matthew Goddard, corner Hand Thirteenth streets. 
Price, 25 cents. Label: u Ritter's Pure California White Clover Honey. The R. G. 
Ritter Conserve Company, Philadelphia." Color, light brownish yellow ; in square 
wide-mouthed bottle. Neck label : " Put up expressly for family use." 

No. 8540. Honey bought from Willett & Gwynue, Circle Market, corner Vermont 
avenue and L street. Price, 25 cents. Label: "Choice Comb Honey from Chas. 
Israel & Bro., New York." In appearance the sample is opaque ; looks like lard in 
a semifluid state. Contains piece of comb. 

No. 8696. "Strictly Pure Extracted Honey, Austin, Nichols & Co., 61 Hudson street, 
New York. Choice extracted honey from New York State. All pure honey will 
congeal, especially when exposed to light or cold. In such cases remove cork, place 
bottle in cold water, let water boil for ten minutes, and honey will regain its liquid 
state." Clear red-brown. 

No. 8797. "Pure Extracted Honey. Should this honey granulate place the jar in 
hot water and it will liquefy. If tbe honey in this jar be found impure or in any 
way adulterated, I will forfeit §10 to the one discovering it. Bees and honey always 
for sale. R. F. Wier, South River, Anne Arundel County, Maryland." " Dixon" jar. 
Granulated. 

No. 8698. " Ritter's Pure California White Clover Honey. The P. J. Ritter (un- 
serve Company, Philadelphia. Put up expressly for family use." 

BALTIMORE ii«»\:.y. 

No. 8678. Trade mark "X G R X." "G &, B White Clover Honey, XX." Slightly 
turbid brown solution. Honey bottle. 

No. 8679. " Choice Golden Rod Honey from Wm. Thompson's, Wayne County, V Y. 
This honey is of an excellent flavor, and put ap expressly for bes! grocery trade and 
family use." Clear yellowish brown. 

No. 8680. " I telicious Whit.- Bags Ex1 racted California Honey, packed at the apiary 
of L. Lawrence, Linda Vista, San Diego County, Cal. Waldeu & .Wale, selling 
agents for the East. California honey is considered the besl for all medicinal and 

household uses, and for t he convenience <>I' t he famih a pure, W holesoine. and n utri- 

tious white sage honey has been packed in this economical form (candied in a 
If the extracted honey in this package becomes 'candied' place it In warm water 
until it dissolves. All pare honey will granulate." 
No. 8681. Duplicate of 9679. 

No. 8682. "California Pore Honey, James Miles, Monroe street, San 1'iat. 

Cal." Jar. Looks like tallow. 
No. 8683. "Pure Orange Blossom Honey. P. <;. Btrohmeyei a I o., Nev< fork. 

This honey is absolutely pure, ami, unlike liquid honey that has been mixed with 

glucose to keep it from granulating, it will naturally candy or granulate and become 

a solid mass in course of time, if preferred in its liquid state remove the oork and 



184 ODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

place the bottle in hot water until the honey is melted." Completely candied; 
amber. Honey bottle. 

No. 9684. No label. Stated by seller to have been made in Maryland, and bottled 
by him. Jar. Clear brownish yellow. 

No. 8685. "Choice Extracted Honey. Strictly pure; E. G. Hazard A. Co., New 
York. Pure Extracted Honey. All pure honey will congeal, especially when ex] 
posed to light and cold. In such cases remove cork, place bottle in cold water, let 
water boil ten minutes, and honey will regain its liquid state." Honey bottle ; clear 
amber. 

No. 8686. "Pure White Comb Honey, F. G. Strohmeyer, New York. This honey 
is strictly pure, and, unlike liquid honey that has been mixed with glucose to keep 
it from granulating, will naturally candy or granulate and become a solid mass in 
the course of time. If preferred in its liquid state, heat the bottle in warm water. 
F. G. Strohmeyer & Co., New York." Jar with bail ; granulated. 

No. 8087. Packed at Ellicott City, Md., for seller ; no label. 

No. HOHS. " Pure Orange Blossom Honey, Eagle brand. Pure extracted honey. 
All pure honey will congeal, especially when exposed to light or cold. In all such 
cases remove cork, place bottle in cold water, let water boil ten minutes and houey 
will regain its liquid state." Clear red-brown ; honey bottle. 

No. 8689. No label. Said to be California houey. Preserve jar. 

No. 8690. No label. Maryland honey. Clear when bought. 

No. 8691. "Pure Clover Honey, put up expressly for Hopper, McGaw A Co., 220 
and 222 North Charles street, Baltimore, Md." Said to be Maryland honey. Honey 
bottle. 

No. 8692. No label. Maryland honey. 

No. 8693. "Orange Blossom Honey, warranted strictly pure. We receive this 
honey direct from the best apiaries among the line orange groves along the Indian 
Kiver in Florida, and recommend it as the most delicious extracted honey in the mar- 
ket. Leslie, Dunham & Co., Brooklyn, N. Y." 

No. 8694. Bulk honey, bought in barrels in Florida by retailer. 

No. 8695. " Put up in Philadelphia." Jar. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



785 



^0. 



8515 
8516 
8517 
8518 
8519 
8520 
8521 
8522 
8523 
8524 
8525 
8526 
8527 
8528 
8529 
8530 
8531 
8532 
8533 
8334 
8535 
8536 
8538 
8539 
8540 
8578 
8678 
8679 



8686 
8687 



8693 



8695 
8096 



.-711 

B752 



WASHINGTON HONEYS. 

Analytical data. 



Polarization. 



Direct. Indirect. 



- 10.56 

- 17. 18 
78.90 

- 11.86 

- 14.27 

- 14. 27 

- 12.20 

- 5.18 
126. 60 

- 14.70 
74.50 
58.00 

- 17.15 

- 8.60 

- 8.50 

- 10. 30 

- 12. 20 

6.35 
44.70 

- 16. 20 
12.35 

- 11.45 
114.90 

28.90 
59.70 

- 18. 50 
11.30 
55.50 

- 5.90 
40.70 
22.80 

- 10.40 

- 17.60 

- 6.80 
59.80 

- 14. 00 

- It. 4(1 

- 9.40 
21.30 

- 8.60 

- 15. 70 

- 11.90 
16.40 

- 15. 00 

- 7.20 
29.90 

- 10.40 

- 8.60 
8 10 
7.10 



- 13. 25 

- 19. 00 

2.40 

- 13.85 

- 16. 90 

- 19. 16 

- 15. 70 

- 11.84 
125.30 

- 19. 35 
71. 35 
54.85 
24. 35 

- 12. 60 

- 12. 40 

- 15.20 

- 15. 05 

.60 
40.45 

- 22. 45 

6.85 

- 15. 35 
113.47 

15.15 
57.50 
20.70 

- 19.90 
53. 20 

- 14.10 
38.30 
10.40 

- 12.80 

- 19.80 

- 8.40 
56.80 

- 18. 30 

- 17.10 

- 10. 40 
16.30 

- 10.00 

- 10.20 

- 13.7(i 

- 22. 40 

- 18. 20 

- 9.60 
14.40 

- 15. 80 
13.H0 

- 14. 20 



1™?%? Sucrose. 



ture °C 



Per cent. 



25.5 
24.7 
24.6 
24.8 
23.0 
24.6 
24.4 
24.2 
21.2 
22.0 
22.8 
17.0 
23.0 
24.9 
25.4 
25.4 
25.6 
25.4 
26. 1 
2(5.8 
27.0 
27.4 
27.5 
27.8 
17.0 
24.1 
25.4 
26.0 
24. 6 
24. 4 
24.6 
24.8 
25.0 
24.0 
23. 8 
24.4 
24.0 
24.0 

2:;. a 
22. 11 

22, 
22.0 
22. 1 

22.0 

21.0 
21.0 
19.0 
19.0 
21.2 



58.1 



11.6 



Reducing 
sugars. 



Water 



Asb. 



Per cent. 
74.17 
73.64 
7.92 
75.26 
77.52 
74.71 
73.64 I 
66.10 I 
48.31 \ 
72.35 j 
56.03 I 
63.64 
72.61 
71.61 
73.50 
72.61 
67. 83 
62.87 

64. 44 
71.61 

67. 83 
74.71 
49.81 
61.01 
64.44 

72. 47 
53. 76 
62. 50 

68. 50 

65. 80 
61. 73 
71.43 

58. 82 
7.-.. 77. 

75. 77. 

64.51 

66. 67 

73. 53 
70. 43 

72. 47 

61.35 
7:;. 51 

76. 18 

71.4:i 

73. 53 



Per cent. 
12.70 
15. 89 
23. 12 
14.55 

12. 12 
12. 

13. 08 
16.94 
13. 01 
14.91 
13.87 
12. 54 
16.29 

15. 62 
14.10 
20. 10 
25.10 
18.54 

16. 23 

20.83 
16.09 
18.31 
15.17 
20. 42 
20.29 
17.77 
17.38 
20. 25 
18.99 
20. 59 
23.42 
15.01 
18.87 
14.18 
14.18 
13.14 
18. 82 
20. 49 

2". 7.". 

21.60 

20.01 

it;. 00 
L& U 

10.7.: 
hi. 88 



- 



Per cent. 
0.06 
0.08 
0.03 
0.07 
0.27 
0.13 
0.48 
0.17 
0.26 
0.06 
0.35 
0. 23 
0.06 
0.27 
0.35 
0.08 
0. 16 
0.82 
0.18 
0.05 
0.17 
0.06 
0.22 
0. L5 
0.21 
0.34 
0. 11 
0.17 
0.31 
0.34 
0. 24 
0.34 
0. 11 
0.15 
0.12 
0.09 
0. 19 
0.15 
H.21 
0. 28 

0.08 
0.02 
0. 11 

o.ll 

0.31 

18 



786 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

NOTES ON PRECEDING TABLES. 
ANALYSES BY II. A. HUSTON. 

Four of the samples were sold as comb honey, being- honeycomb in 
jars presumably tilled with glucose or some honey substitute. It is to 
be regretted that Mr. Huston failed to report the polarizations obtained 
and also to note what samples were abnormal in their optical behavior. 
Repeated requests for this information have not succeeded in their 
object, and the other data therefore go to press without these impor- 
tant complements. 

ANALYSES BY 11. II. NICHOLSON. 

Of the 50 samples analyzed by Mr. Nicholson the following were 
adulterated with commercial glucose, viz : Nos. 1757, 1761, 17(51, 17G6, 
1709, 1772, 1773, 1779, 1780, 1782, 1783, 1786, 1787, 1788, 1789, 1793, 
1 7!>:,. 1790, 1798, 1799, 1800, 1801, 1803, and 1801. In all, 26 samples, or 
52 per cent of the whole number. Some of these appear to have had 
only from 25 to 50 per cent of glucose added, or else principally that 
form of starch sugar known as grape sugar. This product is chiefly 
dextrose and its presence is indicated by a rather low right handed po- 
larization which is not greatly changed on inversion unless cane sugar 
is also present in considerable quantities. 

Illustrations of this kind of adulteration are more numerous in these 
samples than in any other set examined; in fact, their number is so 
large as to excite comment. Samples Nos. 1788, 1789, 1796, 1800, etc., 
are illustrations. The use of dextrose as a honey adulterant is not 
common, and its occurrence in so many of these samples is not prob- 
able They are rather to be regarded as mixtures of honey and glu- 
cose in the proportions mentioned above. 

Sample8 Nos. L766 and L794 clearly indicate the addition of consid- 
erable quantities of cane sugar. 

In samples \<>s. 1766, 177(1. L780, L781, 1782, L784, 1786, 1786,1787, 
1789, 1 700, 1792, 1791, 1 707, L798, 1799, 1802, and L805, the excessive 
quantities of water found show that the samples can not be genuine. 
Eight of these are included under those adulterated with glucose, 
leaving into be added to the total of adulterated samples. These, in 
all make 38, samples certainly adulterated, giving to the unadulterated 
class all the doubtful samples. 

The general result of the analyses is t here fore 38 adulterated to V2 
doubtfnl and genuine samples. 

The percentage Of adulteration is 7«>. 

The labels on | he packages of hone\ bought are very misleading. No. 
L756, ad ul tela ted with eane BUgar, is labeled u Pare California. Honey;" 

1761, "Pure Honey;" 1 77 _r, "Pare Honey;" 177;*, "Pure Honey;" 
1780, -White Clover Honej ;" L782, "California Honey ;" 1783, "Cal- 
ifornia Honey;' 1 L787, "Pure Honey;" L788, -Pure Honey;" 1789, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 787 

"White Clover Honey:" 1798, "Pure Honey;" 1799, "Pure Honey;" 
1803, " Pure Honey ; " 1804, " Pure Honey," etc. 

Many samples of spurious honey were provided with labels indicating 
that they come from California. The honeys delivered to commerce by 
the bee keepers of California have been found almost always pure. The 
very honesty of the California bee keeper is made a stock in trade 
for his less scrupulous cismontane factor. 

ANALYSES BY W. B. RISING. 

The analyses of the samples of honey purchased in the markets of 
San Francisco and vicinity are of peculiar interest both en account of 
the magnitude of the bee industry in California and by reason of the 
fact that the low price of the honeys in the home markets of the State 
is a powerful safeguard against the practice of adulteration. It is a rule 
of universal application which forbids fabrication when the price of the 
genuine article approaches that of the constituents of the sophisticated 
article plus the cost of compounding. 

In the whole number of samples purchased in open market by Mr. 
Rising only the following were found adulterated, viz: Nos. 12, 15, 16, 
18, 20, 23, 27, 05, and 140 ; in all, 9 or 18 per cent. This is a good show- 
ing for California honeys in their own markets as compared with the 
extent of their adulteration in other parts of the country. 

Sample No. 12 is included in the above list as an adulterated article, 
but injustice to the label which represents it a.s made from orange blos- 
soms it is only fair to say that no comparative study of* a certainly gen- 
line honey from orange blossoms can be cited to show that sample in 
question is abnormal. 

No. 19 had the same label as No. 12, yet the analysis of this sample 
is quite within the limits of a genuine article. These two cases show 
that a label is often used to catch the eye of the purchaser instead of 
to describe the character of the goods to be sold. 

Sample No. 15 is quite without the limits of a genuine honey, but it 
is difficult to state the character of the adulteration. It is probably a 
starch sugar or glucose very rich in dextrose, Its label, " Pure Ex- 
tracted Honey," has been used to cover a multitude of sins in the 
trade. 

No. 16 is a puzzling sample. It may be a genuine sample of right 
handed honey. The only authentic instances, however, of a genuine 
honey being right-handed are in cases where the bees have gathered 
their stores from the honey dew ^^' pine trees. It is possible that there 
may be plants in California affording a saccharine exudation of a simi- 
lar character. If not, the composition <>!' the sample is peculiar. It 

should perhaps be taken out of the adulterated list and marked doubt- 

fill. Its label affords no clue to its origin. 

No. 18, without any distinguishing label, appears to be adulterated 
with about 50 per cent of glucose. 



788 FOOD* AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Xo. 20, labeled u Pure Extracted Honey," contains apparently from 20 
to 30 per cent of glucose. 

No. 23 contains from 50 to 60 per cent of glucose. 

No. 27 contains from GO to 70 per cent of glucose. 

No. 05, labeled "Pure San Diego Honey, bottled expressly for family 
nse," contains from 75 to So per cent of glucose. It grew chiefly in the 
corn belt of the Northwest, and not in the flowers of southern Cali- 
fornia. 

No. 140 is pure glucose, with probably only enough honey added to 
give it a little flavor. 

The content of water in the samples is quite in contrast with the 
quantities found in the honeys purchased in the vicinity of Omaha. 
The latter, as has already been stated, contain water in abnormal quan- 
tities, while the California samples all fall within the limits set for pure 
honeys. 

ANALYSES BY 31. A. SCOVELL. 

Sample 101 is adulterated with a heavy confectioners' glucose about 
40 per cent, or with glucose containing a large quantity of dextrose, 
about 00 to 70 per cent. Its low content of water would indicate the 
former method of adulteration. 

The capacity of" Old Virginia" to produce honey would seem to be 
equal to that of California, judging from the frequency with which 
George K. .McMechen & Son's goods are found ou the market. Al- 
though warranted " absolutely pure," it is evident that this firm de- 
pend on the glucose factory rather than the petals of the flower for 
their chief stock in trade. 

No. 103, labeled "Choice Com b Boney" is another instance of the sale 
of comb honey which is a mechanical mixture of the comb with glucose. 

No. 104 "Pure Machine-Extracted Honey" from the Italian apiary of 
Charles P. Math, contains fully 50 percent of adulterant. The machine 
alluded to in the label is doubtless the converter in which corn starch is 
changed into glucose in Buffalo and other places. 

No. 110 is a further proofofthe freedom with which the good name 

of California ia prostituted in the fabrication of false wares. It is at 

Least t \v<> thirds glucose. 

No. Ill) belongs in the same category as the foregoing. 

No. 126, labeled " Mutlfs California Boney," 18 almost pure glucose. 

No. 1L'7 is " Warranted Pure Honey," put up by C. F, Math & Son, 
is nearly half glucose. 

No. 135 is another spurious comb honey, manufactured by (litheiis 
& Ke\s;imei, I Miiladel phia. 

No. 136 is anot hei- of the fraudulent preparations of McMechen's Old 
Virginia brand. 

No. 137 is a doubt lul sample. Judged by the other samples of pure 
California honey, it is adulterated with cane sugar J the extent of the 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 789 

adulteration, however, is not great enough to permit its classification 
with the fraudulent samples without this word of explanation. 

No. 140 shows that Githens & Rexsamer have worked the Cincinnati 
markets pretty thoroughly with their imitation comb honeys. 

No. 141 is explained by note on 104. 

No. 144 is another of McMecben's Old Virginia. 

No. 149 is another illustration of an adulterated honey bearing the 
label of G. F. Muth & Son. 

Summary. — Of the whole number 13 are certainly adulterated, 26 per 
cent and 1 other probably, 28 per cent in all. In the present state of 
our knowledge it is necessary to pass all moderately left-handed honeys 
as pure, although there may be a great percentage of adulteration in 
9uch samples. Methods are now perfecting which will enable us to de- 
tect an adulteration in a left-handed sugar with as great a degree of 
certainty as we are now able to do with a right-handed one. 

ANALYSES BY S. P. SHARPLES. 

In the case of the strained honeys on the market, the price seems to 
be governed entirely by the will of the retailer, the same-sized tumbler 
selling from 10 to 18 cents, according to the store. 

The highest priced were the two samples of fraudulent Swiss honey, 
while the cheapest was the pint jar of pure honey from Cambridge. 

The practical working of a good auti-adulteration law, properly en- 
forced, is well illustrated in the samples of honey collected in and near 
Boston. Only G samples out of 50 were found to be adulterated with 
glucose, or 12 per cent. These are Nos. 9504, 9506, 9524, 9525, 9526, 
and 9547. 

In Nos. 9504 and 9506 is seen the temerity of fraudulent comb honey 
seeking a market in the only city in the country where aserious attempt 
to prevent the sale of such sophisticated articles is made. The maker 
affixed no label, depending, evidently, on the presence of the comb to 
secure a ready sale and immunity from inspection. 

In Nos. \)W1\ and 9525 samples of the breakfast honey so enjoyed by 
travelers in Switzerland are found. They are almost pare glucose, very 
possibly made in America. The label in this case commanded a high 
price, as indicated above. 

No. 9526 has a label which is calculated to carry conviction to a hesitat- 
ing heart. It is endowed with the natural granulating principle which 
pure hone\ lias in a high degree, especially after extraction. The char- 
acter of the adulteration is not clear, but it is apparently dextrose, 
probably the anhydrous variety. It is at least a right-handed sugar, 
whose rotatory power is not appreciably affected by heating with an 
acid during the process of inverting cane sugar. 

As in the other cases, left-handed honeys have been passed without 

question as genuine. After more definite means have been devised to 

discriminate between pure honey and pure invert sugar it will be pos- 
sible to pass judgment upon the purity of such samples, 
1-os— No, \:\ 11 



790 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

ANALYSES BY W. C. STUBBS. 

Of the 50 samples examined the following were adulterated with glu- 
cose, viz : Nos. 2, 5, G, 11, 18, 21, 24, 26, 27, 30, 33, 35, 37, 38, 45, 46, and 
49, in all 17 samples, or 34 per cent. 

The following were adulterated with sucrose, viz : Nos. 2, 8, 16, and 
27. Of this list No. 2 is found in the first category, leaving 3 additional 
samples to be placed in the adulterated column, making a total of 20 
samples, equivalent to 40 per cent. 

The following samples would indicate that the honey was part ob- 
tained from the honeydew of pine forests, viz: Nos. 12, 13, 15, 23, 41, 
and 50. This statement rests upon the belief that there are no genu- 
ine right-handed honeys which do not have their origin in the honey- 
dew mentioned, the properties of which are given in another part of 
this report. 

The peculiarly favorable facilities which the bees in Louisiana have 
of access to cane sugar would probably explain the abnormally high 
percentage of this substance in some of the samples, leading to their 
classification with the adulterated articles. 

The water, as in the case of the Omaha samples, is abnormally high, 
but this may be due to the fact that the humidity of the air in Louisi- 
ana is usually very high and the sweets to which the bees have access 
are consequently richer in water than in a dry climate, such as, for in- 
stance, that of California. 

ANALYSES BY SHIPrEN WALLACE. 

Of the whole number examined Mr. Wallace only gives 10 as pure, 
equivalent to an adulteration of 80 per cent. I would, however, add to 
the list of honeys probably pure No. 9, which he regards as adulterated 
with glucose and cane sugar, and all of those classified by him as 
adulterated with inverted sucrose. The reasons for this transfer are 
those already stated, viz: The ditliculty at the present time of deciding 
definitely in regard to added inverted sucrose. This emendation of the 
classification would add 11 samples to the list of probably pure honeys, 
and reduce the percentage of adulteration to 58. 

Our old friends " Pure Honey," u Pure California Honey,' 1 and u Geo. 
K. McMechen & Son's Pure old Virginia Honey," are found, as usual, 
decorating the adulterated columns. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 791 

Mr. Wallace classifies the honeys examined by him as follows : 

HONEY, PROBABLY PURE. 



No. 


Polarization. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugar. 


A si). 


Direct. 


Invert. 








Percent. 


Per cent . 


Percent. 


1 


— 4.0 


- 6.0 


1.4 


62.60 


0.09 


6 


—10. 


—16.0 


4.4 


69. 85 


.15 


10 


- 8.5 


—12.0 


2.9 


69.85 


.05 


18 


— 7.5 


— 9.0 


1.1 


65.70 


.07 


20 


— 9.5 


—10.0 


0.3 


67.22 


.20 


33 


—12.0 


—14.0 


1.4 


70.95 


.25 


34 


—10.0 


-11.0 


0.7 


67.80 


.31 


41 


— 5.0 


—17.0 


8.9 


65.20 


.27 


45 


— 5.0 


— 8.0 


2.2 


68.95 


.22 


50 


—11.0 


—12.0 


0.7 


72.65 


.27 



HONEY ADULTERATED WlTn GLUCOSE OR GLUCOSE AND CANE SUGAR. 



2 


66.0 


61.0 


3.7 


51.20 


0.17 


5 


110.0 


27.0 


61.9 


41.38 


.12 


8 


102.0 


92.6 


7.0 


44.20 


.10 


14 


78.0 


72.0 


4.50 


35.50 


.08 


15 


83.5 


70.0 


10.0 


31.50 


.15 


16 


51.0 


47.0 


2.9 


29.85 


.10 


17 


19.0 


16.0 


2.2 


45. 78 


.18 


19 


41.0 


31.0 


7.4 


40.25 


.09 


21 


92.5 


58.0 


25.7 


38.80 


.12 


22 


53.5 


41.0 


9.3 


29.65 


.18 


25 


30.5 


13.0 


13.0 


51. 65 


.18 


26 


52.0 


32.0 


14.9 


27.50 


.21 


30 


71.0 


64.0 


5.2 


33.75 


.17 


35 


102.5 


83.0 


14.5 


40.55 


.15 


39 


55.0 


4.0 


38.0 


40. 15 


.15 


43 


53.0 


8.0 


33. 5 


52.50 


.14 


46 


110.0 


27.0 


61.9 


41.50 


.15 


17 


102.0 


92.6 


7.0 


40.15 


.15 


48 


78.0 


70.0 


5.9 


36.50 


.20 


49 


65.0 


50.0 


11.1 


41.45 


.18 


9 


-3.5 


—16.0 


9.4 


72.30 


.08 



ADULTERATED WITH CANE SUGAR. 



1 




—13.0 


31.3 


38.50 


0.21 


3 


-... 


—10.0 


14. 1 


47 M 


.1.". 


28 




—14.0 


16.0 






36 


11.0 


-15.0 


l'.t I 




. l'.t 


40 


7.5 


-16.0 


17.5 






42 




—16.0 


1H. 1 






11 


10.0 


- 8.0 


13. 4 




.16 


23 


10.5 


— 8.0 






.09 


:tf 










.18 



792 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



ADULTERATED WITH INVERTED SUCROSE. 



r 

No. 


Polarization. 


Sucrose. 


Reducing 
sugar. 


Ash. 


Direct. 


Invert. 


11 

12 

i 

13 

1 « 

27 

29 
31 
32 
37 


—19.5 
—13.5 
—13.0 
—18.5 
—11.0 
—14.0 
—19.0 
-17.0 
—15.0 
—14.0 


—19.0 
—14.0 
—13. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 
70.10 

71.50 

71.50 

72. 75 

72.50 

71.95 


Percent. 
0.27 

.20 

22 

.27 

.28 

.25 

.22 

.23 

.28 

.32 






—20.0 
—12.0 
—14.0 


1.1 
0.7 


—19.0 
—17.0 
—15.0 
—14.0 




74.80 
73. 10 






71.50 
71 75 











ANALYSES BY H. A. WEBER. 

The samples adulterated with glucose are the following, viz : Kos. 1, 
4, 7, 11, 13, 17, 18, 19, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 33, 34, 35, 36, 44, 46, and 48. 

The labels characterizing the adulterated articles can be seen in the 
foregoing description. Some of them have grown to be quite familiar. 
No. 1 is " California Honey," No. 7 " McMechen's Old Virginia," etc. 

No. 13 was a spurious comb honey in ajar. 

No. 23 is labeled "Pure Machine Extracted Honey from the Italian 
apiary of C. F. Muth & Son. 

No. 33, labeled " Pure California White Sage Honey from Thurber & 
Whylaud," shows an addition of a large quantity of dextrin, probably 
in the form of glucose. 

It is to be regretted that Mr. Weber did not use the same methods 
of detecting glucose adulterations as was practiced by the other analysts 
engaged in the work. He has passed some samples as unadulterated in 
which we should have expected to find large quantities of glucose, from 
an inspection of the names and labels they bear. 

ANALYSES OF F. G. WIECHMANN. 

NOTES BY MR. WIEC'IIMANN. 

The samples analysed were liquid, "strained honey," excepting sampleiNos. 140, 
144, 146, 141), each of which had B piece of comb in the liquid, and No. 147, which was 
comb-honey. 

In numerous samples asedimenl appeared; in sample No. 124 the contents of the 
bottle bad separated into halves, the lower portion being tilled with a yellowish gray 
solid, while above this stood a dark-brown solution. These were of course thor- 
oughly mixed before analysis. 

In No. L06 a brown llucciileiit precipitate appeared throughout sample. 

All honeys having an ash of 0.30 and over were tented tor calcium sulphate. These 
were th<- samples : 

Per rent. 

No. 102 0.:U3 

No. 108 :?2i 

No. 106 648 

\o. 113 386 

No.l4(i :Ui> 

Jn all of these cahiiini ;md sulphuric acid were found, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



793 



Where the ash amounted to 0.20 and over, the color and appearance of the same 
were noted. 



No. 


Color of asb. 


Appearance of asb. 


No. 


Color of ash. i Appearance of ash. 


102 


"White 


Fluffy. 
Scaly. 
Fluffy. 
Scaly. 

Do. 
Fluffy. 

Do. 

Do. 
Very bulky and 

fluffy. 
Fluffy. 


119 
122 
123 

126 
130 
140 
141 
146 
149 


White 


Fluffy. 


103 
104 


...do 

...do 


....do 

....do 


Scaly. 

Very bulky and 

fluffy. 
Fluffy. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 


105 


Gray 


...do 


106 
110 
112 
113 
117 

118 


Wbite 


Pink 


...do 


White 


....do 


....do 




do 


Pink 


White, with yel- 
low tinge. 


....do 





Ashes Nos. 110, 140, and 149, pink in color, were tested lor iron and were found to 
contain this metal. 

In order to learn the composition of an undoubtedly pure honey, two samples of 
comb honey were obtaiued from Edmund Rose, Delhi, N. Y. These samples were 
purchased, the seller knowing that they would be analyzed for test purposes. The 
one sample (A) was made by bees that had fed on white clover and possibly a little 
milkweed; this was of a bright gold-yellow in color. The other sample (B) was ob- 
tained from bees that had fed principally on buckwheat. This was dark brown in 
color. 

The capping was carefully removed by knife from both sides of the combs, the in- 
termediate wax wall perforated, and the honey allowed to drain through a line wire 
gauze into a porcelain dish. The combs were kept covered during the draining, and 
after a few hours, when this was completed, the strained honey was placed in air- 
tight jars. 

The analyses of these two samples resulted as follows : 






Sample. 


Polarization of 
normal freight sola- 

tion in 200 mm. tube 
at 20° C. 


Reducing sugars. 


Sucrose.* 


Water. 


Ash. 


Before 
inversion. 

—13.6 
—14.2 


After 

inversion. 


Before 

inversion. 


After 
inversion. 




A. 

B 


—14.6 
-16.0 


70. BS 
1% M 


74.07 
75.18 


3.31 
2.86 


22. 47 


(I. H4 
0.083 



* Calculated from difference In amounts of reducing sugar, before and utter inversion, ■ l pi r on nt 
solution being used in both instances. Neutralization after inversion was effected by soilitun oat 
bonate. 

The polarization before inversion corresponds to :i specific rot:itory power foi so- 
dium r:iy, in sample A= —4.696, sample H = —4.906, 
On examining the analyses of the 50 samples of honey recorded above in order to 

det ermine which are genuine and which are n.>t, one IS OOnflOnted by a problem in 
many cases difficult, in others actually impossible of solution. 

However, carefully Btndying the bearing of all of the different factors in the ques- 
tion, the following conclusions appeal wan ante. i by the data.* 

* For contributions to this subject, see II. W, Wiley in The American Apionltorist, 

Vol. Ill, No. 12, 1885; the same, in American Chemical Journal, Vol. Mil, No. 1, 

1891; A.. H.Allen, Commercial Organic Analysis, Vol. 1, 9d Ed., 1885; ETassatl, Pood 

and its Adulterations; B. Bieben, in ZeitSOhriU des Vcreines tiii Kuhenmckcr- 
Indtistric, Vol. 34, p. 837, L884, 



794 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



The samples may be divided into: Group I, presumably pure honeys. Group II, 
adulterated honeys. 

In Group I must be placed Nos. 101, 107, 103, 111, 114, 115, 116, 120, 121, 123, 124, 125, 
127, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 147, and 150. 

Many of these samples have been placed in this group simply because it is impossi- 
ble to prove their adulteration by analysis. Judging from the general appearance, 
color, taste, and fluidity of the samples, the writer feels morally certain that more than 
half of those enumerated above consist essentially of inverted sucrose. However, 
as it is practically impossible to demonstrate this claim, one is forced to class them 
with the geuuine honeys, and this group has therefore advisedly been marked : "Pre- 
sumably " genuine. 

Group II is capable of subdivision into: II a. Unquestionably adulterated with 
starch sirup (glucose). life. Adulterated with starch sirup (glucose), with sucrose, 
or with both. 

Group II a embraces Nos. 102, 105, 106, 109, 119, 130, and 143. 

Group 116 embraces Nos. 103, 104, 110, 112, 113, 117, 118, 122, 126, 140, 141, 142, 144, 
145, 146, 148, and 149. 

This shows 24 out of 50 samples examined to be undoubtedly adulterated. This 
corresponds to 48 per cent, and of the remaining 26 samples, as already stated, more 
than one-half are in all probability also not pure. 

ANALYSES BY F. G. WIECHMANN. 

Mr. Wiechinann has very satisfactorily discussed the data obtained 
by him, and I will add only a few notes. 

No. 118 is evidently the same brand of honey as No. 114, examined by 
Mr. M. A. Scovell, and No. 9526, by Mr. S. P. Sharpies. The label and 
description are identical, with the exception of the name of the wholesale 
dealer, which in two cases is Thurber & Whyland and in one case E. 
Brommond. 

Mr. Wiechinann's data are compared with Mr. Scovell's below : 





Bafore 
inversion. 


After 

invt isioii. 


Reducing 

nilgais. 


Wat, r. 


Ash. 




o 

C3. :j 

— 7.2 
42.00 


o 

52.0 
—15.1 

40.0 


Per cent. 

76. i: 

G7.03 


I'er i<nl. 
20. 16 
11. 76 
16.88 


Per cent. 
0. 22 
0.20 
6. 24 









Nothing could illustrate better than the above table the utter mean- 
in^lessness of labels. Here we find one label and description applied 
indiscriminately to three samples of honey totally different in their 

composition. The sample examined by Mr. Scovell is apparently gen- 
uine. Those examined by Messrs. Wiechmann and Sharpies are un- 
doubtedly adulterated, hut not to the same extent. 

It appears to be the habit of the enterprising dealer to arm himself 

with an assortment of altisonant labels and a pot of paste and then to 

make a descent on a helpless pile of genuine and spurious packages of 

honey, applying the labels indiscriminately. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 795 

ANALYSES BY DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE, CHEMICAL DIVISION. 

Honeys were polarized as is described under molasses and sugars. 
Glucose was determined in a 1 per cent solution by titration, using 
Violette's solution. Water and ash were found in the same manner as 
with molasses, using kieselguhr in determining the former. In a few 
samples the degree Brix was determined after dilution. The process 
was: 

Weigh a 50 cc flask, drop in 20 or 30 grams of honey, reweigh, fill up 
to the mark with water, again weigh, and shake violently. After stand, 
ing some time to allow bubbles to escape, take the apparent specific 
gravity of the mixture by means of a pyknometer. The correspond- 
ing degree Brix is found from Stammer's table and corrected for tem- 
perature. This is taken as representing the per cent of solids in the 
mixture of honey and water. The weight of the mixture multiplied by 
this per cent gives the total amount of solids in the weighed amount 
of honey placed in the flask. 

The following samples were found to be adulterated with glucose, 
viz : Nos. 8517, 8523, 8525, 8526, 8533, 8538, 8539, 8540, 8G79, 8082, 8G83, 
8687, 8691, and 8698, in all 14 samples, equivalent to 28 per cent. 

Two samples, Nos. 8517 and 8678, contained some sugar as an adul- 
terant. 

Six samples, Nos. 8532, 8535, 8683, 8691, 8697, and 8751, are difficult 
to classify. They may contain small quantities, 15 to 30 per cent, of 
glucose, or they may belong to the natural right-handed honeys gath- 
ered from pine forests. 

The percentage of samples certainly adulterated is therefore 32, and 
if the 6 doubtful samples are included, that number rises to 44, or since 
one sample has been counted twice as adulterated, 42. 

No. 8517 should hardly be included in the list of honeys used for 
foods since it is clearly designed only for medical use. 

No. 8525 comes under the attractive title of u Choice Extracted (lover 
Honey," and presumably all the way from Massachusetts. Such sophis- 
tications being prohibited in the home markets, they naturally seek an 
outlet where the laws are more lenient and consumers more inditfeient. 
Nowhere else are these conditions so favorable as in the District of 
Columbia. 

In 8626 we meet our old friend, " Pare Old Virginia Honey," put up 

by that enterprising firm of George K. BicMechen & Sou, who seem to 

have left very few of the markets of the country untried with then 
products. 

In 85.').*) " Choice (Mover Honey " is again made to do duty in BCCUring 
favorable consideration for the inversion product of com starch. 

"Choice Extracted Northern Honey" 18 the label under which No. 
deceives the innocent purchaser. 

14 Pure California White Clover I lone\ " is t he label applied to the glu- 
cose mix t ure No. 85. ;:>. Bad a skilled botanist been doing this mixing 



796 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

be would not have located the origin of a white-clover sample in Cali- 
fornia. He would have stuck to wild sage or orange blossoms, as in 
8083, and left the clovers for New England and New York, as was done 
by the more considerate mixer of No. 8540. 

" Golden Rod Honey" is a most attractive name under which to sell 
starch sugar, and the vendor of No. 8671) has pressed that name into 
his service. 

While the honeys exposed for sale in Baltimore and Washington are 
not so extensively adulterated as in a few other localities, yet it appears 
that nearly one-half of the samples of liquid honey which may be bought 
at random in these two cities is spurious. 

In regard to the weight of honey in each package a number of ex- 
periments were made. The weights given below are seriatim, with the 
exception of number three, which is omitted. 

Weight in grams : 

308, 411, , 280, 308, 400, 422, 300, 345, 434, 38G, 304, 543, 165, 

255, 431, 285, 244, 303, 273, 391, 282, 301, 414. 

It will be seen that except in one instance the amount of honey in a 
package does not reach one pound, viz, 454 grams. In one case there 
was less than half a pound in the package, while in a number of cases 
the actual weight of honey was only approximately three quarters of a 
pound. 

AFFIDAVIT HONEYS. 

Five of the G samples of honey of guaranteed purity (Nos. 9009, 9010, 
9011, 9012, and 9014) were bought in Gaithersburg, Md., by a represent- 
ative <>!' the Department, July 20. The country round Gaithersburg 
is rather rolling, and is fairly well wooded with second growth pine 
and hard wood. At the time of buying there were tew field Mowers 
apparent, and the bees appealed to be at work mainly on the black 
cherry trees which are numerous in this piece of country. These cher- 
ries, which grew wild, were small and black, but very sweet. No at- 
tempt had evidently been made to gather them anywhere, and the 
ground underneath tin' trees was covered with dec. lying fruit. The 
sellers of the honey did not know whence the bees derived their honey, 
but thought it came from the woods. Sample No. 9014 came from a 
l>ec tree in the woods, and was evidently the accumulation of several 
years. It was black, dirty, and full of bee bread and dead bees. 

liy reason of the Tact that these live samples were right-handed they 

have an unusual interest. They are the only samples ot honey, known 

to be genuine, which have shown right handed polarization which have 
been found in our investigations, now extending over a series of several 

years. 

Does this dextrorotation arise from the consumption by the bees of 
the homy dew of the neighboring pine forest, or is it due to the wild 

cherries 1 The true source of this phenomenon is at present unknown. 

One sample, No. 9015, was bought in another locality, and showed 

the customary levorotation. 









SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HOXEY. 7!»7 

Sample Xo. 9009. 

Personally appeared before me, Charles W. Crawford, justice of the peace in and 
for Montgomery County, State of Maryland, E. M. Thompson, who takes oath that the 
sample of honey forwarded by him to the Department of Agriculture is perfectly pure 
and free from adulteration, aud that the bees preparing it have neither been fed nor 
allowed access to artificial saccharine substances, nor have they been given comb 
foundation, nor has wax in any form been given to the bees or introduced into the 
hive artificially. 

In evidence whereof witness my hand and seal, this 18th day of July, 1891. 

Charles YV. Crawford, -/. P. [seal.] 

Sample Xo. 9010. 

Personally appeared before me, Charles W. Crawford, justice of the peace in and 
for Montgomery County, State of Maryland, V. P. Hinkley, who takes oath that the 
sample of honey forwarded by him to the Department of Agrieulture is perfectly pure 
and free from adulteration, and that the bees preparing it have neither been fed nor 
allowed access to artificial saccharine substances, nor have they been given comb 
foundation, nor has wax in any form been given to the bees or introduced into the 
hive artificially. 

In evidence whereof witness my hand and seal this 18th day of July, 1891. 

Charles W. Crawford, J. P. [seal.] 

Sample Xo. 9011. 

Personally appeared before me, Charles W. Crawford, notary public in and for State 
of Maryland, Montgomery County, Albert O. Appleby, who lakes oath that the sam- 
ple of honey forwarded by him to the Department of Agriculture is perfectly pure 
and free from adulteration, and that the bees preparing it have neither been fed nor 
allowed access to artificial saccharine substances, nor have they been given comb 
foundation, nor has wax in any form been given to the bees or introduced into the 
hive artificially. 

In evidence whereof witness my hand and seal, this 1-th day of July, 1891. 

Charles W. Crawford, J. /'. [seal.] 

Samph No. 9012. 

Personally appeared before me, Charles \V. Crawford, justice of the peace in ami for 
Montgomery County, State of Maryland, Edmund Cloyd, who takes oath that the 
MIDple of honey forwarded by him to t he Department of Agriculture is perfectly pure 
and free from adulteration, and that the bees preparing it have neither been fed nor 
allowed access to artificial saccharine Bubetancee, nor have they been been given 
comb foundation, nor has wax in any form been given to the bees or introduced into 
the hive artificially. 

In evidence whereof witness my hand ami seal this 1-th day of .July, 1891. 

Cmaki.i> W. ChaWFOBD, J. P. | skal.] 

Sample No. 9015. 
Virginia, Loudoun County f to wit: 

Personally appeared before me, Joe, ];. Wright, a ootary public for Loudoun 
County, .John \V. Bauokman, who cert i lies that the 85 pon mis of oomb-honej tent by 
him this 23d day of .July to the Chemical Division of the Department of Agriculture 
is pure honey, that the bees ha\ e iml been artificially fed, and t hat DO artificial comb 
foundation of any kind has been used. 

Witness my hand ami M al this 23d da J of duly, 1891. 

Job. B. Wrioh p, 

Notary Public, 



798 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Analyses of samples of honey obtained from localities near Washington, accompanied by 

affidavits. 



No. 


Polarization. ! m 

Tempera- 


Reducing 
sugar. 


Water. 


Sucrose. 


Ash. 


Direct. 


Invert. ture ° C - 








Per cent. 


rer cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


9009 


8.2 


2.8 29 


C4.52 


17.00 


5.0 


.12 


9010 


7.2 


3.3 29 


• 60.45 


18.33 


3.1 


.10 


9011 


5.1 


2.4 30 


63.42 


18.65 


2.1 


.19 


9012 


7.3 


2. 6 29. 5 


58. 42 


16. 72 


3.6 


.20 


9014 


.6 


- 2.2 29 


64.10 


19.60 


2.2 


.25 


9015 


-10.65 


—11.7 30 


67.80 


19.60 


.7 


.16 



Iu connection with the analyses of the samples of honey certified by 
the producers to be pure and which, nevertheless, showed right-handed 
polarization, I beg to call attention to the character of a honey dew 
exuded by the pine tree, which, when used as food by bees, may give 
rise to the phenomenon mentioned. 

PINE-TREK HONEY DEW AND PINE-TREE HONEY.* 

In March, 1890, I received from Mr. W. M. Evans, of Amherst, Va., a sample of 
pine-tree honey dew and of pine-tree honey. 

The honey dew, according to the description sent by Mr. Evans, was collected drop 
by drop from the pine leaves. At the same time Mr. Evans sent me a sample of pine- 
tree honey, which he says was without doubt made by the bees from the pine leaves 
during the winter, since no other honey-producing plants were accessible to them. 
Having seen it stated in some of the foreign journals that honey made from pine 
forests gave a right-handed polarization, I thought it would be of interest to exam- 
ine the two samples sent by Mr. Evans to determine, if possible, their nature. The 
small quantity of the honey dew which I had at my disposal made, of course, a 
thorough study impossible. So far as could be determined, however, it had the fol- 
lowing characteristics: 

It contained 54.41 per cent of water and 45.50 per ceut of solid matters. Calculated 
as dextrose it contained 17.44 per cent of reducing sugar. After inversion it con- 
tained 2(5.03 per cent of reducing sugar, which would indicate a content of sucrose 
equivalent to 8.16 per cent. At 'M c by direct polarization it gave an angular devia- 
tion equivalent to 36° 5G of the cane sugar scale (Ventzke). If we assume that the 
reducing sugar present was pure invert sugar, then the levogyrate influence of 17.44 
percent of invert sugar at 31° would he equal to — 4 c i>7 of the cane sugar scale. Add- 
ing this number to the direct polarisation, it is seen that this would have amounted 
to 11 .">:{ divisions Of the scale. Deducting from this number the right-handed polar- 
ization duo to the sucrose present, \iz. -.Ill, we have \VA..\7 divisions of right-handed 
rotation, due to bodies other than BUOrose present in the dew. The sum of the rota- 
tions of the inv.it BUgar, viz, 17.11 percent, and the BUOrOSe, B.1G percent, is 25.60 

per <«iit of the total solid matter due to sucrose and invert sugar. Deducting this 
number from the total solids present, viz, 45.69, there Is Left 19.99 per cent .solid 
matter, which has caused the right-handed deviation of 33.37 divisions. This .sub- 
stance, therefore, has a Bpeoiflc rotatorj power fully one-half greater than sucrose. It 
ia not, therefore, due to pinite, but to some body <>r mixture of bodies having a Bpe- 
oiflc rotatoi > power of (a)d s 105 (circa).* Eavingthns found that the pine tree exuda- 

• Contributions from the Chemical Division, U.B. Department of Agrioulture, pub- 
lished in American Chemical Journal, Vol. 13, pp. 24, el .•<<</. 

I This lotat ion would indicate that the body might be aralunose | (a),i =105], but 

there was not a suffloienl amount ofil definitely to determine this point. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 799 

tion itself is a right-handed body, I naturally expected to find the honey made there- 
from also right-handed ; in this expectation, however, I was disappointed. The 
direct polarization of the honey, under normal conditions at 31 c , was — 13 divisionsof 
the cane su^ar scale and the total reducing sugar which it contained, calculated as dex- 
trose, was 70.42. Not only, therefore, was this sample of pine-tree honey left-handed, 
but it was also left-handed to a degree greater than that ordinarily exhibited by 
honeys. From this fact the inference is to be drawn either that in gathering the 
honey the bees exerted upon it an inverting effect which made it left-handed, or else 
Mr. Evans was mistaken in supposing that the bees had derived their stock of honey 
from the trees in question. 

The peculiar climatic conditions of last winter presented, through the whole sea- 
son, the mildness of spring, affording, perhaps, an exceptional opportunity for the 
development of the pine-tree honey-dew, and I am sorry that my attention was not 
called to the matter in time to have secured much larger quantities of this interest- 
ing substance. 

The probable existence in honey of a right-handed body, not sucrose or dextrose, 
was indicated by me in a paper published in the American Apiculturist, Vol. '.5, No. 
12, 1^85. In this paper it is shown that a varying amount of substance, which I sup- 
posed then to be pure dextrin, was found in honey, amounting in this case to as much 
as 4 per cent. 

Amthor has found* that honey gathered from pine forests contains dextrin, as he 
supposed at that time, even in such quantities as to become dextro-rotatory. 

Klinger claims that this phenomenon is not confined exclusively to honey of conif- 
erous origin. At that time I was led to express, in the paper referred to, my doubt 
of the truth of Lenz's observation, t that after fermentation honey yields no opti- 
cally active substance. This doubt of mine has been confirmed by subsequent inves- 
tigations. 

Raurner | calls attention to the fact that the statement of Sieben, that the addition 
of starch sirup to honey could with certainty be detected by the residue of right- 
handed dextrin, is held to be unreliable. According to Sieben, 25 grams of honey 
dissolved in 150 cc of water and treated with 12 grams pressed yeast (starch-free) 
are completely fermented in two days. The residue, clarified with aluminium hy- 
drate and filtered, is completely inactive optically and does not reduce Fehling solu- 
tion. Even when treated with hydrochloric acid, to convert any starch or dextrin into 
dextrose, no reduction takes place. Raumer asserts that Sieben's observations must 
have been made on abnormal hone\s. 

Amthor has also called attention to the fact that honeys treated according to the 
method of Sieben, described above, showed right-handed polarization, and that this 
phenomenon was supposed to be due to Hie homy having been largely gathered from 
pine forests. Honeys of known purity were found to be uniformly right-handed 
after fermentation. In :: samples the dextrogyratory power, after fermentation, was 
azpressed by tin- following numbers respectively, 2.83, 1.56, 2.7. In :; more samples 
of doubtful origin the numbers obtained were 2.13, 2.53, 3.83 respectively. 

In the first three samples all possibility of ad u Herat ion is positively exolnded, li 
was also established that the bees had nol been fed with glucose. It Ls well known 
that feeding glucose or ordinary sugar causes foul brood. Only pore rock candj can 
be used for such purp 

It was next deemed of int. rest to determine the nature of this dextrogyratory body. 
In order to purify the fermentation residue as completely as possible the method of 
Schmidt for obtaining the so-called gallisin was emploj i 



' Report anal. Chem., 16 
t ('hem. Zeit., 3, 613. 

i. angew. chem., L88 I • 
i r.. i. d.chem.Ges., 1884, 17, 1000 and 2456 



800 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

The honey in 10 per cent solution, after fermentation, was filtered and evaporated 
to a thin sirup and poured iuto absolute alcohol. The brownish precipitate thus ob- 
tained was rubbed with absolute alcohol, the liquid poured oil' aud the residue rubbed 
twice with 96 per cent alcohol, separated on a filter, and treated three times with 
ether. The residue was next dissolved in a small quantity of water, treated with 
bone-black and filtered. If the water-clear solution is now poured into absolute 
alcohol, a snow-white precipitate is formed. When the precipitate has subsided the 
alcohol is removed with a siphon and the residue treated again wiih a mixture of 
water-free ether and absolute alcohol. After thirty-six hours it was found that the 
precipitate had settled well to the bottom. The liquid was poured off and the resi- 
due poured into a large asbestos filter previously weighed. The washing was per- 
formed three times with absolute alcohol and three times with ether, and a stream 
of dried hydrogen conducted over the residue which caused it to fall into a pul- 
verulent mass. Finally it was dried in hydrogen at 60°. At this temperature the 
mass fell together into a lump. The filter was further dried forty-eight hours over 
sulphuric acid and weighed in a closed tube. The specific rotatory power for four 
samples of the substance, prepared as above, from four different kinds of honey, was 
as follows : 

From Nuremberg honey 68. 06 

Do. .* 59.98 

From honey from head gardener, Seyfierth 58. *.J0 

From Nurem berg honey 52. 60 

The reducing power of the body for Fehling solution was determined tor the first 
and second samples, both before and after inversion. 

No. 1. 

g capper. 

Before inversion, 1 g substance reduced 455 

After inversion, 1 g substance reduced 1.200 

No. 2. 

Before inversion, 1 g substance reduced 3048 

After inversion, 1 g substance reduced 8450 

It is evident from the foregoing that no single substance composes the unferment- 
able residue of honey and it is further evident that this substance is not largely com- 
pos, id of dextrin. It was further established that the substance, after inversion, was 
fully fermentable. Judged by its specific rotatory power above this substance re- 
sembles Schmidt's gallisin, but its reducing power is quite different. The researches 
show that the purity of a honey can not be safely determined by the fermentat ion 

as practiced heretofore. 

In regard to this right-handed body in honey, Amthorand Stern" have made some 
interesting investigation! : 

44.9655 grams of a sample of undoubtedly genuine honey were dissolved iu :100 cc 
of water and allowed to ferment with yeast. Alter filtering and making up to 200 
cc (?) the liquid was examined in a Laurent polarist ope and gave 84. '.»' in a 20 

cm tube. The dextrin was then converted into dextrose by heating it'" cc with 

10 oo hydrochloric acid for three hours iu ■ water hath. After cooling and making 

up again to LOO cc, the polari/at ion gave 9 .21 , equal to 2.249 per cent dextrose. 

Allilm's gravimetric process gave 2.966 pei cent. The formation of dextrose points 

to the honey ha\ log contained dextrin. The ant hois tint her confirmed this view by 

preparing phenygluoasone. A large quantity of honey was fermented in a weak 

Solution; the filtrate yielded on evaporation a brown, thiokish sirup, which was 

/.it. f. angew. Chem.. L889. 576, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 801 

really an impure dextrin. After dissolving in a little water, phospkotungstic acid. 
containing some sulphuric acid, was added, and the liquid filtered. The excess of re- 
agent was removed by means of baryta water, and this in turn by the cautious addi- 
tion of sulphuric acid. After concentrating a little liquor plumbi was added, the 
liquid filtered, and the excess of lead removed by means of hydrogen sulphide. The 
filtrate was evaporated in the water bath until it became a thin sirup, and '200 cc of 
90 per cent alcohol were added, which were sufficient to keep the dextrin in solution. 
After filtering and evaporating, the dextrin was obtained as a brown sirup, which 
was purified with animal charcoal, until it was finally obtained as a yellowish, brittle, 
amorphous mass. 

To obtain the related glucose, 5 grams of this dextrin were dissolved in 200 cc 
of water, mixed with 20 cc of 20 per cent sulphuric acid and heated for three hours 
on the w r ater bath. The liquid was neutralized with barium carbonate, filtered and 
evaporated to a sirup, which was repeatedly exhausted with alcohol. After distilling 
off, a brownish sirup was obtained, which was purified by auimal charcoal. 

It crystallizes in granules, reduces Fehling's solution strongly, and the authors 
succeeded in forming phenylgluca/one by warming 1 gram with two grams of phenyl- 
hydrazin, 3 grams of sodium acetate, and 20 cc of water. The crude product was 
recrystallized from alcohol and obtained in small yellow needles, fusing at 204° C. 
This removes all doubt about the original substance being dextrin, the presence of 
which in honey may perhaps be explained by the supposition of the bees feeding, 
when they get a chance, on malt in breweries. 

From a careful study of the above data, it is shown that the honey-like exudation 
of the pine tree, without doubt, differs in a marked degree from that of the honeys of 
ordinary plants in being right-handed, from a polariscopic point of view, and con- 
taining bodies not sucrose nor invert sugar, with a specific rotatory power of about 
105. It appears further that, according to the observations of some authors, honey 
made from the exudation of pines is naturally right-handed, though this observation 
is not confirmed by the single sample which I had at my disposal. 

I should be glad hereafter to receive samples of honey of undoubted pine tree origin 
for the purpose of making a further study in regard to its nature, and I hope to take 
advantage of the next mild winter to obtain more extensive samples from the Locali- 
ties affording those samples already examined. 

Up to the present time it must be confessed that no genuine sample of honey col- 
lected in this country has shown a right-handed rotation. Honey possessing this 
property therefore greatly excites suspicion and warrants an inquiry concerning its 
composition. 

The status of honey adulteration in 1S85 may be seen from a paper 
published at that time containing the results of some preliminary studies 
on the subject : 

[From the American Aploultorist, Vol. III. N<>. 12, 188.VJ 






HONEY AND ITS ADULTERATIONS, BY PROF. H. W. WUA \ 



Pure honey is the nectar of flowers pMsed throngh the organism of the bee and 

stored in a comb. Adulterated honey is any compound or preparation know n or sold 

as honey which has not been formed in the man lie r described, chemically considered, 
therefore, pure honey consists of the substances gathered by the bee from flowers, 
■objected to such modifications as they may undergo in the insect laboratory through 

which they ]>u-^. 

The saccharin exudation of downs consists of a mixture of various sugars, con- 
taining, in the form of pollen, a small quantity of nitrogenous matter. The ex* I 
numher and kind of sugars in the neotai of flowers has never heen determined. 
Wilson* estimated the reducing sugar ami morose in the nectar of certa a fl 



Them. V 



No. 


3. 


No. 


4. 


No. 


5. 


No. 


6. 


No. 


7. 


No. 


8. 


No. 


9. 


No. 


10. 


No. 


11. 



802 POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

All the sugars, however, reducing copper were classed as glucose. Iu general, the 
total quantities of such sugars were greater than the sucrose present. In the tlowei 
of the red clover the glucose was three times as much as the sucrose. Since in pure 
honey there is very little sucrose, it follows that the chief change which the uectai 
undergoes hefore it appears as honey is in the inversion of sucrose. 

During the last year I have had examined by the division of chemistry of the 
Department of Agriculture a large numher of honeys, some of which were known t< 
he genuine and others of unknown origin. 

Following is a description of the various samples examined: 
No. 1. Choice Golden-Rod Honey, from William Thompson, Wayne County, N. Y. ; 

price, 25 cents per pound. 
No. 2. Choice Coinh Honey, from Githens *fc Rexmer, Philadelphia, Pa. ; price, 25 
cents per pound. 
Same as No. 2. 
1. Same as No. 2. 

Strained Honey; marked C. O. Perrine, Indiana; price. 20 cents per pound. 
A very Dark Honey ; exhibited at Indiana Beekeepers' Association. 
Choice Clover Honey, from Charles Israel, New York ; 25 cents per pound. 
Pure White Clover Honey; 30 cents per pound; marked G. R. X. X., Penu- 

sylvania. 
Honey in comb ; 30 cents per pound; locality not given. 
California Comb Honey ; bought in La Fayette, Ind. ; 20 cents per pound. 
Same as No. 5. 

No. 12. Eagle Brand Honey (in comb); Cayuga, County, N. Y. ; bought in open mar- 
ket, La Fayette Ind. ; price, 25 cents per pound. 
No. 13. White Clover Honey, from C. W. Hutchinson, Acton, Marion County, lud. 
No. 14. Sample from Louisiana; C. F. Muth, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
No. 15. Basswood or Linn Honey, from Illinois; C. F. Muth, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
No. 16. Mangrove Honey, from Florida; C. F. Muth, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
No. 17. Mangrove Honey, from Florida; C. F. Muth, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
No. 1^. Pure WhiteClover Honey, apiary M. B. Shaw, 378 Union street, Indianapolis, 

Ind. ; price, 30 cents per pound. 
No. 10. Strained Honey, from choice selected white clover; 40 cents per pound. 
No. 20. Pure Extracted Honey (crystallized) ; 20 cents per pound; from R. F. Weir, 

South River, Md. 

No. 21. Pure Extracted Honey (liquid); 20 cents per pound; from R. F. Weir, South 
River, Md. 

No. 22. No brand, from J. Hepsberger, Maryland ; 25 cents per pound. 

No. 23. Comb Honey; made in Tippecanoe County, Ind. ; price, 20 cents per pound* 

No. 24. Strained Honey; bought in bulk ; 20 cents per pound. 

No. 25. ('oml» Honey: boughl in open market, Indianapolis, Ind.: from H. K. Thur- 

ber, New York ; -J.") cents per pound. 
No. 26. Pure Machine-Extracted Honey. Italian apiary, !■'. W.Abbott, Indianapolis, 

Ind. : 30 cents per pound. 

Sample marked r>. P. Davis, North Salem, Hendricks County, Ind. 
No. 28. White Clover and Basswood Honey (comb), Linden riace Apiary, [ndianapo* 
li^, Ind., Pngh & I Dougherty. 
'. Choice Extracted Honey; striotlypure; 25 cents per, pound ; fromMcCauldf 
Hildreth, New York. 
No brand, from Charles S. Duvall, Spencerville, Md. ; 20 cents pel pound. 

No, 31. Comb Honey, made inTippeoai County, Ind.; 25 cents per pound. 

No. 32. Comb Honey, from Cnioago, III.; 20 cents per pound, 
omb Honey, made in California; 20 cents per pound. 
No. 34. Strained Honey, marked White Clover XXQ d B,80 cents per pound. 

bought in open market, Indianapolis, Ind.; 25 cents per pound*. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



803 



No. 36. Pure Extracted Honey, from F. S. Bull & Sons, Valparaiso, Ind. 

No. 37. Pure Extracted Honey, from Dougherty & McKee, Indianapolis, Ind. 

No. 38. Extracted Honey (dark); supposed to be from sunflowers. 

No. 39. Sample, donated by C. F, Mutb, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

No. 40. Clover Honey, donated by C. F. Mutb, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

No. 41. White Sage Honey, J. E. Pleasants, Santa Ana, Los Angeles Couuty, Cal. 

No. 42. Sumac Honey, J. E. Pleasants, Santa Ana, Los Angeles County, Cal. 

No. 43. Clover Honey, from near Cincinnati, C. F. Muth, 'Cincinnati, Ohio. 

For convenience of study, I have arranged the analyses of the above samples in 
five groups : 

In Table 1 are collected the analyses of those samples which were adulterated with 
starch sugar sirup. 

In Table 2 are found those samples which apparently were adulterated with sucrose. 

In Table No. 3 are grouped those samples to which it appears that invert sugar may 
have been added. 

In Table No. 4 are found the analyses of those samples which appear to be genuine. 

In Table No. 5 are collected the analyses of those specimens which were obtained 
from producers or dealers, and which I have every reason to believe to be genuine. 

Table No. l.-HONEYS ADULTERATED WITH STARCH SUGAR. 





h 


*J 

a 

o 

«l 
a 
■~ 
w 
u 
•I 


A 

oo 

r. 

o 

a 

- 

h 

9 


a 

3 

"3 

*! 

a 

= = 

a 

- 

- 


M 
a 
'3 

p 
— 
p 

<- a 

<o 


Polarizations. 




>> 

& 

2 a 
II 

•~* 

c B 

♦i OS 

- — 

- 


.= 2 

: > 
K a 

*£ *« 

O i) 

= i 
® u 

p 5 

a. S 
Ph » 


.c 

S £ 

■ — 

c a 
_ — 
g g 
: 

- 
Pi 


■ 

as 

O 

Cm 

o 

■«J 
a 
o 
w 
u 

<B 




x 

'« 
>> 

"3 

a 
a 

o 
6 


- 
S3 

q 


d 

o 

£ 

a 
-— 

2 

<B 

Pi 

a 
e 
H 


- 
> 


d 

o 

£ 

= 

r. 
U 

o 

a. 
= 


_ - 
z B 

a t 
^ — 

- 
- 
Oh 


~ 30 

"c o o 

-2 - 

= u2 


1 


19.79 
16.93 


o. M 
0.21 


1 
.26 60.18 


30.5 
21.5 
24.5 
25.0 
21.5 
23.0 
25.5 






3.99 


61.33 
59.85 


1.09 80.21 
2.33, 83.07 


15.42 
25.39 


75 08 


2 .. 


.07 


57. 40 74. 50 

51.99 74.00 

60.91 

40. 00 89. 50 

57. 60i 24. 65 

65, 2:( 26. 38 






69 09 


3 


73.8o 


24.00 






4 



















5 

6 

7 


22.45 
15.41 
19.07 


0.31 
1.27 
0.18 


.24 
.35 

.00 


67.50 
16.90 
23.50 


21.60 16.50 
22. 60 5. 84 

25. 00 0. 00 


57.00 
64.35 
64.85 




16.15 77.55 
6.43 84.59 
0.00 89.93 


0.50 51.50 
19.53 68.09 
15.52 80.60 




18.73 


0.47 


. 18 56. 19 







6.58 61.48 


5.20 7<1. 27 :<.) 27 70 08 















1 















Table No. 2.— HONEYS APPARENTLY ADULTEBATED WITH SUCROSE. 



8 

9 

10 

11 


23.90 
16.09 
15.01 
22.45 


.16 
.12 

.0, 
.31 


.18 
.18 
.24 


58.85 
69.64 
69. 75 


1.30 

- 2. 75 

— 7.50 
89.50 


25.0 
Il.fi 


-16. SO 
-12.45 
-20. 60 


24. 
30.5 
23. 
21.0 


13. 49 
7.37 
0.81 

16.50 


74.07 
7.'.. 29 

57. 00 


14.46 
8.22 
19.47 
16. IS 


78. 1" 
83.91 


3.42 77.33 
71.03 

51. 58 




19.46! .16 


.21 


58.81 










11.70 


71.65 


14. 58 


80.61 


8.92 70.49 



















804 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Table No. 3.— HONEYS APPARENTLY ADULTERATED WITH INVERTED SUCROSE. 





u 
& 

-. 

o 

a 
s 

© 
u 

9 


— ' 
■ 
- 

o 

a 
a 

a 

« 

Ph 


1 

JO 
"el 

_ T - 

z .z. 
-2 

= B 


U 

u 

<f> 

PH 


a 
'3 

-a 

= ' 
9 

o 

U 

© 

Ph 


Polarizations. 


>> 

9 
« . 

55 

£ ~. 

- ';. 

— r: 

la 

u 

9 

Ph 


If 

= u 

— - 
© > 

"= t 

— -— 
= 7i 

©* 

Ph S 


>> 

8 

B d 

= 2 
o 

S 

Ph 


1 
O 

a 
© 
a 

© 
Ph 


o 

3 
oc 

.Z.-6 

~ © 

go 

c ® 

© r3 

s - 
u 

P- 


|2 


'5 
>> 

a 

6 


- 
t- 

5 


d 

o 

g 

□ 

CJ 

u 

9 

C 

H 
« 


s 
> 

s 

M 


6 

o 

© 
u 

i 

© 

S 

© 


go 
h ® a 

- « J - 

§«s3 

- 


12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27. 

28 


15. 12 

17. 24 
23.25 
19.46 
20.51 
21.03 
18.25 
19.42 
22.76 
19.35 
17.77 
18.82 
20.74 
16.68 
16.15 
15.91 
17.92 


.23 
.04 
.40 
.14 
.13 
.13 
.06 
.08 
.06 
.04 
.10 
.11 
.08 
.08 
.05 
.14 
.05 


.56 
.24 
.31 
.35 
.28 
.28 
.28 
.2! 
.16 
.09 
.24 
.53 
.70 
.35 
.35 
.42 
.35 


75.85 
75.50 
73.50 
73. 05 
75.02 
73.30 
73.80 
69.90 
72.12 
73.78 
74.75 
73.75 
67.55 
75.00 
76.05 
74.75 
75.45 


-15. 50 
-17. 20 
—15.00 
-15. 25 
-19.15 
-18.85 
-17.35 
-19. 70 
-14.50 
-13. 00 
-14. 25 
-14. 55 
-14.40 
-15.55 
—14. 10 
-14. 95 
-14.40 


21.5 
25.5 
25.0 
25.0 
25.0 
25.5 
22.5 
21.5 
26.0 
25.8 
24.5 
21.5 
21.5 
22.5 
22.5 
25.5 
22.5 


—17.7 
-19.8 
-17.4 
-18.4 
-21.0 
-20.7 
-19.7 
-23.6 
-16.0 
-17.0 
-14.5 
-17.1 
-16.1 
-18. 7 
-16.1 
—16.4 
-17.1 


21.6 
26.0 
2:.. 4 
26.0 
25.4 
25.2 
23.0 
22.0 
26.0 
25.0 
25.0 
22.5 
22.0 
22.6 
23.0 
27.4 
22.6 


1.65 
1.98 
1.82 
2.40 
1.41 
1.56 
1.77 
2.93 
1.14 
3.03 
0.20 
1.92 
1.27 
2.37 
1.51 
1.11 
2.03 


77.20 
77.10 
71.80 
78.42 
77. 4-2 
74. 10 
77.15 
73.50 
73.53 
74.59 
75.77 
7:, 10 
67.00 
77.00 
76. 25 
77. 00 
74.80 


1.28 
1.52 
0.00 
5.10 
2.28 
0.76 
3.78 
3.42 
1.33 
0.77 
0.97 
1.28 
0.00 
1.90 
0.19 
2.18 
0.00 


84.88 
82.76 
76. 75 
80.54 
79. 49 
78 :<7 
81.75 
80.58 
77.24 
80.65 
82.23 
81.18 
79.26 
83.32 
83.85 
84.09 
82.08 


6.59 
5.00 
0.72 
4.60 
2.65 
3.70 
5.84 
7.46 
3.76 
3.71 
6.94 
4.87 
9.66 
5. 52 
5.89 
7.67 
4.20 


89.36 
91.23 
95.77 
90.70 
94.38 
92.82 
90.28 
86.75 
93.87 
91.48 
90.90 
90.97 
85.23 
90.01 
90.70 
88.89 
91.92 


Mt-an .. 


18.85 


.11 


.34 


73.71 -15.75 





-1 8.1 





1.77 


75. 16 


1.64 81.15 


5. 22 


90.87 



Table No. 4.— HONEYS BOUGHT IN OPEN MARKET WHICH APPEAR TO BE GENT INK. 



29 


29.90 


.16 


.18 


30 


17.84 


.41 


.26 


31 


19.85 


.13 


.59 


32 


17.08 


.14 


.53 


33 


16.64 


.07 


.17 


34 


17.79 


.22 


.39 


:;:. ... 




.25 




|£< in 


18.09 


.20 


.84 



69.48 
68.55 
72.00 
73. 85 
70.35 
68.80 
74.45 



71.09 



- 2.50 

- 1.95 
-12. 55 
—11.25 

9. M 

- 6. 55 

- 8. 05 



— 7.40 



25. 

25.0 
23.5 
23.0 
21.5 
21.5 
28. 5 



- 3.50 

4 26 

-15.20 

14.00 
-18. 50 

12.20 
-10. 10 



11. i: 



24.0 
25.0 
23.6 
23.0 
22. 
22. 



0.76 
1.75 
2.00 
2.07 
6. 84 
4.24 
1.66 



2.74 



71.79 

73.14 

71.60 

73.88 

TV 

71.40 

76 7" 



73.32 



2.17 
4.37 
0.00 
0.00 
5.13 
9, 47 



78.10 8.52 87.93 
S2. 16 11.11)' 83.43 
80. J5 

82.21 



1.19 83.62 



2.19 81. 



5.33 




ti. ;c: 


89, 06 


5.93 


8 1 . 88 




83. 69 


7.09 


89. 03 



86. 77 



TABLE NO. 5.— HONEYS FURNISHED BY PRODUCERS AND DEALERS, APPARENTLY 

GENUINE. 



87.... 

3H... 

11.... 

42.... 

43 ... 

M. hi 



14.97 

2 1.75 
1H.75 

L4.62 

n 82 



. it 
.08 
.27 
.77 
.08 

.06 
,07 



L7.96 l- 



.24 
.21 



74.70 

66. 10 
71.28 

71 In 

78.80 



-11.55 
12. 15 

10 60 

11 Bfi 
IL60 
12. 10 



26. 6 



71.07 -10.99 



-11.1 
13. 7 

8.0 

12,0 

13.8 

20. 

15.7 



14.7 



28. 

26. 
27.0 

26. B 

26. 4 



L.92 

1.17 



1.16 
1.62 



6.04 

2. 17 



7ft 60 

71.00 
73. 25 

75.36 



;:: 50 



1.81 

1. 16 

8. 42 

2. 70 
l 78 

3. 90 

2.61 

1.02 






78.26 

80. 40 



8.03 
7.0'.' - 

85. 72 
lo.oT B4.0J 
7. 11 
6. 96 

1 86 91. to 



82.04 7.00 



64 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 805 

Remarks on tables. — The temperature at which the direct polarization is taken is 
given, so that if any great difference in the two temperatures should occur it can be 
at once noted. Since the temperature has a marked influence on the le vorotatory power 
of invert sugar, it should always be taken into account in expressing the data of the 
work. In order to secure results which are strictly comparable, some definite degree 
of temperature should be chosen, at which all the polarizations should be made, or to 
which they should be reduced. I am now having an instrument constructed which 
will enable me to make all such polarizations at any selected temperature. 

The percentage of reducing sugar is calculated for dextrose, and the numbers, there- 
fore, must be taken with this understanding. In the last column of each table are 
found the percentages of such sugars in terms of total solids. This gave a much bet- 
ter idea of their relative amount than if they were expressed in percentages of the 
weight of the substances examined. 

In the polarizations the numbers given are divisions of the cane-sugar scale of a 
larger Laurent shadow polariscope in which 16.2 grams of pure sugar in a volume of 
100 cc. will produce a right-handed rotation of 100. The sucrose was calculated from 
the two polariscopic readings (before and after inversion) by the usual formula. 

Table No. 1. In all these samples as indicated by the analysis, starch sirup (glu- 
cose) was largely used as an adulterant. In sample No. 5, very little real honey could 
have been present, the sample was composed almost exclusively of starch sirup and 
of sucrose, which has been added to give it sweetness. In the other cases the sucrose 
which was found by analysis was probably originally present in the honey part of 
the mixture, since, had it been added as an adulterant, more of it would have been 
found. The characteristics of each sample, as well as of all of them collectively, can 
be seen by studying the table. 

Table No. 2. The mean percentage of sucrose present in these samples as determined 
by double polarizations is 11.79, and by reduction 1 1.58. With the exception of No. 
11, to which sucrose was undoubtedly added, I can not think that any sucrose was 
added by producer or dealer, on account of the small percentage of it found. In such 
bases it is proper to suppose that the bees had access to flowers whose nectar was rich 
in Bucrose, or that they had been fed a solution of that substance. The use of solu- 
tions of sucrose as bee food is not unusual. 

Table No. 3. These 16 samples I nave grouped together on account of their great 
levorotatorv power. For the first polarization this amounts t«» Id. ?."> divisions, and 
for the inverted liquids to 18.10. It is possible that this great deviation to the left 
may have been due to the entire absence of dextrine or sucrose in the honeys, or that 
it might have been produced by the bee food being rich In Bucrose, which Buffered a 
nearly complete inversion in the body of the insect. 

It would be quite improper to definitely assert that invert sugar sirup had been 

added as an intended adulterant. I t hink it quite possible that bees having I 

to sucrose food might at one time produce a honey like that in Table No. '-', and at 

another like that in Table No. ::. 

Table No. I. These honeys all appear t<> be genuine although it is hard to draw the 

fine between Buch samples as Nos. 31 and '.\2 and those found in Table No. 3. The 
mean reading to the left is 7.40 divisions before inversion and 11.11 afterwards. The 
mean of undetermined solids is 7.56, and the percentage of reducing sugar before inver- 
sion to total solids, 86.77. The means of sucrose as < let em lined by both methods are 
low and fairly agree, although, as in the other table, the] differ widely in single in- 
stances. 

Table No. 5. These honeys, obtained directly or indirectly from well known apia- 
rists, I have every reason to believe t<> be pure. If they contain any adulteration it 
las been added by artificial feeding and not intentionally. It \Nill be observed that 
these honeys are Btrongly levorotatory, and indeed so much so. that some of them 

might ha\ e appeared in Table N 

18808— No. 13 12 



806 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

It will In- instructive to compare the numbers in the above tables with those ob- 
tained by other analysts. Koeuig* gives the following means of 1? analyses: 

Per cent. 

Water li». 61 

Albuminoids 1. 'JO 

Grape sugar 70. 9(5 

Sucrose 2. 76 

Pollen 0.17 

Ash 0.19 

Phosphoric acid 0. 03 

O. Ilehner t gives the following numbers as the mean of 29 samples: 

Per cent. 

Glucose 07. 2 

Water 19.2 

Not determined 13.5 

According to Hehner the fluidity of the honey does not depend on the amount of 
water it contains. In 10 cases the quantity of glucose after inversion was less than 
before, in one instance 5.23 per cent less. The rotating power was generally zero, a 
condition which I have never found in American honeys, geuuine or artificial. These 
conclusions are so at variance with ordinal experience as to indicate that the sam- 
ples analyzed were anomalous, or the methods employed unreliable. 
Sieben t gives the mean composition of 60 samples of honey as follows : 

Per cent. 

Dextrose 34.71 

Levulose 39.24 

Sucrose 1. 80 

Water 19.98 

Non-sugars 5. 02 

The solids not determined, as will be seen by the analyses presented in this paper, 
are of considerable importance. In adulterations with the starch sugar sirup these 
undetermined solids consist chiefly of maltose and dextrine. In many other cases 
dextrine, as will bo shown further on, is doubtless present. 

Genuine honey has also a slightly acid reaction. This acidity is due either to cer- 
tain organic acids derived from the plants or, more probably, to an acid furnished by 
the bee itself. The kind and quantity of acids in honey have not been accurately 
Studied. I have found the total acidity measured as formic acid to be about 0.02 pel 
cent. That the acid furnished by the bee is formic there is little doubt. Will $ 
states that In- lias found the active principle of the poison of all hymenoptera to bo 
formic acid. Carlet. || in a communication to the French Academy, shows that the 
poison of all the hymenoptera has an acid reaction, but that it contains also an active 
alkaline substance. The activity of the poison is conditioned on t he presence of 
both the acid and alkali. The acid is always in large 6X0080 and each substance 

is furnished by a special gland. The inversion of the cane sugar in the organism of 

1 he bee may DC due to tin- pie-, nee of these acids. < >n the other hand il is plain that 

certain species of pine and some other plants furnish formic acid, and therefore the 

detection of thit add in honey is not positive evidence thai it is derived from the 
iii R iv,. nt article 1 the authoi claims that the formic acid which honey 

contains tends to preserve it from fermentation. Honey sirup from which the greater 

" Naln nn-sinitlel, p. lid. 

t Analyst, Vol. '.», pp. 64 et seq. 

! Ze it sch. d. \ er. f. il. Bttbenzuoker Industrie, Vol. 34, pp. 837 et seq. 

- 1 1 leide n and Poreps Not., September, 1848, p, 17. 
II Compos Rondos, June 93, 1884, p. 1660. 
• Deutseh Americanische Apotheker Zeit. 6, 21, p. 664. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 807 

part of the formic acid has been washed out or expelled by heat does not keep as 
well as the normal product. The latest researches show that this acid is deposited 
by the bees themselves by means of their stings. From time to time the bees apply 
to the walls of the cells of the comb the tiny drops of poison (formic acid), that 
gather on the ends of their stings. Soouer or later this remarkable antiseptic is in- 
corporated with the honey. The preservative power of this acid is said to be greater 
even than that of phenol.* 

A careful study of the results of these analyses shows the chief adulterants of 
honey are the following : 

1. Commercial Glucose. 

This substance, an account of its honey-like appearance and low price, has been 
one of the most common substitutes for honey. Mixed with enough of the genuine 
article to give it a flavor, it is sold extensively as pure extracted honey. A very fre- 
quent method of adulteration is to take a few ounces of genuine comb honey, place 
in a can holding one or two pounds, and then filling up with glucose. The real honey 
will gradually diffuse throughout the whole mass, giving the required flavor. 

This, the most frequent sophistication of honey, is also the most readily detected. 
The high dextro rotatory power of commercial glucose renders its detection by opti- 
cal methods extremely easy. Containing as it does a considerable percentage of dex- 
trine and maltose, its percentage of reducing sugar is consequently small. In 10 
samples purchased at random in the eastern markets three were adulterated in this 
way. In 11 samples purchased iu the western market only 1 was glucose. This per- 
centage, however, does not represent the actual extent of the adulteration. In 
making these purchases I endeavored to get a sample of each kind of honey on sale. 
It will be found that the strained honeys of commerce are quite generally adulterated 
with glucose. 

Detection of adulteration uith glucose. — I have never yet found a genuine honey 
which is not levorotatory. Nevertheless, the turning of the polarized plane to the 
right is not conclusive evidence of the presence of glucose, unless the amount of de- 
flection is more than 100 of the cane sugar scale, when the amount of the substance 
taken tor examination is the same in weight as that required by pure sucrose to read 
100 divisions. 

After treatment with 0.1 volume of hydrochloric acid and heating to 70° the solu- 
tion is cooled and repolarized. If now it still reads to the right the presence of 
starch sugar sirup is established. In such cases, after inversion the free acid is neu- 
tralized and the reducing sugar determined by an alkaline copper solution. The per- 
centage of this sugar will fall much below 70 unless a large part of the adulteration 
has been due to cane BUgaj. 

2. Cane Sugar (Sucrose). 

A thick sirup made of cane sugar is also used to adulterate honey. There is only 
one reason why it is not more extensively employed, yis, its tendency to crystallise. 

On this account it can only be used in small quantities. There would he no difficulty 

in detecting added cane sugar in honey were it not for the fact that we can not 

definitely say how much of this substance is present in the genuine article. In the 

analyses given by Siel.eii I the mean of sucrose in the 80 samples was L.08 per cent ; 
in one case, however, it amounted to s per cent. In the analyses given in this papei 
the mean percentage of sucrose in B Samples Of genuine honey was 'J.S7. and in 7 sam- 
ples which appear to he genuine, 2.74 J and in the samples contained in table No. :>. 16 
in number, which may he genuine, 1.77 pel cent. Judging from these anal> 
would say that it is a rare thin- to find a genuine honey which contains more than I 



' Comptea rondos, Vol. lzi, p. 1179, 
* Op.oit, 



808 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

per cent sucrose. In the 2 samples of California honey, Nos. 41 and 42, the percent- 
age of sucrose is very high. Doubtless the kind of flower and climate have much to 
do with this and it would not be strange if California honey, produced in the unique 
conditions of climate and flora which there obtain, should develop some constant 
difference from honeys produced in other parts of the world. 

Detection of cane sugar in honey.— The presence of cane sugar in honey is easily de- 
tected by the process of double polarization. Illustration : Sample No. 14, weight of 
sample taken, 16.2 grams in 100 cc, length of observation tube, 400 mm ; reading 
of scale, — 15; divide this number by two gives — 7.5 divisions, correct reading for a 
200 mm tube. After inversion the reading iu a 220 mm tube was —20.5 divisions, 
temperature, 23° ; difference of the two readings 13 divided by 144 — 11.5, equals 9.18 
per cent ; equals sucrose present. 

The method of double reduction of Fehling's solution, once before and once after 
inversion of the cane sugar, can also be employed. The optical method is quicker and, 
when properly conducted, more reliable than the method by reduction. If the rota- 
tory power of the sample is quite small, two or three times the normal quantity may 
be taken and the polarization conducted in a 400 or 500 mm tube. 

3. Inverted Cane Sugar. 

As an adulterant of honey the inverted cane sugar is much superior to the sucrose 
itself. It does not crystallize, and when properly made is palatable and wholesome. 
Sucrose is usually inverted by heating with an acid, and for commercial purposes sul- 
phuric acid is the one generally employed. The difficulty of removing all traces of 
this acid renders the detection of inverted sugar somewhat easy by the presence of 
the traces of the sulphuric acid which still remains in the solution. It is now said, 
however, that inverted sugar is made in large quantities by treatment with brewer's 
yeast and without the use of acids of any kind. When added to honey in Large quan- 
titiesit can bo detected by its great levorotatory power, which, however, decreases 
rapidly as the temperature rises. At 23° a pure invert sugar solution would mark 

:{'2.f) divisions. In the present state of our knowledge it would be difficult to detect 
the addition of a small quantity of invert sugar to honey. From the above studies it 
appears that pure honey is essentially composed of invert sugar, together with a cer- 
tain portion of sugars optically inactive (anoptose), water, a small quantity of albu- 
minous matter, ash, and solids not sugar, i. <., those which, while resembling sugar in 
chemical composition, are yet not detected in the ordinary process of analysis. 

In addition to the above it appears from the results of a large amount of work done 
at my suggestion by Mr. G. L. Spencer, that pure honey contains a varying amount 
of dextrin, which in some cases amounts to an much as 4 per cent.* 

This investigation is still in progress, and therefore its result can not yet be an- 
nounced. The presence of dextrin in honey doubtless accounts for the phenomenon 

that in some samples of pure hone\ the levorotatory power is ven small, or, accord- 
ing to smiie aut hors, eut irely disappears, which would not be the ease except tor the 
presence of some highly dextrorotatory substance. 

Agricultural Department, Washington, D. C. 

• Smce this investigation was undertaken Amthoi I Report, anal. Chem., 1885, p. 163) 

had shown thai honey gathered from pine forests contains dextrin, often in such quan- 
tities as to become dextrorotatory. K linger claims that this phenomenon is not exclu- 
sively confined to honey of coniferous origin. According to our observations, even 
left-handed hom\ may contain marked quant it ies of dextrin. If this be soil can 

hardlj be true, as w . Lens (Chem. Zeit.,8,613) affirms thai a Her fermentation honey 
yields no optically active substance, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 809 

NOTES RELATING TO RIGHT-HANDED ROTATION OF HONEYS. 

POLARIZATION OF HONEYS.* 

The author separates natural honeys into two classes, flower and fir honeys. The 
former appear white to brown, contain no dextrin and are levorotatory. Fir honeys 
are all brown, smell of pine, contain dextrin, and turn the ray to the right. For adul- 
teration of honey, starch sirup in generally used. A 10 per cent solution of this, 
in a 200 mm tube, gives a reading of 100 on a Soleil-Duboscq instrument. Solutions 
of pure honey mixed with starch sirup gave : 



Flower 
honey. 


Starch 
sirup. 


Rotation. 


Fir 
honey. 


Starch 
sirup. 


Rotation. 




Pr. ct. 










Pr. ct. 




100 




- 3 to 


- 10 


100 




22 


90 


10 


20 to 


28 


90 


10 


62 


80 


20 


50 to 


65 


90 


20 


89 


70 


30 


80 to 


99 


70 


30 


119 


CO 


40 


117 to 


133 


60 


40 


149 


50 


50 


154 to 


1G0 


50 


50 


170 


40 


60 


194 to 


200 


40 


60 


205 



Traces of chlorine and sulphuric acid are no indication of adulteration. 

DEXTROROTARY HONEYS, t 

A sample of honey described by the author, and which he regards as indubitably 
pure, showed a specific rotation to the right of 3.74 J for sodium light. Its composi- 
tion was: water, 22.61 per cent; ash, 0.09 ; levulose and dextrose, 64.33 ; and sucrose, 
12.59. It was clear, transparent, almost colorless, very sweet, and only slightly aro- 
matic. It showed no tendency to grain. Another sample showed a right rotation of 
1.66. It consisted of 21.09 per cent water; 0.09, ash; levulose and dextrose, 69.41, 
and 8.41 sucrose. The author believes the abnormal rotation to be due to sucrose. 

RIGHT ROTARY HONEY. % 

Honey gathered by bees in the habit of resorting to sugar refineries is very clear 
and thin but almost without aroma. Four samples analyzed contained, respectively, 
4.68, 16.38, and 9.93 per cent sucrose. 



Notes relating t<> tht analyse* of honey, 

a n'kw mrreoD oi rssTiNQ ronby.$ 

About live years ago even szperl would condemn any sample ofhonej m adulter- 
ated which turned the ray of polarised light to the right instead of the Left, bul at 

about that time Dr. Ilaenle succeeded in finding some natural (wild) honey which 

polarized to the right. This was subsequently ascertained to be due to the facl thai 
it had been collected from coniferous products. The author has now ascertained thai 
if the hone> be dialyzed before polarisation the result is a butc indication of its ohar- 



■O. Ilaenle, aba, Chem. Centralblatt, 1888, 143. 

» \i. Bensemann,Zeit. fangew. Chem., 1888, I, I17j abs. Chem. Centralblatt, 
19, 479. 
t Von Lippman, Zeit. f. sngew. Chem., 1888, No. 23 ; aba. Analyst, 1889, 14,90. 

$ Dr. Oscar Ilaenle, Amer. Drug, and IMiai in. Zeit : Analyst. April, 1891,79, 



1— . 



810 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



acter. A number of experiments are adduced to prove this position. A sample of 
pure Alsatian flower honey was dissolved in twice its weight of water. The solution 
polarized — 23. It was then subjected to dialysis for sixteen hours, after which the 
residue in the dialyzer was optically inactive ( — 0). Thirty grams of a pure houey 
were dissolved in 150 grams of water, the solution decolorized and then dialyzed. 
After eighteen hours the residue was inactive. Fifty grams of a similar honey were 
dissolved in 250 grams of water. After sixteen hours' dialysis the residue was opti- 
cally inactive. On further evaporatiug this residue and again dialyzing its inactivity 
remained unaltered. A 10 per cent solution of glucose sirup, which polarized 100, 
was decolorized and dialyzed. After sixteen hours it still polarized 5. The residue 
was then concentrated, and in proportion as this progressed so rose the angle of polar- 
ization. Forty grams of a pure honey, polarizing in a 1 in 2 solution, — 35, were mixed 
with 10 grams of glucose sirup. A 10 per cent solution of this mixture was subjected, 
to dialysis, and the residue was found to remain dextrogyrate at 4. Thirty grains 
of a pure honey were mixed with 20 grams of glucose sirup dissolved in 250 parts of 
water and the solution decolorized by charcoal. Jt polarized -f-G5. After twenty- 
four hours' dialysis the residue retained a permanent polarization of 14 -f-- After con- 
centrating this residue to half its weight its polarizing angle had increased to 00. 
Fifty grains of a glucose honey were dissolved in 250 grams of water. The solution 
polarized -f 95. It was then dialyzed and the liquid on the dialyzer examined at in- 
tervals of two hours. 
It polarized after — 



2 hours 45 

4 hours 33 

hours 18 

8 hours 15 



9 hours 12 

10 hours 11 

11 hours 10 

12 hours 10 



Further dialysis did not change the augle (10). 

General conclusion : Any honey which, after having been dialyzed, does not polar- 
ize to the right, is free from glucose. Any honey retaining a dextrogy ration after 
this treatment is adulterated with glucose. 

EXAMINATION OF HONEY.* 

Dr. Mansfeld made the statement that the greater part of commercial honey wai 
adulterated, and that there was no short yet reliable method known for the examina- 
tion of honey. The methods of llaenle and Dieteriob can not be recommended. 
The best results are given by inversion and by fermentation with Compressed yeast. 
Not beer or wine yeast. The optical examination is very reliable. 

CRYSTALLOIDS AN'D COLLOIDS OF BONE Y.I 



For diffusion of honey, a parchment paper tube of 25 mm diameter is used. This 

is filled with a solution of honey in three times its weight of water and hung in U 

form in a beaker of water, in Dieterioh's experiments diffusion was carried on for 

st'veiity-t wo hours, at an average temperature <>l* 1? . At t he 61 piral ion of t his t ime 
t he surrounding water became colored a pale yellow, and on evaporat ion gave a sirup 

amounting to 50 per cent of the honey employed. This, sirup could not be brought 
to crystallise, despite repeated solutions in aloohol. Flavor and odor were extra- 
ordinarily good ; better, indeed, than those of auj other honey Dieteriob had ever 

handled. The fluid remaining in the tube, contained Slimy llocks, although the orig- 
inal honey solution had been filtered. After evaporation the residue possessed no 

Odor Of honey whatever. The taste was feebly sweet. 



'Versammlnng Nahrungsmittel Chemiker a. lilkroskopiker, Vienna, Oct. 13,1891. 
♦ K. Dieteriob, ('hem. Centralblatt, 1877, 318. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 811 

ACTION OF PHENOLS ON HONEYS.* 

If honey is covered with aqueous solution of phloroglucin and a large quantity 
of strong hydrochloric acid, a weak reddish coloration forms after some time, which 
on standing longer becomes more pronounced. Using resorcin in the same way a beau- 
tiful light-red color is formed. The other phenols act only after heating. A solution 
of aniline sulphate in water produces a yellow color in a honey solution after some 
time. These reactions the author regards as due to the presence in the honey of com- 
pounds of the aromatic series, such as appear in wood. 

NOTES RELATING TO THE FERMENTATION OF HONEY. t 

According to K. Kayser I the residue after the fermentation of honey is not usually 
optically active, and when heated with HC1 only exceptionally gives any reducing 
sugar. The first two methods, therefore, proposed by Siebeo $ for investigating honey 
Kayser altered as follows: Twenty-live grams of honey are mixed with 12 grams 
starch-free yeast and enough water to make up to about '200 cc and the whole allowed 
to stand forty-eight hours. Alumina hydrate is next added, and the whole made up 
to 250 cc ; 200 cc of clear filtrate are evaporated to 50 cc and polarized. A dextro- 
rotation of more than l c (Wild) shows the presence of starch sugar. Twenty-five cc 
of the solution used for the polarization are then to be mixed with *J5 cc water and 5 
cc concentrated HC1, and the mixture heated in a boiling-water bath for an hour; 
neutralized, made up to 100 cc, and reducing sugar estimated in 25 cc by Allihn's 
method. The sugar content multiplied by 40 gives the sugar resulting from the fer- 
mentation residue of 100 grams of honey. If this is over 1 per cent it indicates adul- 
teration with glucose. 

E. Dieterich || recommends the determination of the acidity of honey as affording 
valuable characteristics. Dissolve 10 grams of honey in 90 CO water, add 3 drops 
phenolphtalein solution and titrate with /i KHO. Six samples of honey gave read- 
ings between 3.5 and G.5 cc alkali (=19.6 to 36.4 mg KHO) for the acid of 10 grama 
honey. Hehner (Analyst, 10, 217) recommends the estimation of PiO« in honey ash. 
He found in five natural honeys per cents ranging between 0.013 and 0.035 per cent, 
PjO . Reaction of ash strongly alkaline. Artificial honey made from glucose (made 
with mineral acids) gave a neutral ash containing PfO*, equivalent to 0.066 to 
0.0108 per cent of the honey. Artificial honey made from cane sugar gave a slightly 
alkaline ash containing no trace of PiO ft even when 50 grams of sample were burnt. 

ALCOHOLIC ]'i:i:MK.NTAlln.\ 01 HONBY.1 
Honey, even under favorable conditions, ondergoea the alcoholic fermentation with 
difficulty, the cause of which is probably due to its lack of sulfieient quantity of aah 
ingredient and nitrogen. The author has experimented with addition-, of various 
nutrient BUbatances and has finally adopted a mixture consisting of: 

Pai 

Diammonium phosphate Ion 

Neutral ammonium tartrate 

Cream of tartar 600 

Magnesia 

(Jypsuin 

Common salt :: 

Sulphur 1 

Tart a lie and 9 

• A. Ihle. Chem. Zeit. 1 J, :;. ; aba Cheni. Centralblatt, i-'.'". l. 

• Free. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1888, 831. 

Ber, BberdieYte. Veraamm. vonbayr. Vertr. d. angew. Cheniie,Berlin, L88I 
$ Free. Zeit f. a. Chem., 24, 137. 

| QeeohSftaber. d. Papier nnd Chem. Pabrik in Helfenberg be! Dreeden, 1881 
also. Helfenberger Annalen, 1886 -'. 

• (i. Gaetine, Comptea 'end.. 109, i~ I 



812 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Adding 5 to / grams of this substance to a liter of a 25 to 30 per cent solution of 
honey, together with some wine yeast, a practically complete fermentation can be 
obtained. A solution containing 230 grams of honey to the liter, fermented almost 
completely in 12 days, as completely at any rate as wine must. 

FERMENTATION.* 

The author brings out the following points: (1) For the fermentation of honey, 
the addition of nutrient salts, which Gastine prescribes, is not necessary. Any note- 
worthy further fermentation of dextrin by injudicious selection of yeast is not 
possible. (2) For the fermentation test, it is not a matter of indifference which 
yeast is used. Wine yeast acts least upon the dextrin of honey. Beer yeast has 
more action, but not enough to produce complete fermentation. Using pressed yeast 
and working at proper temperatures, complete fermentation is usually obtained, so 
that the author suggests that it is desirable always to use pressed yeast iu honey 
tests in order that comparative results may be obtained. At present great can' is 
asary in judging or condemning honey on analytical data. Bilger confirmed the 
ltatements in the paper of Raumer and expressed the hope that a yeast would be 
prepared possessing the qualities necessary in honey investigations. Will recalled 
the fact that Hansen, of Copenhagen, had investigated the action of different yeasts 
on the various sugars and dextrine, and proposed that, as I'ar as possible, pure cultures 
only be used, inasmuch as the determination of the fermentative power of the yeasl 
to be used is not sufficient. 

NOTES RELATING TO THE ADULTERATION OF HONEY WITH GLUCOSE OR STARCH SIRUP 
AND METHODS OP DETECTION, t 

With regard to the adulteration of honey with starch sirup, v. Plants proposes to 

estimate the amount of grape sugar before and after in version with a 2 per cent solution 
of sulphuric acid. Pure honey yields about 8 per oenl of grape sugar while, that 
sophisticated with starch sirup shows an increase of as much as 45 pel cent ; more- 
over, pure honey contains G3 to 71 per cent of reducing sugar already formed ; arti- 
ficial honey only 2'.» to :!7 per cent. 

DETECTION OF GLUCOSE IN HONET.J 

A cheap and eas\ way to lest for the presence of glucose in honey is to put some of 
it into a cup of tea made strong. If it is heavily adulterated w it h the compounds 
found in glucose, it will turn black, almost like ink. Another test is to pour alcohol 
and this poisonous compound together. Pure homy and alcohol will unite, but pure 
homy and this compound will separate Like honey and water. 

i k. The accuracy of the above tesl isnol very apparent [f the glucose con- 
tained traces of iron the tannin of the tea would form a dark compound therewith. 
Alcohol in a solution of the mixture would precipitate de\ t tin.— 1 1. W. \\ . | 

D] i i < MOM "i I \m \m> BTARCH BUGAB in BOITCY. $ 

To detect starch sugar the author uses a 1<> per cent solution of ntorcurous nitrate 

and pure* commercial b b solute alcohol as reagents. The mercurous nitrate solution is 

made from 1 g <d' the er\ stall i/ed salt , and 9 <<■ of Water. TWOOI three < I rops nitric 

acid are added. After standing several hours the clear Liquid is poured off and is 



* B. \. K'aiim. i Yen. d. bayer. Vet, d. angew, Chemie. 9; Pharm. Centralhalle, 

: al.s.Chein. ( Ynt ralUal t , 1890,9, 186. 

tv.l'lanta. Dingl. polyt. Jour, 288, 3E6j abs. Jour Chem. Soc., L881, 10,316. 

; Rev. J. O. Teeter, Amer. Bee J oal, Aug. 26, 1885; ibid., Oct 27, L886, 

ii. rlager, Pharm. Centralhalle, 96, 327; Chem. Centralblatt, 1886, 764. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 813 

ready for use. Before trial part of starch sugar should be dissolved in four parts of 
cold water, and starch sirup and honey in three. Place in a test tube 1 cm wide 
4 cc. of the filtered solution aud add 6 drops of the mercurous nitrate solution. 
Shake, and add 4 cc of the alcohol. Cork the tube and set aside. Honey solution 
gives a translucent, somewhat milky, solution, which remains in this condition for 
two days. The second day an extremely slight deposit may form. Starch sirup treated 
in the same way gives a cloudy solution, only slightly translucent. After the lapse 
of six to twelve hours a white, or whitish precipitate of from 3 cm. to 6 cm. in height 
forms. The supernatant fluid is usually clear. If a honey contain starch sugar tin- 
reaction can take place in two different ways, according to the content. With a large 
admixture (30 to 40 per cent) the precipitate forms within five to eight hours, and 
the supernatant liquid begins to clear. With a smaller amount the precipitate fre- 
quently refuses to form, but in the coarse of time it becomes opaque, being no longer 
translucent after twelve hours. Pure honey remains translucent for at least two 
days. 

Another and easier test is that with absolute alcohol. Place in a test tube 1 cm. 
in diameter 1 or 2 cc. of a filtered 25 per cent solution of the honey, and allow half a 
cubic centimeter of alcohol to How down the walls of tin- tube so as to form a clear 
overlying layer. The alcohol then remains clear and the line of contact shows a 
hardly noticeable opalescence, which soon disappears. When starch sugar is present 
the dividing line assumes a milky look, which lasts many hours. If only small 
amounts of the adulterant are present the turbidity is bluish white and shimmers. 

To test for cane sugar place 1.5 or 2 cc of pure concentrated sulphuric acid in a 
test tube of 1 cm diameter, and add half a cubic centimeter of 25 per cent solution of 
honey in such a manner to make it form a layer above the acid. Allow to stand for 
an hour. Pure honey does not give a colored line of contact at first, and even after the 
lapse of an hour the color is yellow or clear brown. In the presence of cane sugar 
the line is successively brownish, brown, and, after half an hour, a nearly black layer 
is formed. Starch sirup behaves to this test like honey. After standing one to one 
and a half hours the pure honey may show a dark zone, but a gentle agitation which 
does not disturb the acid is sufficient to diffuse the coloring matter through the 
honey, which then appears brown yellow and transparent. With a honey containing 
cane sugar and similarly treated the supernatant liquid appears black, brown, and 
nontransparent. Blank experiments with known mixtures should he tried. 

Another test is the microscopical. Take np half a drop of the honey with point 
of a needle, place it in a drop of glycerin on an object glass, and observe with a 
power of 100 to 200 dian < iters. The field of vision should include from ."» to in pollen 
grains. 

DETECTION 01 \UlIlhi\i BONEY.* 

Dr. A von Plants originated a method depending upon the addition of alcohol to a 
solution of the honey to be bested. Under these circumstances an artificial honey 
rives a more or less deep cloudiness— provided the adulteration has been made with 
commercial Btarch Bugar, which almost always contains more or less dextrin. Gen 
nine honeys also occasionally give this reaction. A better method is that depend- 
ing upon tin' use <»f ti net are of iodine, which gives a <!•••• ]> brown red coloration with 
dextrin. Dissolve l" grams «>t" the honey in 50 cc. of distilled water, filter ami 'add to 
half a test tube full 10 or 12 drops of a 2 per cent solution of iodine. Glucose honej 
gives a brownish red, bui pure honej is colored onlj the wine yellow of the 8 I sola- 
lion. 



• G. Ambuhl, Schw. Woohensoh. f. Pharm i" 86 , thenoc in Bienen Zeitung; Chem. 
Beit, 1886, :«'. 



BEESWAX AND ARTIFICIAL COMB AND COMB FOUNDATIONS. 

KXAMINATIONS OF PURE BEESWAX AND COMB FOUNDATIONS. 

The samples of pure beeswax were made from the honeys accom- 
panied with affidavits of their purity. They were analyzed as a check 
to test the purity of the wax in the comb foundations, the analyses of 
which occur in the next table. 

The acid number as obtained by us with pure wax is slightly lower 
than that obtained by European analysts. The cause of this is not ap- 
parent. The analyses were conducted with the greatest care, and every 
precaution to prevent the admixture of any foreign substance was ob- 
served. 

The samples of comb foundation labeled "Canadian" were obtained 
by request from Dr. Frank T. Shutt, chemist to the Central Experi- 
mental Farm of Ottawa. 

The further description of the samples will be seen from my letter to 
Mr. Shutt and his answer. 

As will be seen from the analytical data in the table, the three 
samples obtained from Mr. Shutt were heavily adulterated. On the 
other hand, all the comb foundations bought from dealers in the United 
Slates, as will be seen from the table following, appear to be pure bees- 
wax. 

U. S. Dki'akt.mknt of Aghicultfkf, 

Division of Chemistry, 
Waihington, I). C, July 28, 1891. 

Dear Pbop. Shutt: 1 have received, with much interest, your report in the 
appendix to the report of the Minister of Agriculture, which you recently had the 

kindness to Bend me. 

I am particularly Interested in what you say in regard to the adulteration of comb 

foundation, and write to ask if you have any samples of this adulterated foundation 

left, if yon have, will you kindly send to me a sufficient quantity of each of the 

adulterated samples to include in the analyses W e are now making of comb foundat ions 

from different sources '.' We have purchased comb foundation from all the dealers to 

whom ire Can gain access, and have found no adulteration. 1 should be glad if we 

could include in our analyses a few adulterated samples, inasmuch as we are making 

a very thorough chemical examination of the waxes contained in comh foundations 

l refer to your reporl on pages 150 and 1~>1 of the publication mentioned above. 

Hoping to receive In the future the publications which you issue on subjects oon« 

oeoted with agriculture, I am, 

Respectfully, 

11. \v. Wiley, 

( In mist. 
Prof. In kNI I ■ Sin i i. 

Chfinint, I'.xjiminintal Farm, Ottaim, (lunula. 

814 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



815 



Dominion of Canada, Department of Agriculture, 

Central Experimental Farm, 

Ottawa, July 31, 1891. 
Dear Dr. Wiley : In response to your request in favor of 18th instant I have very 
much pleasure in sending you by this mail three samples of adulterated foundation 
comb, which I trust will reach you safely. I trust that the quantity of each will be 
sufficient for your purposes. I would have sent more if I had had it. I think, how- 
ever, there will be enough to take sp. gr. ether extract after treatmeut with 11. S0 4 
and fatty acids by saponification. 

R. E. Smith, who sold the adulterated comb, claims to have purchased his stock in 
the United States. 

Yours, faithfully, 

Frank T. Shutt, 
Chemi8t f Dominion Experimental Farm, 



Pure wax and comb foundations. 



No. 


Where bought. 


Description. 


per 

pound. 


8493 


Falconer Manufacturing Company, James- 
town, IT. T., per Oilman, 
do 




$1.05 


84'jrs 


Dark 


1.05 


8494 


J. Walleustein, Kaukauna, Wis 


Surplus foundation mide from light wax 
Surplus foundation made from dark w .i\ 
Runs 8 square feet per pound , 


.90 


8495 


do 


.90 


84 9G 


do 


.90 


8497 


do 


. 'JO 


P498 


do .. 




'.in 


8499 


do 




.90 


8500 


Wilber (i. Fish, Ithaca, N. Y 


Light colored wax, in half sheets 

Darker colored wax, in whole sheets 


l . B0 


8501 


do 


1 . 50 


8502 




1.08 


K03 


do 




1.08 


8504 


do 




1. 08 


8505 


do 


Bxtra thin 


1.08 


850G 


F. C. Erkel, Lo Sueur, Minn 

do 

Clias. Dadant &. Son, Hamilton, 111 






8507 






1508 A 






8508 J'. 


do 






8508C 


do 






85081) 


do 






B509A 
8509B 


.1. Van Densen A Bona Spring Brook, N. Y. 
do 






85o<>< : 


do 















JAP W W V KES. 



B860 

8667 
BOOS 



Blxoer .v Amend, New SToi k . 

•.hi ,\ Robhins N«u Fork 

W. II. Bchieffelin & Co . Nan Fork . 
W. H. Bowdlean & I !o Bostoi 



Commercial Japan wax 



• i 



816 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 
CARNAUBA WAXES. 











No. 


Where bought. 


Description. 


Price 

per 

pound. 


8546 








8552 








855* 


W. H. Schieffelin &. Co., New York 






8609 

















CERESINS. 



- n 
8551 
8556 
8610 



Eimer St Amend, New York 

McKesson *fc. Robbins, New York 

W. H. Schieffelin & Co., New York 

W. H. Bowdlean & Co., Boston, Mass .. 



Strong odor of petrolem 



Yellow-orange ceresin 



OZOKERITE. 



8545 
8607 



Eimer & Amend, New York 

W. H. Bowdlean &. Co., Boston, Mass. 



8541 
8547 
8553 



PARAFFIN. 



Eimer <fe Amend, New Yorl»....-« 

McKesson & Robbins, New York 

W. H. Schieffelin & Co., New York . . 



Commercial paraffll 

do 

do 



AFFIDAVIT WAXES. 



9010 

9011 

9012 

9014 
!»<>I5 



Honey bought from B. M. Thompson, 

< talthersbnrg, Md. 
Boney bought bom V. P. Einkley, <iai 

thersburg, lid. 
Boney bought bom A. 0. Appleby, *Gei 

lii;ilito\\ n, Md. 

Bones bought bom Edmund Qloyd, Gsi- 

Bhershnrg, Md. 

do 

Bonej bought bom John W. Bsuekmsn, 

Leesburg, Vu. 



SAMPLES I ■ i:nM CANADA 



0090 



i i simti, ohemist, Canadian AgriouU 
oral Depsrtmeni. 

do 

do 



Adulterated comb foundation, bought 
of EL B Bmith. 

do 

do 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 

TABLES OF ANALYSES. 

Pure beeswax samples. 



817 





Ce 

rotic 

arid. 


Myri- 
cin: 


Total. 


Ratio. 


Hiibl's numbers. 


Io- 
dine 
No. 


Melt- 
ing 
point. 


Weight 
of 1 cc. 
at 100. 


Weight 

times 

at 100. 


Number. 


Acid Ether 
No. No. 


Total. 


Ratio. 


9009 
9010 
9011 
9012 
9014 
9015 


12.97 
13.82 
12. 28 
13.71 
13.32 
13.12 


88.67 
90.74 
89.24 
90. 05 
89.02 
89. 69 


101.64 
104. 56 
101.52 
103. 76 
102. 34 
102. 81 


6.836 
6.565 
7.267 
6.568 
6. 093 
6.836 


17. 72 73. 59 
18.88 ' 75.31 
16. 77 74. 06 

18. 73 74. 83 
18. 20 73. 88 
17.92 74.43 


91.31 
94.19 

93. 56 
92. 08 
92.35 


4.153 
3.999 
4.414 
3.999 
4.000 
4.159 


6.17 
6.23 
6.72 
8.61 
8.57 
6.59 


63.8 
63.7 

63. 8 
63.6 
63.7 
63.8 


. 81223 
.81464 
.81296 
. 81306 
.81491 
. 81377 

. 81360 


.84719 
.84973 

. 84798 
.84815 

.84884 


Average. 


13.20 


89.57 


102. 77 


6.786 


18.03 


74.33 


92.36 


4. 122 


7.15 


63.7 


.84697 



Comb foundation and other 





Cerotic 
acid. 


M vri- 
cin. 


Total. 


Eatio. 


Fluid s numbers. 


Io- 
dine 
No. 


Melt- 
ing 
point. 


Weighi 

of 1 cc. 
at 100. 


Weight 


No. 


Acid 
No. 


Ether 
No. 


Total. 


Eatio. 


times 
H,() .it 
100 i'. 




Per ct. 


l'<r ct. 




















8492 


12.36 


92. 01 


104.37 


7. 144 


17.98 


76.22 


94.20 


4.239 7.09 


63.2 


0. 81435 


0. 84945 


8493 


12.70 


88.93 


101.63 


7.000 


17. 35 


73. 63 


90.98 


4.244 ' 8.24 


63. 2 


0. 81300 




8494 


13. 02 
13.11 
13.10 


91.52 
92. 12 
90.09 


104. 54 

105. 23 
103.19 


7.031 
7. 027 


17. 78 

17.91 
17.89 


75. 78 
76.31 
74. 63 


93. 56 

94 22 
92. 52 


4. 262 

4 261 8.15 

1.171 8.47 


63. 3 

62.8 
6i.O 






8495 




8490 






8497 


13.03 


91.61 


107.64 


7.201 


17.80 


78.37 


96. 17 


4. 403 K. :J7 




0. 81450 


o. 84950 


81118 


13.17 


89.94 


103. ll 


6. 829 


- 


74.51 


92. 54 


4.132 8.5? 


63. 1 


0.81435 


84940 


8490 


















63.1 


0.81583 




8500 


12.88 


89.77 


102. 65 


6. 961) 


1 7. 50 


74.37 


91.96 


4. 228 <>. 22 


63. 


0. si 467 


o. -1076 


8501 


12. 98 


88.59 


101.57 


•; 825 


17.7:; 


73. 39 


01.12 


4.130 9.43 


62. 8 


0.8:586 


85o5:! 


8502 


13. 46 


87. 83 


101.29 


6. 525 


18.39 


72. 70 


01. 15 


3.955 10. 15 


62. 1 


0.8 1405 


o. 84070 


8503 


13. 33 


89.34 


102. 67 


6.702 


18.21 


74.01 


92. 22 


4.064 10.16 


62. 7 


0.81477 




8501 


13.54 




101.55 


6.500 


18. 50 


72. 91 


91.41 


3.041 0.53 


62. 1 




0. 85002 


8505 


13. 55 




102.93 


6. 596 


18. 51 


74.04 


92. 55 


4. 000 0. 50 


63. 1 






8506 


13.49 


8'.). oo 


102.49 




18.4:; 


73. 73 


92. 16 


3. 946 0. 36 


62. 


0. 81427 




8507 


12.93 


88.65 


in. 58 




17.66 


73.41 


91.10 


4. 159 9. 36 • 




0.81418 


0.84935 


850S A 


13.15 


88.15 


101. 30 


6. 703 


1 7. 96 


73. 02 


90.98 


4. 066 9. 54 


62.9 


0. 81502 


0. 85070 


8508 i; 


13.78 


87.17 


100.05 


6 223 


18.82 


72.21 


01.03 


10.36 


62. 7 






8508 C 


13. 68 


88.58 


102. 26 


6. 256 


18. 69 


73. 58 


92. 27 3. 937 


10.47 


62 - 






1508 I> 


13.63 


88.92 


102. 55 


6. 524 


18. 62 


73. 66 


92.28 


3. 956 


10.27 








bos a 


13.85 


.»•;. :;i 


100. 16 


6. 232 


18.92 


71.50 


90. 42 


3. 770 


10.64 


82. 7 


0.81546 


1 


85(19 B 


13.19 


B7.68 


ion. 85 


6.646 


18. 02 


72. 62 


90. 64 


(.029 


9.04 


62. 6 0. 81440 




850'.) C 


13.59 
6.00 


86.77 
17.30 


100.36 

23. 30 


6. 377 

2. 883 


18. 55 
8.20 


71.88 
14. 33 


90.43 
22. 53 


3. 821 

1.747 


10. 66 
3.87 


62.7 






9019 


1 


79630 


8020 


10.01 


43.31 


53. 32 


4. 331 


19.66 


35. 89 


40. 55 


2. 627 


7.34 


57.3 




■ 


9021 


16.68 


39.60 


56.28 


2.374 


22. 78 


32. 80 


55.58 


1.440 


10.25 


59.6 


0.81322 




8543 


*8.88 


UK. 28 


103. 16 




20. 20 


196. 50 


216.70 


9. 727 


14. 8 7 


40.5 


0.88 10.-, 


0.91889 


8550 


"10.36 


I 92. 63 


102. 99 





23. 58 


193. 00 


216.58 


8. 185 


6. 44 


41.6 




0. 91222 


8557 


10.28 


1 92. 76 


10.'!. 01 




23. 04 


193.30 


217.24 


8.070 


10.25 


41.3 


0. 87825 


0.01612 




•!•. 10 


t 02. 50 


101.60 




20.71 


192.80 


213.51 10.390 




41.8 




o. 01203 




1.45 


66 To 


88.24 




1.98 


73.10 


:i6. 920 




.83196 


o. 87091 




















10.64 




- 


- 




















in BO 




0.84118 






.97 






95.41 


1. 33 








lo. 19 














1 O! 





1.00 




.00 


til - 


0. 74581 
































til. 1 


0. 772:i2 
















si; in 











0. 18 

0. 10 















.00 

:;. 12 





0.7701,, 


O 81 l)7!t 


85i:, 












1007 

































































































A. mi r.ilmitic. 



t Palmitln. 



818 FOODS AMi FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

METHODS OF ANALYSIS ADOPTED FOR WAX. 

Acid and ether numbers. — These were determined by the well-known 
method of Hehner (Analyst, 1883, 16, see abstracts, p. 814) using- the 
acidimetric values as determined by titration with alcoholic potash. To 
set the potash and for back titration hydrochloric acid was used. This 
was standardized by weighing portions and precipitating the chlo- 
rine as silver chloride and weighing. This gave the per cent of hydro- 
chloric acid by weight in the standard solution. The specific gravity 
of the solution was then taken at various temperatures by a specific 
gravity bottle, and from these two figures a table made out giving the 
content of acid of 1 cc at the prevailing temperatures. The method of 
titration in detail was: 

Between 1 and 5 grams of wax were weighed and placed in a flask hold- 
ing about 500 cc, covered with 100 cc of 05 per cent alcohol, a rellux 
condenser attached, and the alcohol boiled vigorously for two hours. 
While still hot it was titrated with alcoholic potash, using phenol- 
phtalein as an indicator. A cubic centimeter of normal potash solution 
is equivalent to 410 milligrams of cerotic acid. Into the same flask 
were now run 50 cc of approximately half-normal alcoholic alkali, the 
condenser reinserted, and the alcohol heated to a brisk boil for five 
hours. The excess of alkali was then titrated by standard hydrochloric 
acid and the number of cubic centimeters required deducted from the 
number of cubic centimeters required to neutralize the potash in a 
blank which had received exactly the same treatment, except, of course, 
the addition of wax. The alkali which had disappeared was equivalent 
to the number of cubic centimeters of the standard hydrochloric acid 
thus obtained. One cubic centimeter of normal acid is equal to 67l 
milligrams of myricin. 

Melting points. — Melting points were done by dipping the bulb of a 
thermometer into the melted wax for an instant, placing the thermom- 
eter (which now carried a thin film of wax on the bulb) through a 
perforation in the cork of a wide bottle, hanging the bottle in a beaker 
full of water kept heated to about 66°, and noting the temperature 
shown by the thermometer at the instant the wax runs down the bulb 
and forms a hanging drop. This was called the melting point. The 
experiment was tried of allowing the wax to remain on the bulb over 
night before making the determination, but the melting point did not 
differ from that shown by a fresh wax coating. 

Iodine number. — This was determined according to the conventional 
method (IliibPs) for fats, except that owing to the low numbers found 
a greater weight (2 grams) was taken than is usual for fats (0.2 to 1.0 
gram). More chloroform was also required. The method in detail is: 

Two grams were weighed and placed in a glass-stoppered flask and dis- 
solved in 40 cc of chloroform. Twenty -live CC of an iodine solution (con- 
taining 25 grams iodine and 30 grams of mercuric chloride dissolved in 
05 per cent alcohol and made up to 1 liter) were then run in and the mix- 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 819 

ture shaken. In another similar flask 40 cc chloroform and 25 cc iodine 
solution (but no wax) were placed. The flasks were then placed in a 
dark closet, where they remained three hours. Fifteen cc of a 10 per 
cent solution of potassium iodide and 100 cc. of water were then placed 
in each flask and the free iodine titrated with standard solution of sodium 
thiosulphate. The iodine found in the first flask deducted from that 
found in the second, gave the amount absorbed by the 2 grams of wax. 
The "iodine number" expresses the per cent of iodine absorbed. 

Determination of specific gravity. — The specific gravities were all taken 
at 100°. A specific gravity bottle was filled with distilled water, plunged 
neck deep in a bath of boiling water, and kept there for half an hour. 
The stopper, which was perforated, was then inserted, the bottle re- 
moved from the bath, allowed to cool to room temperature, and weighed. 
It was then emptied, washed with alcohol and ether, dried, and re- 
weighed. The difference between the weighings gave the weight of the 
water held at 100°. This, divided by 0.958G5 (Kossetti's figure for the 
density of water at 100°) gave the capacity at 100° in cubic centimeters 
(true air). It was then filled with melted wax, again plunged into the 
bath, in which it was kept for half an hour, the stopper inserted, the 
wax wiped off, and cooled and weighed. The wiping off was facilitated 
by keeping the surface of the bottle hot by occasionally letting hot water 
from a tap run over it. The weight of the wax contained, divided by 
the weight of water contained at 100°, gave the figures put down in the 
column headed "times water at 100°." The weight of the wax was then 
divided by the number of cubic centimeters held by the specific gravity 
bottle at 100°, and the figures thus obtained placed under the head 
"weight of one cc at 100°." 

ABSTRACTS OF PAPERS RELATING- TO WAX AND ITS ADULTERATIONS. 

The literature relating to wax and its adulterations is so fragmentary 
and scattered as to make it desirable to collect brief abstracts thereof 
for convenience of reference. Such an attempt is beset with many dif- 
ficulties, chief of which is the labor of condensing the material into a 
manageable space, retaining at the same time the essential features of 
the original articles. 

It is proper to mention here that many of the tests and methods of 
analysis proposed in the following abstracts are valueless, and even 
misleading, but it is advisable thai analysts be fully informed of the 
work already done even if it be without value, in order that they may 
avoid its repetition. In many of the methods cited, moreover, no com- 
parative tests have been made by this division, the inaccuracy of the 

methods being recognized from the work of others. All the more prom* 
ising methods, however, have been tried, and the scheme of analysis 
finally adopted for our own work has been fashioned in accordance with 
the results of these tests. Fortunately the chemist has rarely presented 
for his examination a substance offering bo many analytical difficulties 



820 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

as beeswax, aud especially when be is called on to detect an adulterant 
which has been added to the extent of only 5 or 10 per cent. In such 
cases it is only after a thorough trial of all the approved methods of 
analysis that he is able to express an opinion which carries a reasonable 
degree of assurance. In the classification of the abstracts three catego- 
ries have been made. 

The first includes the different kinds of wax, their properties, meth- 
ods of preparation, bleaching, etc. 

The second embraces methods of the qualitative examination of waxes. 

The third includes the methods of the quantitative analyses of waxes 
and their adulterants. 

Many of the abstracts contain matter that belong to two or even all 
three of the above classes. These are placed according to the relative 
importance of their contents. 

KINDS AND PROPERTIES OF WAX. 

EGYPTIAN WAX.* 

This wax occurs in commerce as irregular cakes of a dirty light yellow color. The 
specific gravity is 0.955. A solution of 5 grams of wax in 5 cc. of chloroform, made 
by warming the two in a test tube, remained clear for an hour and then deposited 
granules, and the upper third became cloudy, though the lower remained clear for 
twelve hours. Although this reaction indicated the presence of vegetable wax, other 
tests gave no evidence of its presence. Tests for rosin gave negative results. Egyp- 
tian wax differs from Bohemian in that the chloroform solution does not remain 
clear, and that when it is boiled with dilute alcohol it gives a filtrate which becomes 
cloudy and that it is more easily bleached. The author found that some wax can- 
dles sent him for analysis contained Egyptian wax. 

VEGETABLE WAX.t 

This name, which formerly covered palm, carnauba, myrtle, and Japan wax, is now 
used to signify a kind of fat coming from India, which is no doubt the product of a 
kind of bassia. These tats, which arc obtained in great quantities in India and parts 
of Africa, bear a number of different names. Galam butter, Bambno butter. 15am- 
bara butter, or Shea butter is said to be obtained from the seeds of Bassia parkerii (ac- 
cording to some from Batiia butyraoea)] Bassia oil, or Ulipe oil, from theseedsof the 
Indian mahwab or butter tree; Ztaaria i<tti/<>H<t and longifolia also give similar fats. 
The fat imported into Germany has an unpleasant rancid taste and a greenish color, 
soon disappearing under the influence of light. Under the microscope are seen in 

the green amorphous mass nnmerous crystalline granules, in places these crystals are 
bo well developed thai the fatty character disappears. The melting point of the 

amorphous mass is 33.6; that of the crystalline aggregates .'>.">.(>. Specific gravity is 
0.9474. It is only slightly soluble in alcohol, foiling absolute alcohol extracted 

L.68 per cent; cold, 0.83 per cent. The chemical composition has been found very 
variable. <>. Henry found it to consist principally of stearin; Pelouze and Bourdet 

mostly Of olein. Buff found DO palmitic acid. ThoniHen and Wood found a new 

acid, " bassiac," with a melting point of 70, According to Valenta, the fat from 

Huhh'ui Umgifolia gave a mixture of fifty acids consisting of 63.49 percent oleic and 
36.51 percent of a Solid fatty acid of 69 melting point, probably mostly palmitic. 



• K. Labler, Rundschau, 10, 289; aba. Chem. Centralblatt, 1884,497, 
t If. Buchner, chem. Centralblatt, L884, 267. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 821 

MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL WAX.* 

A French patent, granted to Pauvert, Moussay, and Chauvin, prescribes melting 
together one part rosin and one-half part paraffin. An alternative process is to melt 
rosin with one-third part soap or stearic acid and extract with potash. Copal or 
vegetable wax can also be used. 

CRYSTALLINE STRUCTURE OF BEESWAX. t 

Besides an old observation of Dujardin's, that wax solidifying on an object glass 
under favorable circumstances shows under the microscope something of a crystal- 
line structure, there seems to be no further notice of the subject in the literature of 
beeswax. The phenomenon may be demonstrated by melting a cake of white wax 
in a shallow porcelain dish three-fourths tilled with water. When the wax is fully 
melted, the dish is allowed to cool as slowly as possible. Any bubbles in the wax 
ar«- fo be broken by approaching a piece of hot iron to them. Vibration must be 
avoided during this cooling. At the moment of solidification several opaque points 
form simultaneously and at almost equal distances apart. From these points crystal- 
lization begins. The surface of the solid cake, will show well-defined crystals resem- 
bling in shape the- cells of the honeycomb. 

CONSTITUTION OF BEESWAX. 

Schalfeef alleges that cerotic acid made from beeswax, according to Brodie's direc- 
tion, when fractionally precipitated by lead acetate gives different acids, to one of 
which the formula C A ]U H : is applied. The author, on repeating Schalfeefs work, 

obtained by fractional precipitation only one acid, the analysis of which gave results 
agreeing well with the formula of cerotic acid, C.Ji :0 : , but not with the formula 
(' «fl -0 2 . The cerotic acid separated from a kilogram of yellow wax was a com- 
pletely homogeneous substance. 

BLEACHING BEESWAX. § 

Beeswax is most frequently bleached i>y simple exposure to the air. For this pur- 
pose it is cut into thin Lamina and exposed In an open place to the light and air. 
rhe coloring matter thus undergoes a complete combustion; the wax is completely 
decolorized in a period of time varying from ten to thirty days. Without the Light 
the oxidation does not lake place even in a current of ozonized air, but the presenoe 
of oxygenated or ozonized air causes the light to act more rapidly. 

It is not, therefore, simply the ozone which effects the bleaching, as is generally 
■apposed, but this agent only becomes effective in the presenoe of the solar rays. 
Even at a temperature ol 60 ozone does not attack the coloring matter in darkness. 
Even in a vacuum or in an atmosphere of an inert gas, viz, I , the li.u'ht will 

decoloii/e a wax. but more bIowIj than in the open air. 

•Chem., Centralblatl 1876, :>••-. 

t K. RSttger, Jahresber. d. phys. Ver. Frankfurt a. M.. L876 77,23; abs. ('hem. 
Centralblatt, Lb78, 575. 
tE. Zatzeck, Monatah. f. ('hem., :;. 677; C hem. Centralblatt, l- 
$ Buisine, Bull. Soc. Chim., Oct. 90, l- 

18808 -No. L3 13 



822 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Comparative analyses of pure unbleached and bleached wax afforded the following 

limit imr data : 





Melting 
point °C. 


Free acid 

in m g 

KOH 

per g. of 

wax. 


Total 

acids in 

mgK 

H per 

g. wax. 


Iodine 
absorbed. 


Volume of 

H at o° and 

760 mm. 

furnished 

by 1 g. 

wax. 




G3 -64 
63.5-4W 


19-21 

20-21 


91- 95 
93-100 


Per cent. 
10-11 

6- 7 


Cc. 
53.5-55 

54- 55 


Pure yellow wax, bleached in open 









In air bleaching the yellow waxes lose only about 1 to 2 per cent of their weight. 
The meltiug point of the two kinds of wax rests sensibly the same. Ouly traces of 
acids soluble in water are formed during the bleaching process. The most notable 
differences are in the quantities of hydrocarbons, which fall from 13 to 14 in the yellow 
wax to 11 or 12 in the white variety, and the iodine number, which falls about four 
points in the white wax. The proportion of total acids in the white variety is slightly 
increased. In bleaching, some of the nonsaturated constituents of the wax fix oxy- 
gen and become saturated, thus diminishing their power of absorbiug iodine. 

This is illustrated particularly in the hydrocarbons of the wax which, after bleach- 
ing, melt at 51.5 to 53 degrees, and fix 14.3 to 15 per cent of iodine, and before bleach- 
ing molt at 41). 5 degrees and fix 22 per cent iodine. 

In practice the pure wax is rarely bleached. The bleachers always add to the wax 
a certain quantity of suet, from 3 to 5 per cent. There are several reasons for this. 
The principle one is that pure wax when bleached is too brittle ; moreover, in 
presence of a small quantity of suet, the bleaching goes on more rapidly, and without 
this suet it is difficult to obtain a product entirely white. 

A scries of yellow waxes to which a small quantity of suet had been added, fresh 
suet, and the same exposed to air and left for forty days, gave on analysis the fol- 
lowing comparative and limiting data: 





Melting 

point °C. 


Free 

acids in 

mg KHO 

per g. 


Total 
acids in 
tag KOH 

pec g. 


Iodine 
absorbed. 


Volume 
of H at 0° 
and 700 
mm fur- 
sished bj 
g wax. 


Hydro- 
carbons. 




63-64 

03. 5-64 

47.5 

48.5 


19-21 

21-23 
2.75 
4.86 


91-95 

105-115 

•Jo-J 
•213 


Per cent. 

10-11 

6-7 
36.01 
27.68 


53. 5-55 

52. 5-57 

52.5 

00.4 


l'ercent. 
13-14 

11-12 


Wax bleached with •'; to j 




Same exposed f<>r 40 daj i 







These numbers illustrate t as act ion of t he sue! in bleaching. It is due to the oleic 
acid it contains; easily oxidizable, thus aiding the combustion of the organic coloring 
matter. The essenoe of torebenthine added in small quantities] acts in the same 
manner. 

< Ether pro ce sses maj be employed for t he decoloring wax, *, p., bleaching with animal 
charcoal. Th( vras Is kept in a rated state in contact with the black, and the white 
wax is obtained by filtration. Permanganate of potash <>r bichromate of potash 
may alto be employed in arid solution with good results and even oxygenated water. 

Reducing agents, such as sulphurous arid, sulphites, hydrosulphites, etc., do not act 






SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



823 



on the coloring matters of wax. Chlorine bleaches waxes, bat the chlorine is absorbed 
asiodine and bromine are, and thus the constitution of the wax is profoundly modified. 
The composition of waxes bleached in various ways is illustrated in the following 
table : 





Melting 
point °C. 


Volume 
Free ! Total of H at c 
acids in acids in Iodine, and 76o 
mg KOH nig KOH absorbed. ; mm fur- 
per g. per g. nished by 
| g wax. 


Hydro- 
carbons. 




63.5 

63.5 

63.5 
63.0 

63.0 
r 63.7 
J 63.5 
t 63-2 
I 64.0 


20. 17 93. 49 


Per cent. 
10.87 

6.78 

6.26 
11.23 

11.36 
2.61 
5.80 
7.94 
1.08 


OO. 

53.0 

54.9 

56.1 
54.5 

53.6 
53.6 
55.5 
51.0 
53.6 


Per cent. 
13.54 

12.39 

12.53 
14.30 

13.30 
13.30 
13.34 
13.24 
11.77 


Wax bleached in air with 

5 per cent terebenthiue. 

Wax bleached with oxy- 


20.20 

19.87 
20. 10 


100. 40 

98.42 
95. 06 




Wax bleached with ani- 


19. 71 9R. 20 


Wax by permanganate 

Wax by bichromate 


22.63 
21.96 
21.86 
23.43 


103. 29 
99.24 
98.90 

107. 72 



The composition of waxes decolorized by chemical processes, as is seen from the 
table, is quite variable. 

The numbers obtained show the modifications which are produced in waxes by the 
different processes followed in bleaching them. The data enable the analyst to de- 
cide within certain limits whether a white wax be pure, and by what process it has 
been bleached, and they will serve as a basis for a further investigation of adultera- 
tions. 

liLKACIIINU OF WAX.* 



The Jour, de phar. et dechim., 1891, May 15, contaius a description of experiments 
on the bleaching of wax, by A. and P. Buisine. These gentlemen were the first to es- 
tablish the fact that to obtain a rapid decoloration, both air and light are necessary, 
and that it is under the direct rays of the sun that the bleaching is best effected. 
They then state that the combustion of coloring matter is favored by ozone, but only 
in conjunction with the solar rays. 

In 1885 I published a series of experiments whose results coincide with those of the 
authors just mentioned. Admitting that light plays a great pari in the phenomenon, 
I wrote: "But it is not known if this part is preponderant : as fol the exposure in 
the night, thai is a vague expression. Besides, how does this exposure determine the 
bleaching, or at least contribute to it I In a word, what is the active agent 1 n E 
pig to answer these questions, I firs! observed the infloenoe of Light alone, then the 
effect of light combined with exposure to the " exposure in the night." and, finally, 
the effect produced by this exposure without the action of light. 

First experiment : Yellow wax was exposed in thin sheets to the action of light, or, 
to be more accurate, to the successive action of the sun and of diffused li^ht. The 
action was nearly complete at the end of twelve days. 

Second experiment : The same wax was exposed during the same t itne to t he act ion 
of light on one side and the " exposure in the night " on the other. The bleaching 
was more nearly complete than before. 



* M. H. Barnouvin, Jour, do phar. el ds ohim*, 1091, July l. 



82 \ 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Third experiment: A third specimen of this wax was exposed to the ''exposure in 
the night " and sheltered from the light during the day. The bleaching was less 
marked than in the first instance. 

Still it remained to determine the cause which during the exposure to the " expo- 
sure in the night" produced the effect. Special research having revealed the con- 
stant existence of ozone in the same places where these experiments were most effec- 
tual, I tried to find if a connection existed between the occurrence of atmospheric 
ozone and the rapidity of the bleaching. I tested this by placing ozonoscopic paper 
by the side of the wax during the experiment. Comparison with an ozometric scale 
showed an evident relation between the progress of the bleaching and the quantity 
of ozone in the air. The ozone evidently played the leading part. 

The results may be summed up as follows: Light bleaches the wax more rapidly than 
the "exposure in the night." On this subject I ought to add that the action of the 
direct solar rays alone possesses a great activity ; in diffused light the bleaching is 
slow. The action which the " exposure in the uight" produces is due principally to 
the ozone. 

SPECIFIC GRAVITY OK WAXES.* 



White wax 0.97:3 

Yellow wax 0. 963-0, 964 

Japan wax 0. 1)75 

Ceresin, white 0. 918 

Ceresiu, half white 0. 920 

Ceresin, yellow 0. 922 

Ozokerite (crude) 0. 952 

Spermaceti 0. 960 

Rosin, American 1.108 



Rosin, French 1.104-1.105 

Cacao butter, filtered 0. 980-0. 981 

Paraffin 0.913-0.914 

Purified resin 1.045 

Beef tallow 0. 952-0. 953 

Mutton tallow 0. 901 

Stearin 0.971-0.972 



HKIIAVIOR OF WAX FROM THE RHUS FAMILY OF PLANTS, t 

J. B. Batka I says that the most remarkable peculiarity of the above-named wax 

consists in tho fact that when boiled with borax in water it dissolves fully, forming 
a gelatinous, quickly solidifying soap, from which acids precipitate a wax. This is not 
the case with beeswax, and therefore the reaction can bo used to distinguish between 
them. 

Japan wax is tho most important of these waxes, being an exudation from the 
Jihua suecedaiua. 

VEGETABLE WAXE8.$ 
Carnaoba wax (CearaOT Brazil wax) is obtained ftOta the leaves of Copemioia ctri- 



Pela wax (Chinese was I is separated in China from the young branohesof Fraxinmt 
oMnensU (Roxbnrg) by Cooouapela (West wood), melts at 88.5° C, and has not beed 
brought into commerce. 

Koga wax is probably obtained from CiiUHimomum />edn nciildtuiit in .Japan. It is 
Softer than .Japan wax and has not yet come into Commerce. 

Ibota wax is produced from Ligustrum IbotQ by an insect. It is white, very solid, 
and is not met with in commerce. 

Chinese vegetable tallow is obtained from the seeds of SMUngki sebtfera (Martins). 
it is used in making candles, is an easily disintegrated substance, and melts at :*7°. 

Palm wax is collected from the trunks of < 'cro.ri/loti andicoht (Humb.), indigenous 
to tropical America. It does not melt in its crude state till heated above 100°. 



* Dieterioh, Arch. Pharm. 3, 20, 454. 

t Fres. Zeit. f. a.Chem.. 1866, 191. 

, Cham. Centralism. L865, 12. 

\SA. Meyer, Arch. d. lMi.irm.. Aug 
60b; Proc. Am. Phar. Assoc, 1880, 993. 



1879, 1)7, 12'.»; Amcr. .Jour, Phar., Dec, 1879, 



' 



825 

Myrtle wax is separated from the fruit of Myrica cerifera (wax myrtle), indigenous 
in the United States. It melts at 47.5° (Leroy) or at 49° (Chevreul). 

Japan wax is obtained from the dried fruit of Iihu succedanea, II. vern'icifera* and 11. 
8ilveslri8, in Japan and China. Japan exported in 1877 wax worth about $238,600, 
Japan wax is nearly white or of a slightly yellowish green tint, has a sandy, short 
fracture, an unpleasant tallowy odor, is often coated with a tine white crystalline 
layer, and melts at 52° to 53°. When old it is soluble in boiling alcohol and ether, 
from both of which almost all again separates on cooling. It is used in polishing 
wood and in the preparation of wax matches and candles. 

COMPOSITION OF JAPAN WAX.t 

The author regards the " wax" as a mixture of various glycerides and not as dipal- 
mitin. The sample examined by him melted at 52°. When rapidly cooled after 
melting and again heated it melts at 42°. On standing some time it regains its orig- 
inal melting point. Melted with water it gives it an acid reaction. It readily 
dissolves in commercial absolute alcohol on heating, but mostly crystallizes out on 
cooling, leaving a softer and more fusible body in solution. The fatty acid obtained 
by saponification is mainly palmitic, but contains acids of higher melting point. 
One acid was found melting at a higher temperature than stearic. There was also 
found an oily acid in small quantity. 

NEW SOURCE OF WAX.t 

A wax has been isolated from Sonehus oleraceiis and Jsclepias cornuti possessing 
many of the qualities of beeswax, and these plants may be made a commercial source 
of the wax. One morgen of land planted with Aselepias should yield f>0 centner of 
hay, 1.25 to 1.5 centner wax, and 0.80 centner of caoutchouc. 

CHINESE INSECT WAX. § 

This wax is a compound of cerotyl alcohol with a wax acid. The wax-forming insects 
crawl on the under aide of tender young twigs, probably of the Fraximta ChinensU, and 

make an incision from which a liquid gushes forth, which soon coats the twig with 
wax. In the course of three months the layer becomes about 0.25 inch thick. The 
twigs are then broken oil and the wax; stripped from them by hand. This wax i^ 
melted in boiling water to purify it. The Btripped twigs are also thrown into hot 
water to get more wax. In this last operation the insects become detached from the 
wood and sink to the bottom of the containing vessel, whence they are gathered, 
pressed into a cake, and fed t<> hogs. 

QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION <>E BBE8WAX AND OTHER WAXES. 

E. Douath || proposes the following tests for adulterants in beeswax : 

Boil a nut-si/.ed piece of the suspected w a \ with coin cut rated solution of sodium 

carbonate for live minutes : 
A. An emulsion is formed, remaining after cooling, indicating adulteration with 

rosin, tallow, stearic acid, <>r Japan wax. A new portion is now h> ho boiled with ■ 

strong solution of caustic potash for some minutes and then NaCl added: i<n The 
separated soap is in the form of a fine-grained magma: Japan wax. Foroompleto 
tainty determine the specific gra\ ity. [fit is higher than 0,970, Japan wax is present 
(t>) The separated soap is floconlent : adulteration with rosin, or fatty snbeta 

* The wax from /,'. r, rni< ift ra is poisonous, and i> the base of Japanese Lacquer. 
t B. Huri, Arch. f. Phann, May, L879, M)3; Proc, Am... Pharm, Asa* 1879 
\ C. K issuer. DieOel unci Fettindustrie,89 96; Chem.Zeit.ldW (90 

$ C. Theilman, Anier. Bee .lour., Jan. 13, 1886,24. 

II Dingl. polyt. .lour., 205, 131 : ab. Ties. Z.-it. t. a. ('hem.. 1-: 



826 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Rosin may be tested for by heating a fragment of the wax for fifteen minutes with con- 
centrated nitric acid. Pour a little cold water on the wax swimming on the surface 
and decant the fluid. In the presence of rosin, a yellow, llocky body is thrown down 
on cooling or on dilution. Ammonia dissolves the flocks and becomes colored red 
brown. Stearic acid is tested for by Fehling's method, boiling the wax for forty-five 
minutes with tweuty times its weight of alcohol, allowing the resultant solution to 
cool slowly, filtering and adding water to the filtrate. A precipitate or cloudiness 
indicates stearic acid. If a negative rasult is given, stearin should be sought for by 
Gottlieb's method, based on the solubility of oleate of lead in ether. Stearin if 
present is liable to influence the test given above for stearic acid. The distinction 
between the two can be made by means of an alcoholic solution of lead acetate, which 
causes no precipitate in the filtrate from pure wax or from that adulterated with 
stearin. 

B. On cooling the wax floats on the top and the fluid remains clear and is but 
slightly yellow. If not adulterated with paraffin the wax is pure. If the specific 
gravity of the wax be less than 0.960 and no other adulterants have been found the 
presence of paraffin is assured. 

To take specific gravity of waxes Douath keeps the wax melted for some time iu 
order to extricate air bubbles and then pours into a potash mold. After fully cool- 
ing the wax is molded into the desired form, brushed over with a camel's hair brush 
wet with water aud the specific gravity taken in a pycnometer. 

DETECTION OF ADULTERANTS.* 

The author says that white wax contains 3 to 5 per cent of tallow, and that man- 
ufacturers add turpentine or resin iu order to impart to wax the requisite tenacity. 
Hence these additions, unless present in large quantity, can not be regarded as adul- 
terants. The specific gravity of wax when higher than 0.964, indicates the presence 
of stearin resin, or Japan wax, aud when lower than 0.956 paraffin, ozokerit, or 
tallow is present. Chloroform or fatty oils form a clear solution with dry wax and 
a slightly turbid one with moist wax. By treating pure beeswax with a saturated 
solution of borax at 80°, the aqueous solution is rendered turbid; when Japan wax 
or Htearin is present, a milky solution is obtained, remaining opaque after cooling. 
By boiling wax in a solution of soda (1 : 6), pure wax gives a translucent solution. 
If milky, stearin is present; if pasty or stiff*, Japan wax has been added. When the 
specific gravity is less than 0.956 and the wax behaves with borax and soda like pure 
wax, paraffin or ozokerit has been added; the same result is obtained when the 
specific gravity is correct and the borax or soda test indicates the presence of Japan 
wax. ('eresin (white or yellow) forms milky solutions in the borax or soda test, or 
behaves like beeswax, but has a lower specific gravity. 

METHOD OK DETECTING ADULTERATION OK BEESWAX. t 

Adulteration of beeswax can be detected by the following methods : 
To determine the specific gravity au egg-sized piece of wax is placed in a beaker 
with 33 per cenl Bicohoi, shaken vigorously to remove adhering bubbles, and alcohol 
or water added until th<- wax just floats. The density of the mixture is then ascer- 
tained by a spindle. 

To determine the mineral and coloring matters 111 grains are placed in a flash hold- 
ing »DOUl 850 CO., together with LOO OO. Of water, and the mixture boiled for .several 
minutes. Attn cooling any mineral matter which may be present will be found in 
the bottom of the flask. <>n COOliDg if tin- water is yellow, turmeric may be present 
and can be tested for with ammonia. Starch can be tested for with iodine. For 
further testing Mr. ('latency prescribes the sodium carbonate test. 

• Eager, Dingl. polyt. Jour., 833, :'••"><'•: abs. Jour. Chem.8oo., 1881* 40, 316. 

t A. Clarency, dourn. dfl pharm. .t de chiin. {('>) 13, '^7; Chem. Contralblatt, 
1886, 171. 






SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 827 

WAX ANALYSIS. 

The specific gravity of yellow wax and also of the white varies between 0.9f>6 and 
0.964, and is on the average 0.960, although most samples are between 0.968 and 
0.960. If the specific gravity exceeds these limits on either side it is suspicious, aud 
should the variation be great adulteration can be considered as certain. If the 
specific gravity be above 0.964, stearic acid, Japan wax, rosin, water, heavy spar, 
sawdust, etc., may be present. If it lies below 0.956, paraffin, ceresin or fat may be 
present. Although the specific gravity affords some criterion for judging wax. yet 
samples lying within the limits are not necessarily pure, as the correct specific 
gravity can be easily obtained by double adulteration. For quantitative and quali- 
tative work on wax the best method is that of Hiibl. 

PETROLEUM BENZINE AS A QUALITATIVE REAGENT. t 

This new method of testing depends on the behavior of beeswax toward petroleum 
benzine. If a cylinder of beeswax is placed in a test tube, and benzine poured over 
till it overtops it from 1 to 2 cm, the fluid gradually penetrates into the mass of wax, 
and very small flocks or pulverulent particles separate and collect at the bottom of 
the benzine. Finally, the whole mass disintegrates, and in an hour or two the con- 
tents of the test tube are arranged in two layers, the lower consisting of a homo- 
geneous layer of wax particles, the upper of clear benzine. The conduct of adul- 
terated wax with benzine is quite different. Wax containing foreign substances 
conducts itself with more or less resistance, according to the adulterant. Such a 
wax cylinder remains unchanged half a day, often from two to four days. With 
samples containing from 8 to 20 per cent of admixture, the wax cylinder swells some- 
what more quickly, and the outside layer shows by degrees from 4 to 12 divisions 
lengthwise, which are separated from one another by narrow, transparent, or deeply 
shining lines. If the foreign substance is only a small per cent, flocks separate from 
the wax a few minutes after the addition of the benzine, and after a half or a whole 
day the wax sediment consists not of a homogeueous mass, but of docks, interspersed 
with broken, lengthwise columns, or fragments of columns, showing transparent 
veins of benzine. 

DETECTION OF ADULTERATION IN BEESWAX, t 

When pure beeswax is chewed it breaks up in the month; the adulterated acts 
like chewing gum. 

DETECTION Of STEARIC ACID. $ 

Boil the suspected sample with distilled water, allow to cool, and tesi the aqneom 
layer with litmus. Stearic acid renders water slightly acid in reaction, which ie not 
thecase with pure wax. Regnard himself M) B that this method is not of great value 
as small amounts of sulphur dioxide remaining after bleaching oonld easily eanse 
mistake. He also proposes a modification: Meat the sample with Limewater in i 
flask having reflnx condenser. With pure was the limewater remains transparent! 

otherwise, a turbidity ensues ami 1 1 1 « ■ precipitate of Btearate of calcium falls. The 
fluid reddens litmus. 

K. Geith'a method | is alsohased on the use of limewater, hnl aocordingto him 
there \h no precipitate, the fluid remaining perfectly clear, bul the fluid loses its 

* H. Bottger, Chem. /.it., 1890,37, 606. 

t II. 1 lager. Central Org. t Waarenkunde, 1891, 1,239; aba. Chem. Zeit.,18 

! A B C of Bee Culture, 290. 

$ Regnard, Jour, de ohim. med., 1844, 328. 

HDingl. polyt. Jour.. 1-17, 105.445. 



828 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

alkaline reaction. According to my own trials a turbidity always ensues in the be- 
ginning, but there is no precipitate. On longer heating the cloudiness disappears, 
and the iluid again becomes clear. Whether the fluid becomes acid or remains alka- 
line naturally depends on the amount of stearic acid present and the strength of the 
liinewater. 

Febling" says: As pure wax contains cerotic acid, a body which conducts itself 
toward alkali, limewater, alcohol, and other reagents recommended for the detec- 
tion of stearic acid, very much as does the latter, it is not possible to detect admix- 
tures of less than 10 per cent stearic acid by the known methods. Stearic acid is, 
however, separated from its solution in cold alcohol on the addition of water, while 
cerotic acid, though it dissolves in hot alcohol, separates almost completely on cooling 
and the solution then contains so little that it is not much affected by the addition 
of water. Fehling therefore boils the wax for four or five minutes with twenty 
times its weight of alcohol, allows to stand for several hours in order to completely 
cool, filters and adds water to the filtrate. If the wax be pure the liquid is only 
slightly clouded, but in presence of stearic acid a flocky precipitate falls. One per 
cent of stearic acid gives a strong, unmistakable turbidity. In detail the method is: 
Boil 1 gram wax in a test tube with 10 cc. of 80 per cent alcohol for several minutes 
and then allow to cool to about 18- or 20°. Filter into a cylinder, add water, and 
shake. The stearic acid separates in flocks on the surface aud the underlying fluid 
becomes nearly clear. 

DETECTION OF TALLOW OR ANIMAL FAT IN BEESWAX. 

Grease t can be detected by scraping a smooth surface on a cake of wax and at- 
tempting to write on it with pen and ink, which can be readily done should the wax 
be pure. Another plan is to scratch the wax with the finger nail. If pure the wax 
will show a shining line along the scratch, but if tallow is present the line will be 
dull. A fresh break will generally show the presence of tallow, if present, by the 
smell. 

Hager} shakes 1 to 1.5 grams of the chloroform solution of the wax with 12 to 15 
grams of limew r ater. In the presence of stearic acid a mealy lime soap forms, as- 
suming dendritic shapes, while the solution of pure wax in chloroform separates in 
the form of a white emulsion. Even in this modification the method of Reguard can 
not be recommended. 

Benedikt§ proposes to boil the wax sample with carbonate of soda and allow to 
cool. In the presence of stearic acid the solution solidifies from the formation of 
stearate of soda. This method is good, but is not so certain in presence of small 
quantities as tbat of Febling. 

DETECTION <>k PABAPPIN AM) CKHESIN. 

Wagneiil detects the presence of paraffin and estimates its quantity by the influ- 
ence it exercises on the specific gravity of the wax, He says: Normal wax lias a 
constant specific gravity, and paraffins of verj different origin show specific gravi- 

"Dingl. pol.vt. Jour., L858, L47, fcW 
• Amer. Bee Jour., 21, L9, 

( eminent.. I'bai m. I ieiin., 1873, 436. 
$ Analyse- <br lYlte, 291. 

|| Dingl. polyt. Jour., L867, 1- 



SUGAR, MOLA- - ■>'-. ABB HONEY. 



B2S 



trying only within narrow limits. He gives a table of the specific gravity of 
as mixtures of wax specific gravity, and paraffin of 0.-71 



Wa .. 


Paraffin. 


. 





100 


■' 


• 


- 


.893 


- 


50 


.930 


-■ 


' 




-. 


- 


.948 


m 




. M 



Pnre wax (free from paraffin should sink in alcohol of 0.961 specific gravi: 
percent by volume. Tra'.i-r- . 

n in wax.* 

his purpose Landolt recommends heating a nut-sized piece of the wax, with 
■ of fumiug sulphuric acid, in a porcelain dish. As soon as the wax melts a vig- 
orous reaction sets in, enfeebled, h< :.ce of paraffin. Heat for two 
or three minutes after the evolution of gas beg ;<-ken, ami then allow to cool. 
Paraffin is found as a transparent I y removable, [til " - :.ough 
i insure the mass remaining fluid at the end of the reaction, as otherwise the 
paraffin is contaminated *. ith I -ion products of the wax. In this case 
another tr- ith acid will be found to make the paraffin colorless. By this 

•rdinary acid should not 
nposition with it is tedious. 

d Breitenlohner - dom applicable, 

inasmuch as paraffin - used, an: iin ei is 

- .phuric acid. - anreliab • 

time. 



Payen recommend- n of the melting point. Wax 

. with paraffin niel- . melting point 

Paraffin has the property of _ :.e melting 

point of beeswax. All kinds of paraffin, from wl _ 

lower than 88°. [1 tffin fonnd in Rangoon oil which has a melting 

point in th- _ : hood of 61 . which is only 1- under that of wax, and a> 
ing to Hofstatt. from ozokerite ha- - _ 

Boghead paraffin inelt> at A* : that from turf tar I ind that from shale 

(Autun) rij' . 

lity of parafti iation. and the distilled ]»araffin a] i - 

shows a low.-r n ..:.:._- point. If in distilling off. when 

only al - half or two-thirds has come - »ws a 

lower Melting point than the res'ul id based on 

. t that wl wax is anf 1 the 

iier. 

* ]»ngl.polyt 

SgL polyt. .lonr.. 1~ " 

.goer's Jahre«.> 
6 Ibid . . I 
| Journ. 



830 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

DETECTION OF PARAFFIN IN BEESWAX.* 

Heat 50 cc. of ainyl alcohol on the water bath to about 100° and add 5 grams of 
wax. When dissolved add 100 cc. of fuming sulphuric acid diluted with half its 
bulk of water, first heating the mixture to 100°. Heat till uo more bubbles are given 
off, then cool. A cake is formed containing melissiu, cerotate. and palmitate of amyl, 
and paraffin, if contained in the sample. Heat the cake on the water bath with a 
mixture of 50 cc. sulphuric acid and 25 cc. of Nordhausen acid. In about two hours 
the decomposition, which goes on quietly, is ended, but the treatmeut is to be con- 
tinued until no more gas can be obtained on stirring up with a glass rod, when every- 
thing but the paraffin will have been completely carbonized. After cooling squeeze 
the cake and add it to 50 cc. of amyl alcohol heated to 100. Filter off the residue 
from the solution thus formed, using a hot filtration device, pour 50 cc. hot amyl 
alcohol on the filter, allow it to run through, and then add 50 cc. more. Heat the 
filtrate (150 cc.) to 100° and add 70 cc. of concentrated sulphuric acid to convert the 
amyl alcohol into amyl sulphuric acid, in which, according to Roard, paraffin is in- 
soluble. If the carbonization of the wax has been complete, two purifications will 
insure the paraffin being in weighable condition. The author remarks that in using 
this method the paraffin is not attacked, which is always the case with Laudolt's 
method, in which only fuming sulphuric acid is used. 

DETECTION OF PARAFFIN IX BEESWAX. t 

Add to 2 grams of the wax 1.5 grams KHO and about 5 grams water and boil, shak- 
ing repeatedly till a complete mixture is obtained. Cool the mass almost to the crys- 
tallizing point of the acids and add 6 to 9 grams of petroleum ether, shaking till an 
emulsion is formed, from which the ether does not separate on standing. Add an 
excess of neutral lead acetate and stir with a glass rod ; separation of the ether from 
the other liquid ensues. Separate the two and reexhaust the aqueous solutiou twice 
with fresh portions of ether. Theether extract is evaporated and the residue weighed. 
Pure yellow wax gives 14 to 16 per cent by this method, which is hardly a recom- 
mendation for it. There are also samples of wax which give 57 per cent. To obtain 
the paraffin pure, and free from the wax constituents, it is preferable to destroy 
these latter by fuming sulphuric acid. 

[In the reference cited (Zeit. f. a. Chem.) the method described is wrongly attrib- 
uted to Marggraf.] 

ADULTERANTS IN BXB8WAX.I 

The paraffin-mixed wax described [in the preceding abstract] which gave 57 per cent 
to petroleum ether, it seems from 1 lager's article, was suspicious from its appearance 
and physical propeii tee. It possessed a slippery, soapy feel, and on kneading showed 
little viscosity. Pure yellow wax has at 20° a specific gravity not Lower than 0.966 
nor higher than 0.975. The sample in question, however, did not sink in alcohol of 
higher specific gravity than 0.896 al 20 . Another trial gave the specific gravity ss 

0.8%. Latterly, according to Hager,$ there has been coming into the trade wax 
adulterated with .Japan wax and with paraffin, not differing greatly in looks from 

the pure wax. The specific gravity Is near that of wax. 0.990 to 0.925. It is not 
made to imitate high-grade wax. A sample was analyzed by Hager. Three grams 

were 1 toiled wit h a sol ut ion of 0.500 grains l»ora\ in B OC. of water. || 'I'll is gave a com- 
plete, tolerably white emulsion, not changing in form <>n cooling. By t his t he pros- 



• Lies-Bodart, Compt. rend, T. 69,749; Jonr.de ohim. l.,T. 2, ser. E ro «, 897; 

Free, Zeit. f.a. Chem., L866, 259. 
t II. Hager, Polyt Centralblatt, 1869, 1406; Fres. Zeit. f. a. chem., 1870, L33. 

! Fres. Zeit. f. a. (hemic, L870, 419. 

vUM.ar.n.Centralhalle, 11,909. 

|| Met hod lor Japan wax first published by I lager in I'harni. ( cut ralhalle, 3, 907. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 831 

ence of Japan wax, and, from the light specific gravity also of paraffin, was established, 
but the question of the presence of beeswax remained undecided. To settle this the 
author used the difference in behavior of the different ingredients toward sulphuric 
acid and alcohol. Japan wax, when added to twenty times its weight of concentrated 
sulphuric acid, the mixture warmed on the water bath and occasionally shaken, gives 
a clear dark, brown red solution, remaining fluid on cooling. If this solution is 
again heated until it becomes brownish black and foams, and then added drop by 
drop to four or five times its volume of alcohol, a dark blackish red (often clear) 
mixture is obtained, depositing nothing on the surface, or at most a few easily disin- 
tegrated flocks. The same test made on pure wax gave a dark brown, foaming, 
cloudy mixture, not liquid after cooling. When again heated till foamed strongly, 
aDd then mixed with alcohol (thorough mixture maybe obtained by pouring from 
one test tube to another repeatedly), there is formed on cooling a black, crumbly 
cake on the surface, which when dissolved in petroleum ether leaves a black powdery 
substance. The decanted petroleum-ether solution on evaporation gives a black sub- 
stance which climbs upward on the sides of the dish. This black substance, heated 
to 300°, becomes solid again after cooling. It is smeary and melts under the warmth 
of the finger. It is of lower specific gravity than wax. 

Paraffin treated with sulphuric acid gives a clear brown mixture, liquid while hot 
and solidifying on cooling. When again heated and mixed with alcohol of 90 per 
cent it gives a solid grayish crystalline cake. On evaporation it leaves clear gray 
margins (not black), and gives a residue of paratfin, completely volatile at 300° to 
310°, with no bad smell. 

The wax tested by the author gave, when treated in the same way, a black but 
more solid cake than had the yellow wax. This, in dissolving in petroleum ether, left 
a black substance. The decanted solution left, on evaporation, dark gray margins. 
The residue had a scarcely recognizable structure, and left, after heating in a mercury 
bath to 300°, a black, solid substance similar to that obtained from wax, of GVJ30 spe- 
cific gravity. Further heating produced stilling vapors, but complete volatilization 
was not obtained until nearly 400°. 

As by the foregoing tests the Japan wax remained dissolved in the sulphuric acid- 
alcohol mixture and the black cake indicated wax and paraffin, Hager oonelnded 
that the sample contained all three, probably in equal parts The color was very 
likely due to curcuma. 

ADULTERATION WITH J'AKAFIIN." 

Beeswax is met with in the Philadelphia market adulterated with paraffin to the 
extent of 80 per cent. It is a trifle translucent on the edges and rings somewhat on 
being struck. It may also bo recognized by a peculiar concavity on the tops of the 
cakes, beeswax cakes being always either Mat or slightly conyex, or else haying ver- 
tical fissures running through the block. Melting point, 146 1 (63 |j specific 
gravity 0.929. Beeswax cakes WCTC also nut w itli made of black earthy matter, neatly 
covered with yellow wax. 

l.ITKCTION Of ( Ki:i>lN IN WAX. t 

For the detection of oeresin (a mixture of "earth wax" and earnanba wax)M. 
Buchner recommends the determination of the specific gravity. He found genuine 
wax to have a speciMe gravity of 0.959 for yellon and 0.966 for white wax, while 
the specific gravity oi samples of oeresin examined by him was between 0.858 and 
0.901. Pore wax will sink in alcohol of 0.954 to 0.960, wliil.-cr.--in will float. 

* Proc Ani.-r. Pharm. Assoc., 1875, 198; ajner. .lour. Pharm., Nov., i-:i 
t Dingl, polyt. Joor-, 231, 978; Pre* Zeit, t a. Chem., 1880, ¥40. 



S32 FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

PARAFFIN IN WAX. 

A simple method is recommended by Hager* for detection of paraffin. Warm to- 
gether in a test tube 2 grams of wax with 5 cc solution of sodium carbonate till the 
former melts, shake energetically and then while still shaking add gradually about 
G cc of benzol. An emulsion is produced. Place the test tube in a water bath heated 
to about 50° and allow to remain for an hour so that the mixture can stratify, then 
let it stand for some time at the ordinary temperature. With pure wax after cooling 
there is a tluid, scarcely cloudy layer of benzol. When this is the case it is not neces- 
sary to hunt farther for paraffin. In the presence of the latter the layer is not tluid 
and is also cloudy or white. 

DETECTION OF CERESIN AND PARAFFIN IN WAX.t 

Boil 1 gram wax in a test tube with 1 part potash and 3 parts 90 per cent alcohol 
for several minutes. Place tube in a hot-water bath and allow to cool gradually. 
If the wax is pure the Liquid remains clear, while in the presence of paraffin and cere- 
sin an oily layer is formed. 

DETECTION OF CERESIN, OZOKERITE, AND PARAFFIN IN REES WAX.t 

The determination of the specific gravity is an essential point. If the wax con- 
tains moisture it should be cut with a sharp knife into thin pieces, and these should 
be placed in a place the temperature of which does not exceed 30°. After one or two 
days the pieces are melted and the liquid wax dropped on clean lead foil. The 
solidified drops are thrown into diluted alcohol (40 cc alcohol, DO per cent, and 60 cc 
water) and by addition of water or alcohol made to Hoat in the liquid, any adhering 
gas bubbles being carefully removed. The specific gravity of beeswax varies between 
0.956 and 0.964 (temperature not stated). A specific gravity below 0.964 indicates 
adulteration. 

EXAMINATION OF BEESWAX FOR PARAFFIN, ETC.§ 

Adulterations of beeswax with paraffin, oeresin, or ozokerite can be easily deter- 
mined by subjecting the sample to the influence of heat. In a small porcelain cap- 
sule of about ."> cm diameter and 1 to 2 cm depth 2 grams of the wax, previously out 
into shavings and dried by exposure to air, are placed and heated over a small flame ; 
when vapors are evolved a beaker of same diameter as capsule and of one-half to 
two-thirds liter capacity is held <>\er the capsule and completely tilled with the vapor, 
when it is c<>\ ered and set aside for condensation : a second beaker is tilled in the same 
manner and then the flame is removed. The condensation of the vapor requires 
about one hour, and when completed the deposit of one beaker is dissolved in ,\ cc 

chloroform and poured into the second beaker, rinsing the fust beaker with a small 
additional quantity of chloroform. With the chloroform solution of the sublimate 
the following tests aie made: (i) One t<> L5 oo are evaporated in a test tube ami. 
after adding I oe notation of sodium hydrate, heated to the boiling point; after cool- 
ing the paraffin will float upon tin- colorless lye. (2) Several drops are allowed to 
evaporate spontaneously upon an object glass and the residue examined microscopic- 
ally; paraffin has the appearance of raised stars with curved or serpent-like rays. 
In this distillation the first portion of t he vapor always consists of the paraffin, pure 
beeswax only producing volatile matter on heating to 300 to 320 C. ; the sublimate 
from beeswas is always colored, the chloroform solution being deoidedly colored: 

■ Pharm. Centralhalle, 18, 414. 

• Peltz.Jonr.de pharm. el de ohim. (5) 5,154; Arch. d. Pharm., June, 1882,471; 
Proc Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1882,363. 
i Hager, Chem. Centralblatl 315. 

II. Hager, Pharm. ( lentralhalle, i--' 1 . 565. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 833 

the soda lye is colored and also turbid ; under the microscope the chloroform residue 
presents a wavy appearance without the stars. For a quantitative determination the 
results are only approximate ; instead of 25 per cent there were obtained in three 
determinations 22.38, 23, and 23.70 per cent. 

DETECTION OF ROSIN IN BEESWAX.* 

Determination of specific gravity of wax samples, in order to detect sophistication 
with rosin, can be rapidly made by using officinal " Liq. amnion, caustic " (German). 
In this pure wax floats, while that containing rosin sinks. 

DETECTION OF ROSIN IN BEESWAX, t 

Five grams of the wax are introduced into a flask with four or five times as much 
crude nitric acid (1.32 to 1.33 specific gravity), the mixture heated to boiling and kept 
at that temperature for a minute. Then an equal bulk of cold water is added, and 
then ammonia till the fluid smells strongly of it. With pure wax the alkaline fluid 
is colored only yellow, but in presence of rosin, it is deep brown. A blank with pure 
wax should be run simultaneously. With mixures containing rosin, the action of 
the acid is much more vigorous than with pure wax. This method is exactly the 
same as that accredited to Donath. 

DETECTION OF ROSIN IN BKESWAX. t 

In the literature are to be found : 

(1) Method of Donath (given elsewhere). 

(2) Schmidt's method (given elsewhere). 

(3) I lager's method :§ Boil a sample of wax with fifteen times its volume of a mix- 
ture of 1 part water and 2 parts DO per cent alcohol. Allow to fully cool, decant, or 
filter if cloudy, and mix with an equal volume of water. If rosin is present the liquid 
becomes cloudy or milky. With alcohol of the above strength the rosin can be en- 
tirely extracted, while the wax and stearic acid are unaffected. 

(4) According to the results of the pharmacy commission || wax containing rosin 
gives with soda solution a kind of emulsion which is tolerably permanent, remaining 
for several days. One gram wax should be heated with 10 cc water and :'> grams 
carbonate of soda to boiling for fifteen minufc 9. 

(5) Sedna's method :U Three grams of wax are to be dissolved in ten to twelve times 
as much chloroform, 200 grams lime water added and the mixture shaken. Pare wax 
makes an emulsion, but in presence of rosin the fluid becomes yellowish brown and 
gray-brown Hocks of rosin swim on the surface. 

On a critical trial these nut hods gave the following results: 

(1) Sedna's method is useless. Gray-brown (locks were not obtained eveu when 
working with was containing 20 per cent ofrosin. 

(2) Hager's met hod is righl in principle, but the sentence "with this strength of 
alcohol (1 part water to •,' parts 90 pei cenl alcohol 60 per oenl alcohol) rosin can 

be extracted, while wax and stearic acid are unaflected," is erroneous, inasmuch as 

stearic acid if present with rosin always goes into solution, at least partially. This, 
how ever, does not interfere with the test, as, under the conditions given, stearioaoid 
separates on the surface while the rosin remains emulsified. Better results maj be 
obtained by using 50 per oenl alcohol instead of 60, as the former has do effect on 

stearic acid. TWO percent of rosin can DC easily detected. 

(;{) The best method for the detection of rosin is that of Donath as modified by 
Schmidt. The assertion made that 1 percent ofrosin is easilj detected in this way 

is coi red . 

• Cheui. Centralblatt, L876, 151, 

t K. Schmidt, Ber. L0, KH \ aba. Zeit. 1. a.Chem., L878 

I 11. Etottger, Chem. Zeit., 1891, 16 

$ Comment. Pharm. « lei m. t 1 373, 136. 

J Arch. Pharm., L88I 

H Sedna, Das "Wachs und seine Verwendung 



834 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

DETECTION OF VEGETABLE WAX IN BEESWAX.* 

Rabineaud's t method is based on the varying solubilities of different waxes in ether. 
One part of wax is placed in 50 parts of ether and the whole shaken occasionally. 
When the pieces of wax have disappeared and a voluminous precipitate taken their 
place, this last is filtered into a weighed filter, washed with cold ether, the ether 
allowed to spontaneously evaporate and the filter and contents weighed. Beeswax 
should leave 50 per cent residue, vegetable wax (Japan wax) 5 per cent Dullo J: says, 
however : "It is not true that Japan wax (improperly 'plant wax ') is always soluble 
in ether. There are several kinds of wax called ' vegetable wax ' in trade, and while 
it is quite possible that there are kinds nearly completely soluble, still this can 
seldom be the case. Out of six varieties which I have examined not one has com- 
pletely dissolved, but all have conducted themselves like beeswax with ether. 
Usually a trirle over 50 per cent has dissolved, but not very much more. A sample of 
wax containing over 50 per cent of Japan wax given me for investigation behaved 
with ether like pure wax/' 

Four samples of Japan wax were examined. One left a residue, causing slight 
opalescence of the solution but unweighable, the other three dissolved completely. 
As, however, other substances used in adulterating beeswax such as stearin (stearic 
acid) paraffin, rosin, and tallow (but not ceresin) are soluble in cold ether, this method 
is of little value as far as the detecting of vegetable wax (Japan wax) alone goes. 
If, however, the fact of the adulteration by this wax alone were established other- 
wise, this method could be used for an approximation of its extent, inasmuch as all 
pure beeswax samples behave nearly alike toward ether. 

Dullo says (I.e.): "The best method for the detection of Japan wax is: Boil to- 
gether 10 grams of the suspected wax in 120 grains water and 1 gram soda (accord- 
ing to others 1 gram caustic potash) for one minute. If Japan wax is present, there 
is formed a soap, which on cooling becomes gradually solid or thick. Boiling for so 
short a time and with such a dilute alkali solution does not saponify beeswax, 
which separates at the surface of the liquid with its natural hardness and consistence. 
The soap produced by Japan wax is materially different from that produced from 
stearin and soda. The latter is slimy and gelatinous while tin' former is a magma of 
fine granules. The one can not be mistaken for the other by any one who has seen 
both. The Japan wax soap requires much alcohol, and must be heated before it 
will dissolve, and, on cooling, a portion of the wax separates, but the solution of 
the remainder doea not solidify. For solution of aodio Btearate, little alcohol and not 
much heat are required, but the solution ultimately solidifies even when quite di- 
lute." 

According to investigations made, this method is useless, no matter whether soda 
or caustic potash be used. Pure beeswax heated this way gives a thick milky solu- 
tion, and no such thing as a solid wax cake separates. 

1 lager v> says "the presence of Japan wax is established when a wax which is mostly 
soluble in chloroform to a clear solution is heavier than 0.980." Ch. Mene|| says, 
u the detection of Japan wax in beeswax is only possible by means of the specific 
vreight, and is not possible by means of determining either crystallisation point or 

melting point. Hut reliance on specific gravity alone is unsafe." 

In another article I lager" Bays, u the detection of Japan wax la easily accomplished 
by boiling .:5<'o to .400 gram of wax in a solution of .500 gram borax in 6 to8oe 
water, shaking occasionally. The resultant olondy solution on standing gradually 



' II. Rdttger, (hem. Zeit., L890, 85, ill-', do. 87, L473. 

♦ Pros. Zeit. f. a. Chem., L808, LIS; Dingl. polyfc .lour., L86B, 163, «0. 

! Dingl. poivt. .lour.. L864, 172-156. 

vx ('muni. Pharm. Germ., 1873, 136. 

|| Dingl. polyt. .lour., 1874, 91 1 37. 
•I Chem. Zeit., L890, 14-606. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 835 

separates into a clear liquid and a floating cake of wax, if Japan wax is not present. 
If it is present, it remains milky, and according to the extent of the adulteration be- 
comes either thick or gelatinizes completely. I have tried this method. By treat- 
ment of pure beeswax with borax solution— I invariably used 7 cc of a solution of 
5 grams borax in 100 cc. water and .350 gram wax — a solution is gotten which is at 
first milky, but separates after some hours into a fluid, opalescent at first, afterwards 
clear, a floating solid film and a layer of emulsion of equal size. 

For the detection of foreign admixtures, especially Japan wax tallow, stearic acid, 
and rosin, the method is generally unreliable, for the separation into layers takes place 
not so easily as described. Only stearic acid and rosin can be detected in this manner. 
By a content of only 5 per cent stearic acid, no solid layer is obtained and a thick 
pasty emulsion is formed, nothing separating at first, though after several days a 
little clear liquid separates underneath. In the presence of only 5 per cent of rosin 
the thick emulsion does not separate in two layers and no solid cake is formed. 

For the detection of small admixtures of Japan wax the above method, for the 
reasons given, is unreliable and misleading. In the presence of larger quantities of 
Japan wax (over 10 per cent) a solid layer separates on the surface, under which is 
a thick emulsion, separating after several days into a more or less clear liquid. Tal- 
low behaves in a similar way, but the quantity of emulsion is smaller, and the method 
consequently less applicable. 

For my own part I should think it would be better to abandon the use of the borax 
method, or at least be cautious in judging from its results. 

The pharmacy commission of the Deutsche! Apotheker Vereiu* recommends boiling 
1 gram wax with 10 cc water and 3 grams sodium carbonate. On cooling, the wax 
should wholly separate, leaving only an opalescent solution below. Wax containing 
Japan wax, stearic acid, or rosin, gives an emulsion with the soda, not separating 
into a cake, and clear fluid, even after several days. Tallow, although not mentioned, 
behaves in a similar way. In its presence a cake forms, and underneath (with 5 to 
10 percent) a clear fluid, with emulsion in the upper layers. This emulsion is great- 
est in the presence of rosin ; somewhat smaller with Japan wax and stearic acid, and 
slightest with tallow. From my results with personally-made mixtures, 2 per cent 
of Japan wax, stearic acid, or rosin, can be detected by the abnormal emulsion. 
Tallow does not become evident till the proportion reaches 5 per cent. 

MICROSCOPIC EXAMINATION OF WAX. t 

By melting together 4 parts of vaseline with 1 part of ceresin, spermaceti, wax, 
ozokerite, etc., characteristic crystals are formed which may be of use in an analyti- 
cal way. A drop of the mixture is to be placed on a microscope slide, a oovei 
softly pressed down on it, and the whole allowed to stand for twelve hours, at a tem- 
perature which must not exceed 5° C. Examiue in polarized light with a power of 
20 diameters. 

METHODS OF ANALYSIS OF wax. J 

The methods of wax examination which have been proposed by different writers 
were examined by Mr. Morse In some detail. The method of the United states Phar- 
macopcBia is: Boil l gram of wax frith 40 grams of u eolotion of eoda" (speeifii 
tty 1.18) for half an hour. <>n oooling, the wax should entirely separate, leaving 
the fluid clear and HC1 should produce no precipitate in s Altered portion sbi 
of fat, fatty acids, Japan wax, and resin). A mixture of 7 parte «>t" ■ bees* si known 



-A. eh. Pharm., 1886, 24-490. 

r E, Dieterioh, Qesohaftsber. dsi Papier and ohem. Pabrik In Helfenberg, bei 
Dresden, 1883 : ai>>. Ties. Zeit. t. a. (hem.. 1884, 567. 

{ Thesis of (\ M. Morse, Mass, College of Pharm* . 1886 



836 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

to be pure and 3 parts of lard was made and treated as above. No precipitate wae 
obtained with HOI. Mixtures ot wax and Japan wax, wax and tallow, and wax an< 
resin also yielded negative results, whence the author concludes the products of sa- 
ponification are not soluble in alkali as strong as that prescribed. To prove this h< 
boiled 5 grams of common yellow soap with 50 cc. of "solution of soda " (specific 
gravity 1.18) for half an hour, cooled, filtered and acidified as above. No precipitate 
was formed. 

The Pharmacopoeia test for paraffin (also ceresin) reads: "If 5 grams of wax be 
heated in a flask for fifteen minutes with 25 grams of sulphuric acid to 160° C. ane 
the mixture diluted with water, no solid, wax-like body should separate (abseuce ol 
paraffin)." In working this method it is found advantageous to use a tall ^-ounct 
beaker and to gradually heat the mixture on the steam bath, taking great care t( 
stir it at first, as the reaction is liable to become unmanageable. 

When the violence of the action is over raise the heat gradually to about 1U0 C (in- 
stead of 160°) and keep it there for an hour and a half, stirring occasionally. Allow 
to cool gradually. When quite cold the paraffin will be found as a layer on top o 
the semisolid mass. Carefully remove and wash with water to remove as much 
possible of the charred wax. Again heat with about 1") grams of sulphuric acid i'oi 
about an hour. On cooling the paraffin may be again detached, washed, dried, am 
weighed. Trial with a known mixture containing 20 per cent paraffin gave 125 mil- 
ligrams paraffin from 1 gram (=200 milligrams paraffin). 

A trial with a known mixture gave good results. 

Morse found 20 samples of pure wax to be below 0.96 specific gravity. Prof. Bed- 
ford ' gives another method resting on the use of sodium carbonate in dilute solu- 
tion. Saponihablo bodies if present in the wax give emulsions. The author prefer! 
the concentrated solution of Douath. 

The London Pharmaceutical Journal t says: " Resiu may be estimated by treat 
ment with cold alcohol." A sample of wax of known purity yielded 6 per cent t< 
cold alcohol, and 5 commercial samples an average of 5.6 per cent. Brodiet and .1 
F. Babcock $ say pure wax contains from 4 to 6 per cent of cerolein, which is soluble 
in cold alcohol. The foregoing test is therefore useless except with large quantities 
Another test tried was : || Melt 1 gram of wax with 3 drops concentrated sulphuric 
acid. A red color is produced in the presence of resin. On hardening, the w;i\ as 
BUmes a violet shade. Trials with known mixtures of resin and wax gave the reac 
tion, there however being no dillerenee as to intensity of OOloi between samples 
wax with 5 and 15 per cent of resin. Pure wax did not give the react ion. Nine o 
the 87 samples of commercial wax gave the color. The author found that differ 
ences of 2 per cent could be distinguished by the depth of color produced. Thiswaf 
true up to 12 per cent resin, above which it required a dillerenee of 1 per cent t( 
make a perceptible change in the tint. The test indicates the presence of 0.25 per 
cent resin. 

By heating 1 gram beeswax with 10 cc. of saturated solution of borax at Hi) ane 
cooling the aqueous solution becomes turbid. In presence <>! Japan w ;i\ <>r stearin | 
milky solution is produced remaining opaque after cooling. Pure wax gave a turbh 
solution; a mixture of wax and Japan wa\ rendered the solution milky, and on cool- 
ing left, a light llocciileiit mass, occupying neailv the Whole bulk of the solution; 

mixture with stearin gave a white emulsion; a mixture with paraffin behaved liki 

pure wax and One with spermaceti gave a milky solution. On diluting each of t lies 
tests with o volumes of water at 80 and briskh shaking, th.it containing t he stearii 

mixture was opaque as before, with ■ light ourdy mats on the surface ; that contain- 



' PrOC. Amer. Ph;inn. Assoc., L877, 1 II. 

t September, i-:<>. 

! I'hil. Trans. , 1-7- : M 1 1 ler. , I '.leiiieiits of Chemistry, in; 963. 
$PrO0. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, l-i-T, 374. 
l|Amer. Join. Pharm., 1881, 307, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 837 

ing the Japan wax was tilled throughout with a thick rlocculent substance, and those 
containing paraffin and spermaceti had the upper third occupied by a light flocculent 
mass. 

Various authorities say that wax is adulterated with sulphur, yellow ocher, calcined 
bones, starch, tallow, paraffin, stearin, Japan wax, etc. No samples were found adul- 
terated with sulphur, yellow ocher, calcined bones, or paraffin. Wheat starch to the 
amount of 11.4 per cent was found in one instance. It was estimated by treating the 
wax with a warm 2 per cent solution of sulphuric acid. The wax was then well 
washed, dried, and reweighed, and the loss calculated as starch. Japan wax was 
found in 7 samples, stearin in 4, resin in 9, and tallow in 3. The total number of 
samples examined was 87, of which 24 were adulterated. 

The method used for mechanical admixtures was to dissolve the wax in turpentine. 
Any sediment remaining may be sulphur, yellow ocher, calcined bones or starch. 

Wax is separated by boiling alcohol into three portions — myricin, which is iu- 
soluble; cerin, which crystallizes out on cooling, while the cerolein remains dissolved. 
J. F. Babcock* gives the proportions as myricin 30 per cent, cerin 65 per cent, and 
cerolein 5 per cent. According to Bloxam the proportion is, myricin about one- 
third, cerin nearly two-thirds, and cerolein about 4 per cent. 

Ten grams of pure wax were boiled with alcohol. The larger portion settled to 
the bottom. The clear liquid was poured off, and the treatment repeated several 
times. On cooling, the alcohol white feathery crystals were deposited. These were 
filtered off and the filtrate evaporated to dryness. 

The insoluble portion represented 65 per cent; that portion soluble in hot alcohol 
but not in cold, 29.50 per cent, and the portion soluble at all temperatures, 5.90 per 
cent. Total, 100.4. 

Myricin fuses at 63°. It is insoluble in alcohol, soluble in warm chloroform, benzine, 
and ether. From the two latter solutions it mostly separates on cooling in light, 
feathery crystals, fusing at 67°. That portion soluble in cold ether is a bright lemon- 
yellow colored solid, fusing at 56°. Brodie confines the name myricin to the portion 
insoluble in cold ether. 

Two grams of myricin fused with 1 gram caustic potassa become fluid, but harden 
on cooling. This melt, dissolved in water and decomposed with hydrochloric acid, 
gives a precipitate. This precipitate, when boiled with lime water, for;ns insoluble 
palmitate of calcium, and another wax-like body is liberated. 

Brodie gives this body the name of melissylic alcohol, and the formula, C*. lb ;i O, 
HO. Hence, myricin is a compound ether — palmitate of melissyl — C« H 9: 0< =Cflo H«, 
O, On H.n O3. 

Others call this body melissiu. It fuses at 104°, is of a light-yellow color, insoluble 
in alcohol and ether. Accordiug to Brodie, when melissylic alcohol is distilled with 
hydrate of potassa, it is decomposed, hydrogen is evolved and melissate of potassium 
is formed, the reaction being the same as that by which acetate of potassium is pro- 
duced when ordinary alcohol is treated in a similar manner. 

Cerin or cerotic acid as first separated from boiling alcohol fuses at .">:; , but by 
repeated crystallization it maybe raise. 1 to 70 C. The proportion varies in differ- 
ent samples, but the average is about 28.6 per cent. 

Brodie finds it to be 22 percent, and in one sample from Ceylon it was entirely 
wanting. 

In older to produce the acid in a pare state, dissolve the cerin in boiling alcohol 
and add a boiling alcoholic solution of acetate of lead, by which a heavy, white 

precipitate of cerotate of had Is produced. This is filtered while still hot. ami 
Hie precipitate boiled in strong alcohol ami Altered. The precipitate was again 

boiled in ether and filtered. The filtrate from the alcoholic w ashing, OO evaporat ing 

toon tan eon sly, left a small amount of 1 waxlike bod] resembling tnyrioin, bnl fus- 
ing at 01°. The lead salt was decomposed by strong acetic acid, and t lie bod] irhiefa 



• Proo. Amei. Pharni. Assoc, i-«".: 
L8808— No. 13 11 



838 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



separated was well washed with boiling water, dissolved in absolute alcohol, and fil- 
tered. On cooling, crystals of pure cerin separated. These had a fusing point of 
67° C. (Brodie says 78 c C), and were eoluble in six parts of boiling alcohol. Brodie's 
analysis with chromate of lead gives for the formula, C5 4 H 54 4 =carbon, 78.98 per 
cent; hydrogen, 13.12 per cent; oxygen, 7.90 per cent. Cerotic ether can be made 
by dissolving the acid in absolute alcohol and passing hydrochloric acid gas through 
the solution. It has the appearance of a soft wax, and fuses at 59° C. Cerolein, 
that portion which is soluble in cold alcohol, is a soft, greasy body, soluble in ether, 
chloroform, and benzine; fuses at 81.5° C, renders the alcoholic solution alkaline, 
and is not easily saponified. It has a strong balsamic odor, and seems to contain 
the odoriferous portion of the wax. 

Specific gravity. — This is obtained by diluting alcohol until a drop of the wax, pre- 
viously melted and cooled on glass, would float indifferently in it. By taking the 
specific gravity of the alcohol that of the wax was found. The average gravity of 
five samples of pure wax was 0.9547. Melting point was determined by several 
methods: First, by placing a drop previously melted and cooled on glass or any smooth 
surface on a volume of mercury and gradually heating by means of a steam or water 
bath; the instant the wax was seen to liquefy the temperature indicated by a ther- 
mometer previously placed in the mercury was noted. Second, by means of a thin 
glass tube, drawn out to a small opening, the finger was placed over the large end and 
the small end dipped just below the surface of the melted wax, removed, and the thin 
cap allowed to thoroughly cool. The tube was then partially filled with water, say 
from 1 to 3 cc, according to the diameter and size of the lower opening. This tube 
thus prepared was fastened to a thermometer by means of two rubber bands, so that 
the cap of wax and the thermometer bulb were on the same level. This was placed 
in a water bath and gradually raised to the temperature. Care was taken to have 
the water level of the tube above that of the bath (but not so much above that the 
pressure would break the cap of wax) until it was thoroughly fused. It was found 
that a tube one-quarter inch in diameter gave the best results when '2.5 cc. of water 
were placed in it and the water level kept 1.5 inches above that in the bath. When 
the water in the tube was seen to lower the thermometer was read. A third method 
was by means of a thin tube drawn out to a long point and filled with melted wax. 
When cold the point was broken off and the tube fastened to a thermometer, the same 
as in the previous case. The whole was so placed in cold water that the wax was 
about an inch below the surface. The water was now gradually boated until the 
pressure of the water forced the wax up in the tube. This was the tune to read 
the thermometer. The last method was to dip a thermometer bulb in melted wax 
and remove, care being taken that the thermometer bulb should not be too cold, 
else too thick a coating would be formed. After this thin film of wax was thoroughly 
cooled, the thermometer was BOSpended in water and gradually heated until the wax 
became transparent and liquid and then the thermometer read. 

The average fusing point of pure wax (5 samples) was found by these tour methods 
to be 02. G c (J. 





First 
method. 


Seoond 
method. 


Thiol 
method. 


Fourth 
method. 


1 


GO 




63 




n 




n 


SB. 5 


63 


:t 


6] 


(in 




82. :. 


4 








62. 6 






„ 










SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 839 

METHOD FOK QUALITATIVE EXAMINATION FOB VARIOUS WAXES.* 

Heat the sample with ten times its volume of chloroform to boiling and, when com- 
pletely dissolved, cool. 

1. The chloroform solution remains clear after cooling. 

A. Ether dissolves original wax completely. 

(a) Alcohol solution of ferric chloride gives with the alcoholic solution of the wax 
a precipitate insoluble on heating. -Wax from Myrica querdfolia. 

(b) Ferric chloride colors the alcoholic solution black. Wax from au undetermined 
species of Myrica. 

(c) Ferric chloride colors brownish, but gives no precipitate. Wax from Myrica 1 1 r- 
ifera; wax from Orizaba. 

B. Ether dissolves only a part. 

A sample is boiled with ten parts of caustic potash till saponification takes place 
and the soap is heated with 100 parts of water. 

(a) The soap is completely soluble. Japan wax. 

(b) The soap is partly soluble ; beeswax. African beeswax. 

2. The chloroform solution becomes cloudy on cooling. 

A. Alcoholic solution of lead acetate gives with the alcoholic wax solution a cloud- 
iness after a few minutes standing. Wax from stick lac. 

B. Alcoholic solution of lead acetate gives no cloudiness. 

(a) The ether solution of the wax becomes cloudy ou the addition of an equal 
volume of alcohol. Brazil and Carnauba wax. 
(6) The ether solution remains clear. Bahia wax. 

RESULTS OBTAINED BY APPLYING QUALITATIVE TESTS TO PUKE BEE-WAX. OTHER 
WAXES, AND COMB FOUNDATION IX THE DEPARTMENT LABORATORY. 

(1) Boil 1 gram of the wax with 10 cc. of water and :J grams of NajCOy. On cool- 
ing a pure wax should separate as a cake, leaving an opalescent solution below. 
Japan wax, stearic acid, and rosin give an emulsion and no cake. 

Foundation comb, No. 8506, gave a cake of wax and soap and a translucent solution. 
No. 8507 gave a cake of wax and soap underlaid by a .slightly milky solution. A 
Japan wax sample, No. 8543, gave a cake of soap and a milky solution. Stearic acid 
gave a layer of soap above an opalescent solution containing flocks of fine crystals. 
Rosin gave a cake of soap and a yellow underlying liquid. 

(2) Pure beeswax gives, with a saturated solution of bora\ at 90 .a turbid aqueous 
solution. Japan wax and stearic acid, emulsions. 

Foundation sample, No. 8606, gave a slightly turbid yellow solution. No. Hf>07, 
also a foundation, gave a slightly turbid but pale solution. A Japan wax gave an 
emulsion which, after standing fort \ -ei<;ht hours, only partially cleared up. Stearic 
acid gave a white emulsion, solid OS cooling. Rosin gave a tarbid yellow solution 
mueh like wax. 

(:j) Treat as above, but slier saponification keep moderately warm tor some hours 
to allow to stratify. 

Foundation No. 8493 gare a soap end ■ slightly turbid solution. Foundation No. 
9 50 4 behaved similarly, bnt the solution was yellow. Foundation N 

cream-colored emulsion. No. - BOap and a turbid solution. 

gave a soap and a olear yellow solution. £ thick milky mass. Japan 

wax (No. 6643 1 gavea milky solution, nearly translucent, with n layer of soap on the 

surface. Another Japan wax No. -o"- I gave a milky or creamy mass of nearly uni- 
form consistency. Tallow gave a <ake and a slightly milky fluid, almost transparent. 
No. 8493, a foundation, gave a soap layer and a slightly turbid solution 



■ i:. Hirschsohn, Phar. .lour. Trans., Mar. 28, I v ~' . 749; Pros, km&t. Pharm. Am 

18S0, 291. 



840 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

gave a soap layer and a yellow, turbid solution. No. 8508A gave a soap layer and a 
very turbid solution, only faintly translucent. No. 8509A gave a soap layer and a 
turbid mass which separated after twenty-four hours, showing a small portion of 
liquid at bottom, opaque or only slightly translucent. No. 8495 gave a cake and a 
turbid aqueous solution. No. 8499 behaved similarly, but the solution was more 
transparent. Nos. 8508B,8508C, and 8508D gave a cake and an opaque yellow solu- 
tion. Carnauba wax samples, Nos. 8546 and 8554, gave a cake and a perfectly clear 
solution. 

(4) Boil a portion of wax with KOH solution and then add NaCl. Japan wax 
gives a soap separating in fine grains; rosin or fatty substances give a fiocculent 
soap. 

No. 8506 gave a soap that was slightly granular. Solution below was colored yel- 
low and was translucent. A Japan wax (No. 8543) gave a granular soap and aqueous 
solution; on cooling set into a translucent jelly. Stearic acid gave a granular cake of 
soap and a clear aqueous solution. Rosin gave a sticky soap, smelling of rosin, and a 
clear brown solution. 

(4) Heat portion of wax until fumes are given off. Collect the fumes in a flask 
and allow to condense. Dissolve in chloroform and evaporate the solution. Saponify 
the residue with caustic soda. Pure wax should give a colored solution. Paraffin 
gives a colorless solution, and on cooling separates on the surface as a cake. Another 
portion of the chloroform solution should be evaporated on a microscope slide and 
the residue examined. Wax gives a film ; paraffin star-shaped crystals. 

On heating, No. 8506 gave an odor ot burning tallow. On saponifying the condensed 
funics, a mass of flocks floating in a clear yellow solution was obtained. Some light- 
colored waxy matter floated on the surface. - The microscopical test gave nothing defi- 
nite. A paraffin sample (No. 8553) gave an odor of burning fat, aud after saponifica- 
tion a brown waxy cake formed on the surface of the solution, not differing greatly 
from that formed with No. 8506. Microscopical test not satisfactory. A foundation, 
No. 8493, also gave an odor of burning fat. On saponifying the fumes and cooling, a 
few flocks appeared near the surface. Solution was colorless. Under the microscope 
the film showed lines running in every direction and dividing it into small portions. 
No. 8547, another paraffin, likewise gave theodor of burning fat. On saponification 
there was formed a brown cake on the surface. The solution was colorless. Under 
the microscope the film showed only a few irregular disks, but no star-shaped bodies. 

(5) Boil sample fifteen minutes with nitric acid, dilute with water, aud add ex- 
cess of ammonia. In presence of rosin this procedure gives a liquid colored reddish 
brown or brownish red. 

A sample of rosin tested gave a fine red color. No. 8506 gave a yellow solution. 
No. 849:5 gave a faint red brown. Nos. 8497 and 8499 gave pale yellow solutions. 
Nos. ~508A and 8508B gave faintly red-brown solutions. No. 8508C also gave a reddish 
solution, but the color was fainter even than the preceding. No. 8509 A gave a dis- 
tinctly reddish brown solution, and B509C one which was a little lighter in hue. To 
a light colored foundation 5 per cent of rosin were added and the mixture tested 
like the foregoing. The resulting Solution was much darker in color than was given 
by any of the foundation samples tested. A carnauba wax (No. 8554) gave a brown 
solution and another i No. 8552) one a brownish yellow. The wax left floating on the 
surface after applying the method to the above two samples, on washing with hot 
water and cooling, in both cases gave lemon-yellow rakes having a faint odor of 
hydrocyanic acid. A ceresin sample (No. 6544) gave :i yellow solution. 

(6) Boil 10 grams of wax in VJQ grams water containing] gram sodium carbonate, 

for one .minute. Japan wax is saponified, but pure beeswax is not, by so weak an 
alkali in so short a time. It. is sometimes directed to use one gram of caustic potash 

instead of the soda. 

No. 84113 gave a pale yellow emulsion which did not separate on two hours stand- 
ing. Nos. 8493, 8506, and B609A behaved similarly. A Japan wax (No, 8608) gave a 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 841 

white emulsion. No. 8506, tested with the caustic potash solution, gave a pale yellow 
emulsion, and the Japan wax a thicker white one. 

(7) Paraffin. — Warm 2 grams wax with soda solution, shake and add 6 cc. of ben- 
zol. Heat to 50° for an hour and then let cool. Pure wax gives a fluid layer of ben- 
zol, paraffin a cloudy or white benzol layer. 

No. 8506 gave a layer of soap which mixed with the benzol layer, rendering it 
opaque; color, a dirty yellow. A paraffin (No. 8547) gave a clear layer of benzol, but 
on standing overnight crystals appeared in it. A mixture of the above two samples, 
containing about 25 per cent of paraffin, gave a reaction similar to that of the foun- 
dation alone. The benzol solution was colored opaque, and of course no paraffin crys- 
tals could be seen. 

(8) Rosin. — Melt 1 gram wax with three or four drops of concentrated sulphuric 
acid. Rosin gives a red color, changing to violet. 

This color was given on heating a little rosin with the acid, but the mixture soon 
became so dark that the color could not be distinguished. The same trouble was en- 
countered when working with a sample of wax, It was soon charred, and no distinc- 
tive color was observed. 

QUANTITATIVE EXAMINATION OF WAXES. 

METHOD FOR DETERMINING PARAFFIN IN WAX.* 

The lately proposed method of Lies-Bodart,t based on the determination of the 
hydrocarbon (C 2 7H M ) contained in the wax, appears unreliable, because of the 
varying composition of beeswax and because of the uncertainty of the true composi- 
tion of beeswax. The method of Payeu, + based ou the determination of the melting 
points, is useful in confirming or disproving the genuineness of any particular sample 
of wax, but it gives no idea as to the amount of added paraffin, as the different paraf- 
fins possess very different melting points and the influence of the several kinds of 
mixtures with wax is not known. Of much greater importance, at least it so seems 
to me, is the determination of the specific gravity of such a mixture, as normal wax 
has a constant specific gravity and the specific gravity of paraffins of different origin 
vary only within narrow limits; and, finally, the specific gravities of paraffin and wax 
lie tolerably far apart. The following determinations were made with samples which 
were first melted for some time, to free them from adhering water, and after cooling 
were kneaded and pressed to free them from all water bubbles. The tluid in which the 
specific gravity was taken was a mixture of alcohol and water, as investigation had 
shown that such a mixture possessed practically no solvent effect on paraffin during 
the time of the experiment. Determinations of the specific gravities of different 
samples of beeswax, indisputably genuine in origin and partly personally melted 
from the comb, gave, the following numbers : 

Yellow wax No. 1 .968 White wax No. 1 

do. No. 2 .965 do. No, 2 .966 

do. No. :\ .969 

For the following experiments, white wax | sample number :'» | w m used. 1 determi- 
nations of the specific gravities of the different samples of paraffin gave the follow- 
ing: Paraffin from Saxon brown coal, hard variety, 0.875, and son variety, 0.871. 
Paraffin from Boghead coal, 0.873 ; paraffin from petroleum (so-called Belmontin from 
th" London paraffin factory, 0.873 ; paraffin from Rangoon tax ft 0.870; 

paraffin from m German shale, (o) 0.877 ; (ft) 0.853 | $76; paraffin from tai ot ■< «i 

birch wood (made in the year 1838 and very likelj by the discoverer of paraffin, 
Reiohenbaeh himself) i 0-87 1. 

I was not able to note experiments made with paraffin made fromtnrf of Derby- 
shire, deviPsdong, Galioian ozokerite or neftgil, nor could I And itatementi as to their 

• K. Wagner, Pros. Zeit. f. a. Chem., LE 

t Compt rend 62, 3 19; Free. Zeit f. i Chem., L8l 

1 Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem. 4, 190. 



842 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

specific gravity in the literature at niy command. According to Malaguti,* ozokerite 
consists of a mixture of two bodies similar to paraffin, one of which has a specific 
gravity of 0.957 and melts at 90°, while the other constituent, with a specific gravity 
of 0.945, melts in the neighborhood of 75°. Preliminary determination showed that the 
specific gravity of wax (0.965 to 0.969) and commercial paraffin (0.869 to 0.877) lie wide 
enough apart to enable quantitative determinations to be made on mixtures from 
the specific gravity. Pure, that is to say, paraffin-free beeswax should sink in alcohol 
of 0.961 specific gravity (33 per cent by volume Tralles or 15.8° Baiiine", or 27.27 per 
cent by weight). If it floats in alcohol of this strength it is very likely adulterated 
with paraffin. 

In the manufacture of candles, when using solid fat acids, paraffin up to 20 per cent 
is always added, and on the other hand, when manufacturing paraffin caudles, stearic 
acid is always added. As, according to the text-books, the specific gravity of pure 
stearicacidis0.956.it occurred to me that caudles could be investigated by deter- 
mination of specific gravity, but investigation has shown the contrary. The reason 
for this is that under the name stearic acid, in the technical sense, is not found the 
pure acid, but a mixture of various bodies, different in composition and physical 
properties according to the source of the original fat. This mass consists in part of 
neutral bodies. Stearic acid made from tallow by lime gave the following specific 
gravity : 

No. 1:0.954 No. 2: 0.962 No. 3: 0.958 

With other samples, made by means of sulphuric acid, subsequent determinations gave 
0.892. 

DETERMINATION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF WAXES, ETC.t 

Place in an accurately marked 50 cc. flask a weighed rod of the wax, about 1 to 1.5 
cm long by 0.5 cm diameter, and allow water to flow into the flask from a bu- 
rette till the water level reaches the mark. Fifty cc minus the burette reading 
represent the volume occupied by the wax. The rod should be made to lie flat on 
the bottom of the flask, so that the incoiring water will force its ends against tbe 
sides and prevent the end from rising above the mark. 

DETERMINATION OF PARAFFIN IN BEESWAX.! 

A wax mixed with paraffin is found in the trade under the name of " purified wax.'' 
The following method was tried on some of this product: 100 grams were heated 
with 30 grams concentrated sulphuric acid to 177 for between fifteen and twenty 
minntes, LOOcc. of water then added, and the whole allowed to cool. On the surface 

was now found a layer of paraffin, which weighed 80 grams. On repeating the exper- 
iment with a mixture of 20 parts of wax and 80 parts of paraffin, the same result was 

Obtained. Paraffin alone treated in the same way remained unaltered. Carhoni/ed 

particles adhering to the paraffin can he detached by remelting. Paraffin on cooling 
contracts so strongly that the surface becomes concave; wax retains its horizontal 
surface. 

Dieterich$ gives a table of the specific gravity of various mixtures of wax and 
paraffin. 

Bedua | tests wax forparaffin by sharing off thin lasers of wax, covering them with 

twenty t imes t heir weight of et her, and allowing t hem to. stand halt' a day. Paraffin 
dissolves, hut very little wax goes into solution. The ether isdeeanted, evaporated, 

and the residue weighed. Five-sixths of the weight la calculated as paraffin. 



* Anna!. de ohira et de phj §., 4, «'»:!, :'>'. ,n . 

\ A. Gawalowski, Oel n. Fettlndustrie ; Chem. Centralblatt, 1890, LI, 502, 

; A. w. Miller in Zeit. dee osterr. Apoth. Vereins, 1875, p. r.> ; aba. Free. Zeit. f. a. 

Che,,,.. I-?;,, -MM). 

w agner's Jahresber, 1882, I 

|| Das Waohs II fltl Heine teehllisehe Yeru endllllg, 15. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



843 



SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF PARAFFIN. 

According to E.Sauerlaiidt,t the specific gravity of paraffin varies between the limits 
of 0.869 and 0.943. Ozokerite paraffin of56^C. crystallizing point has a specific gravity 
of 0.912; that of 61 C C., one of 0.922 ; that of 67-C., one of 0.927 ; that of 72 C C, one of 
0.935 ; that of 76 C C, one of 0.939 ; that of 82 C C, one of 0.943. As the specific gravity 
of paraffin of different solidifying points is different, ozokerite and the ceresiu pre- 
pared from it must also exhibit this characteristic. 

DETERMINATION OF CARNAUBA WAX. \ 

E. Valenta has investigated the melting point of mixtures of carnauba wax with 
stearic acid, mineral wax, and paraffin. He employed for this purpose samples hav- 
ing the following fusing points : 

°C. 

Carnauba wax 85. 

Stearic acid, commercial , 5?^. 5 

Mineral wax 72. 7 

Paraffin GO. 1 

Mixtures were made having the following compositions and melting points : 



Stearin : 
95 . 



Mineral wax 

95 

90 

85 



75 . . 
Paraffin : 
95... 
90... 
85... 
80... 
7f.... 



Carnauba Melting 
wax. point. 1 





°c. 


5 


69.75 


10 


73.75 


15 


71.55 


20 


75.20 


25 




5 


79.10 


10 


80.56 


15 


81.60 


20 


82. 53 


25 






73.9ii 


10 


79. 20 


15 


81.10 


20 


81.50 


M 


Bl. TO 



1 Average of five determinations. 
An addition of 5 per oeul of oarnauba wax raises the melting points of fchs other 
bo»ii<*s mentioned quite appreciably, though increasing additions do not give ■ pro* 
portional increment. Mixtures made with it show greater luster and hardness than 
those without it. The sample of carnauba wax employed was yellowish gray, brittle, 
bad a specific grayityof 0.9963 at LS C, aod left 0.43 percent reddish ash, contain- 
ing I v. ( ),, Al. ; , Ca4 >, K 0, SiO , and slight qnantitiei ol I ( tac gram required 
for saponification 94.5 to '.».">. o milligrams of potash; stearic acid required I97.0j 
beeswax, 100.4 ; .Japan wax, L2S.0; paraffin and oeresin, none. 

aci l '.i. trUMBKB l\ w \\i>. f 

This method gives very good resultfl in wax analyses. When a wa\ ii saponified 
and the soap decomposed with hydrochloric acid, a mixture of fattj acids and higher 

"Free. Zeit f. a. Cbem., L884, 25 

iChem. Zeit 7. 388. 

t Free. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1884,257; Zeit. f. land w. Qew. durefa Pharm, Centralhalle, 

84, 117. 

f FrOS. Zeit. f. a. Chem.. 1868 



844 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

fat alcohols separates. If this mixture is acetylized the alcohols are converted into 
their acetic ethers, invariably giving a high acetyl number, differing for different 
•waxes. 

BECKER'S METHOD. 

Becker* recommends a method based on that of Koettstorfer for butter. About 2 
grams of wax, which has been melted and filtered, are introduced into a flask (about 
150 cc), covered with 25 cc of normal alcoholic potash. Close the flask with a rub- 
ber stopper bearing a 2-bulb safety tube containing enough mercury in its bend to 
make the saponification take place under a pressure equivalent to a column of 5 cm. 
This amount of pressure insures saponification after half an hour's heating on the 
■water bath. When the wax melts it is best to swing the flask occasionally to insure 
the mixing of its contents. After saponification add 50 cc alcohol, some phenolph- 
talein and titrate with half normal HC1. If the contents of the flask begin to get 
solid before the end of the titration, momentary setting on the water bath will clear 
the solution. Investigation of 6 samples guaranteed pure gave figures representing 
the consumption of between 97 and 107 milligrams of potash for 1 gram of wax. Of 
the common adulterants paraffin and ceresin (except of course when containing car- 
nauba wax) absorb no potash; 1 gram rosin equals 194.3 milligrams of potash; 1 
gram Japan wax, 222.4 ; 1 gram carnauba wax, 93.1 ; 1 gram spermaceti, 108.1 milli- 
grams ; 1 gram tallow, 196.5. 

ANALYSIS OF BEESWAX— YELLOW, t 

Hehner has attempted to apply to the examination of wax the well-known method 
of Koettstorfer for fats. A difficulty presents itself in its use, however, arising from 
the extraordinarily high molecular weights of both cerotic acid and myricin, respect 
tively, 410 and G76. One cc, therefore, of normal alkali would equal 410 mg of ce- 
rotic acid and 076 mg of myricin, and titrations have f o be made with the most ex- 
treme care, a difficulty enhanced by the dark solutionsyielded by some foreign waxes. 
Another obstacle was found in the difficulty with which myricin saponifies. The 
most serious trouble of all, however, was the procuring of a wax which could be cer- 
tified to as genuine. It would naturally be imagined that if honeycomb were pur- 
chased as it comes out of the hive the wax would be genuine, without doubt. But 
this is not so. Very many bee-keepers suspend in the hives sheets of wax stamped on 
both sides with hexagons, to induce the bees to utilize the hexagonal ridges as " foun- 
dations" for the cells, thus insuring the regularity of the comb. These foundations 
are obtained from certain dealers, Borne of whom warrant them to be composed of gen- 
ome wax. 1 have no doubt that genuine wax foundations are to be had, but the 
two samples Which I obtained were mixtures, in spite of t he warranty, as will be 
seen from results stated farther on. Pure w.vx does not seem to be quite so plastic as 
certain mixtures. This may lie one reason for their compound nature, but I suspect 
that since wax is dear and fatsand paraffin are cheap, the chief inducement is not of 
an entirely unselfish character. As for 20 pounds of honeys hive only yields l pound 
of wax it is also intelligible why some bee keepers arc very liberal with the supply 
of foundation to the bees. Although generally a comb into which foundation has 

entered can he dist inguished from the more irregular, pure eomb. and although I have 
taken all possible Oare to exclude BUSpicioUfl samples, I am not at all certain that the 

whole of the samples which I believed to he unmixed were absolutely pure and free 

from admixture. The method of analysis finally adopted was: First, make up alco- 
holic potash, using spirit rectified over potash of such a strength that l cc equals 
o.:{ to 0.4 cc normal acid. Weigh 3 to 5 grams of wax, transfer to a flask holding 

abOUl 400 CC and heat on the water hath with 60 CO alcohol prepared as above. Add 
plenty Of plu md ph tale in solution and titrate with the alcoholic potash. Next run in 

Ton-. Bl. Ver. analyt. Chem., 2, 57; through Free. Zeit. f. a. (hen... I8d0, 240. 
tott.. Hehner, Analyst, L883, L& 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 



845 



an excess of the alkali, 50 cc being a convenient quantity. The whole is then 
briskly boiled under a rellux condenser for an hour, shaking occasionally. The solu- 
tion should be clear, or nearly so. Titrate back the excess of alkali with standard 
acid, keeping the liquid boiling. From the data thus obtained, the free acid, calcu- 
lated as cerotic acid, and the saponifiable substance— calculated as myricin — are 
obtained. The following results were obtained : 



No. 


Cerotic 
acid. 


Myricin. 


Sum. 


Description of sample. 




Per cent. 


Per cent. 






1 


14. 35 


88.55 


102. 90 


Hertfordshire wax. 


2 


14.86 


85.95 


100. 81 


Do. 


3 


14.79 


87.76 


102. 55 




4 


13. 22 


86.02 


99.24 


Surrey "wax ; not quite pare. 


5 


13.56 


88.16 


101. 72 


Lincolnshire wax. 


6 


14.64 


87.10 


101.74 


Buckingham. 


7 


15.71 


89.02 


104. 73 


Do. 


8 


15.02 


88.83 


103 85 


Hertfordshire. 


9 


14.96 


89.87 


104.83 


New Forest. 


10 


15.49 


92.08 


107. 57 


Lincoln ; made from comb containing foundation. 



The following samples were obtained from deal' 


No. 


Cerotic 
acid. 


Myricin. Sum. 


umple. 


11 
12 
13 
14 
15 
16 
17 
18 


Per cent. 
14.64 
15.11 
13.12 
15.91 
12.15 
13.76 
13.49 
14.28 


Per ■ 

87. 49 ' 102. 13 
89. 05 104. 16 
88.66 101.78 
87.21 103.12 
89.58 101.73 
87.70 101.46 
87.76 101.25 
86.73 I 101.01 





The eighteen samples, the results of which ar.- given above, are all English. 
The following an- foreign waxes, obtained direct from the importers: 



No. 


ratio 

acid. 


Kyi loin. 


Sum. 


l ».■-. ripttoa "i maple. 






/'. i 


Per 








19 


15.16 




108.28 


United Slat. •> brown ■ ai 




21 


13. 56 




101..87 






22 


18.04 




101.32 


Mauiitiu> brOWII 




23 


12.17 




lo7. B5 


Mauritius <Iai k l>i<iu n 




24 


13.72 


if, M 


108.73 


„„ 




25 


13. 74 




- 


riiiM. 




26 


13.44 




1<»6. 11 


Maui itiu-. . Ugbi !n..\v n 




27 


13. 4'J 






Jamaica . liri-lit yellow. 




28 


14.30 


85.78 


100. 08 


1>(.. 




29 


13.44 




10J.44 


dora. 




30 




102. 44 




Do. 




31 




117..-C, 




Mogadon \ • i \ raft, acrid ami bot 




S3 


16.56 




- 


Gambia . dai k bron a. 




33 


13.02 




108. 10 


btelboarnc . ^r.i\ wax. 




34 


13. IK 


K7. 47 




Mi Iboornc pak fallon 




35 


13.06 


M 7:» 


108. 78 


S\.hn J _'i.i\ .*..i\. 




36 






101.7S 


S\dm > . pata \- Boa 





84G POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

The foregoing results maybe conveniently examined in two divisions: samples 
1 to 18 comprising samples from various English sources, and 19 to :5f>, exotic produc- 
tions. 

Excluding sample No. 4, fused from the comb, on account of the sample having been 
palpably impure with suspended matters which could not be separated, the size of 
sample being too small ; and sample 10 as having beeu made from comb containing 
foundation, it is at once seen that the figures fluctuated only between narrow limits. 
Only one of the samples contained Less than 13 per cent of free acid calculated as 
cerotic, 4 between 13 and 14,7 between 14 and 15, and A between 15 and 16, the 
average amount being 14.40 per cent. The saponi liable matter, calculated as inyri- 
oin, was in one case less than 86, in one between 86 and 87, in 6 between 87 and 88, 
in 4 between 88 and 89, and in 4 between 89 and 89.6, the average being 88.09 per 
cent. In all cases is the sum of myricin plus cerotic acid somewhat higher than 
100, it reaching on the average 102.49. While these figures prove conclusively that 
English beeswax consists almost completely of cerotic acid and myricin, they also 
corroborate the existence of a substance of low molecular weight in wax in small 
quantity. It is probably cerolein. It was thought possible that during the pro- 
longed boiling of the alcoholic potash solution, some of the alkali might be neutral- 
ized by the silica of the glass, the quantity destroyed of course counting in the 
analysis as myricin, and thus bringing the total above 100. But this is not the case, 
for in a blank experiment not the slightest diminution of strength could be observed 
alter 50 CO of alcoholic potash had been kept briskly boiling for one hour. It must 
be considered as established by these results that the composition of wax is remark- 
able for its constancy. In English wax the ratio of cerotic acid to myricin is 1 : 
6.117. In the foreign samples the fluctuations are much more extensive, but due 
allowance should be made for the fact that they were derived from a great variety 
of different insects, yet the discrepancies are more likely due to the men who collected 
and put the samples into marketable form, than to the insects that produced them. 
For this belief testifies the fact that while some of the samples of Mogador and Mau- 
ritius wax corresponded closely to the English samples, others showed a great increase 
in the saponifiable matters calculated as myrioine. The soft, smeary Mogadon's were 
obviously mixed with some fat; some of the Mauritius specimens appeared burnt 
in process of melting out of the comb. And lastly, it is not a little significant that 
the price of the normal samples is considerably above that of the specimens which 
gave excessive totals. 

SUBSTANCES USED POB ADULTERATING. 

These may be grouped in three classes : (l)acid substances; (8) neutral but sapon- 
ifiable substances ; and (3) matters indifferent bo potash. 

The first class embraces the solid fatty acids, mainly palmitic and stearic, and the 
acids which constitute resin, particularly sylvie acid. The second class is made of 
neutral solid glycerides viz, stearin and palmitin — of Japan wax, spermaceti, and 
carnauba wax. The onlj representative of the third division for all practical pur- 
ls paraffin. Solid alcohols of high molecular weight, suoh as cetylic or myrieylio, 

also belong to t his class, but being unmarketable t hey need not be taken into ac- 
count. 

Both compounds constituting the wax possess s higher equivalent weight than any 

other substances belonging to the fattj series occurring in nature, excepting a fatty 

acid recently discovered bj Mr. Kingzetl in cacao batter. 

A Substance Of the ftrsl OlaSS, Baj Btearioaoid, would inordinately increase the ap- 
parent per cent of eerotio acid ii per sent of stearic aoid po s s e sses the centralising 
power of 1.443 per cent of eerotio) and depress the myricin. One pari of palmitic 
acid corresponds to 1.601 of eerotio and l pari of resin t<> 1.246. The two fatty adds, 
stearic and palmitio, never being found alone, bill always mixed and in variable ratio, 
an average between the two in approximating to the per cent of added fatty acids, 
vi/, l ,61 B, - honld be tak< d 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 847 

By addition of a body belonging to the second class, saponinable substances, the 
apparent amouut of myricin is increased and that of cerotic acid decreased. Aver- 
aging the molecular weights of tri-palmitin and tri-stearin, one part of added fat- 
will correspond to '2.391 parts of myricin. Japau wax is stated to consist entirely of 
palmitin. A pure sample gave free acid corresponding to 6.21 per cent palmitic acid 
and a saponification number corresponding to 94.12 per cent palmitin, total 100.33. 
Another somewhat yellow sample gave figures representing 11.93 and 91.33, and a total 
of 103. 31 per cent. An addition of Japan wax to fat would therefore amount to addition 
of both free fatty acid and fat. and in consequence to an apparent increase in both 
myricin and cerotic acid. Spermaceti is too high priced to be used in adulterating 
wax, but, on the other hand, wax is often added in making sperm caudles. Sevan! 
samples tried were found to be free from free acid. They gave saponification num- 
bers corresponding on the average to 109.68 per cent of cetyl palmitate. Carnauba 
wax has been little studied. One specimen was examined which showed an acidity 
equal to 6.09 per cent of cerotic acid and a saponification number corresponding to 
92.58 per cent myricin, total 98.67. With alcoholic potash, therefore, carnauba wax 
closely corresponds to beeswax. Its physical properties are, however, so different 
and remarkable that it could hardly be largely used as an adulterant, except possi- 
bly in hardening and giving consistence to wax containing fats. The foregoing sub- 
stances saponify with different degrees of rapidity. Fat, including Japan wax, breaks 
up very readily ; next comes spermaceti ; carnauba wax much more slowly, its melt- 
ing point being higher than the boiling point of alcohol. Ordinary wax is the most 
tenacious of all. 

Of the third class, represented by paraffin, little need be said. An addition of 
paraffin decreases both the myricin and cerotic acid, their proportions not being 
altered. A mixture of wax and paraffin, containing nothing else, offers no difficulty 
in estimating, as the paraffin may be taken to represent the number left after deduct- 
ing the sum of myricin and cerotic acid from 100. Its presence can hardly be over- 
looked in saponification, paraffin being but little soluble in alcohol. It adhere* t<» 
the sides of the llask in a characteristic way. The specific gravity would also be 
lower than that of pure wax. But it is quite easy to imagine a mixture of fatty 
acids, fat and paraffin quite devoid of wax, yet giving analytical results identical 
with those of wax. A mixture of 9.48 percent fatty acids, 36.84 per cent of fat, and 
53.68 percent of paraffin would show on analysis 14. 1U per cent of cerotic acid and 
88.09 of myricin. 

Paraffin may be estimated directly by heating a weighed quantity of the wax with 
from five to ten times its volume of sulphuric acid to about 190 . Volumes of sulphur 
dioxide are given off, t lie fluid frothing and rising considerably. After about ken 
minutes heating 'the mass becomes almost solid, it is allowed t<> cool, the acid 
washed out with water, and the residue exhausted with ether. The paraffin thus 
obtained is re-treated with a little sulphuric acid to destroy part ides of \\ a\ escaping 
the first treatment, again washed, and extracted. 

Having obtained the per cent of pa ratlin in an y mixture, the other ingredients may 
be obtained by the use of the following formula): Let A be the percent in the p 
fin-free mixture of free acid calculated as cerotic, and H the per cent of saponi liable 

matter calculated as myricin : let X DC the unknown per Cent of cerotic acid. V that 

of fatty aciu, Z that of myricin, and w that of fat, in a mixture containing fit t > 
acid, fat, and wax. either separately or all together. Now. 

1. x + 1.518 I A. whence 1 x X 

li- 

a. Z = 6.117 X s 

l. X + V + Z + W 100 



848 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

By substituting the values of X, Z, Y, and W iu equation 4, are obtained the equa- 
tions : 

X = 362 > 954 ~ 2 - 391 A — 1.513 B 
" 14.151 

X = 25.694 — (0.1689 A + 0.1703 B) 

In this way is obtained the per cent of cerotic acid. This multiplied by 6.117 
gives the myricin, the snm of both being the per cent of wax in the mixture. De- 
ducting the real cerotic acid from A, and dividing the residue by 1.518, gives the per 
cent of fatty acids. The real myricine deducted from B, and the result divided by 
2.391, gives the true per cent of fat. Thus are found the per cent of the paraffin- 
free mixture. An artificial mixture of 80 per cent wax and 20 per cent lard, gave, 
wax, 80.42 per cent (cerotic acid, 11.30 per cent, myricine, 69. 12), and fat, 19.58 (fatty 
acid, 0.46, and fat, 19.07). 

One of the samples of comb foundation alluded to gave 8.35 per cent of cerotic 
acid and 35.67 of myricin. It contained much paraffin. Assuming the absence of 
fat, the composition of the samples calculates : Cerotic acid, 5.83 per cent ; myricin, 
35.67 (together equaling 41.50 per cent) ; fatty acid, 1.66 per cent, and paraffin, 56.84. 
Another foundation gave cerotic acid, 11.99; myricin, 73.36 (together, 85.35 per ceut 
wax) ; fatty acid, 4.31 per cent ; paraffin, 10.34 per cent. The paraffin of commerce 
generally contains a small proportion of fatty acid, added to diminish its transpa- 
rency, whence probably the slight proportion found above. A paraffin candle con- 
tained 12.4 per cent of fatty acids. 

A light yellow sample of wax, warranted genuine by the vendor, gave 10.47 per 
cent of cerotic acid, and 69.30 per cent myricin. From this it follows that the sam- 
ple consists of wax 79.77 per cent and paraffin 30.23. Another sample obtained by 
purchase gave wax 70.60 per cent, fatty acid 5.42 per cent, and tat 24.38. It was 
free from paraffin. 

In conclusion, Hehner warns analysts against adopting his figures in working on 
bleached wax. In a discussion of the paper before the Society of Public Analysts, 
the president, Mr. Wigner, stated that many of the oomba received from America 
were entirely artificial. Dr. Muter said that paraffin was practically the only adul- 
terant used in wax. 

About a half a year later than Hehner. but apparently independently, Stibl* pub- 
lished a wax method based on a similar principle. Be heated 3 or 1 grains of the 
substance with abont 20 co. central, 95 per cent alcohol, titrated hot with seminor- 

m a 1 potash and phenol pht a lei n to estimate free aoid, added 20 OC more of potash and 

saponified by gentle boiling for about Fortj five minutes on the water hath without 

the use of mercury pressure. BXCCSS Of alkali was titrated with seminornial hydro- 
chloric aoid. Hiild called the number of milligrams of potash required to saturate 
the free acid of l gram of wai the "aoid Dumber," that required to decompose the 
wax ethers the "ether cumber." According to his experiments, which were not 
numerous, the potash required t«> neut ralize the free acids of] gram of was is equiv- 
alent to 19 to 21 milligrams ; thai for the ethers, 7:; to 76. The relation of the acid to 
the ether numbers varied between 1.36 and 1.38. For the complete saponification 
Iliibl took het ween ( .»\? ami l»7 milligrams of potash. 



■ Dingl. polyt. Jour., 249 338. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 
Trials with wax substitutes gave — 



819 





Acid Xo. 


Ether Xo. 


Saponifi- 
cation No. 


Japan wax 1 

Camauba 

Tallow 2 


20 

4 

4 

l'J5 


200 

75 

176 




220 
79 
180 
195 
112 

95 




110 1 fi 


Ceresin 



20 



75 







1 Acid number varied from 15 to 24. 

2 Acid number varied from 2 to 7. 

E. Dieterich's investigations* confirm Hiibl's statement of the applicability of the 
method. In filtered wax he found the specific'gravity never below 0.962 and never 
over 0.966. Uufiltered wax (130 samples) gave figures between 0.963 and 0.967. 

EXAMINATION OF WAX. t 

For the examination of beeswax the method of Hiibl, which is an evolution of 
Keettstorfer's method for examination of batter, is recognized as the most convenient 

and the best. 

From numerous experiments the acid number for pure yellow beeswax is found to 
lie between 19 and 21, and the ether number between ?:? and ?»'>, and the saponifica- 
tion equivalent between 92 and 97, and the ratio of the acid number aud the ether 
number is found to be 1 to 3.7. Lately, Buchner f has published a paper in which the 
numbers given above do not seem to agree with those obtained for white, chemically 
bleached wax. Buchner examined yellow and. as he says, undoubtedly pure white 
wax bleached either in the sunlight or by chemical means. As the result of his re- 
searches, he concludes that the chemically bleached wax Bhows a higher acid num- 
ber, viz, 23. 01, aud a higher saponification equivalent, There, however, may 
be some doubt about the wax examined by Buchner being perfectly pore. In the Bel- 
feuberger laboratory some researches were undertaken to determine this point. Two 
kinds of yellow wax were taken, and they were decolorized, the one with bone black 
aud the other with permanganate of potash. 

Results of this examination are as folio 





-r.ivit\ 


Acid N<>. 


Ether 


infla- 
tion equiv- 
alent. 








19 fi 


74.0 
74.1 


M. l 

90. 






Ml i 

18. 1 


;j. 68 


No. 1 decolorized with pflnnangatiftta oi | 


4.00 




. MS 


M. 1 








18 1 




3.77 


No. 2 decolorized with permai 


.964 


l'.t. 1 













Accordiug to these numbers the specific gravity of the bleached wax is not fa 

as Allen affirms it is, but in t lner ■ i ies at least 1 1 iras lower, it likewise appears t bat 
she acid, ether, and saponification numbers are not raised in the bleached wax. but 

*Geeohaftsber. der Papier nnd (diem. Fabrik in Relfenberg, L884 
t Dr. H. Bottger, Chem. Zeit., 1889, L3T5. 
tChem. Zeit., 1888, p. 1276, 



851 » 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTEKAMS. 



the same are found within the limits for pure yellow wax. Recently, Helfeuberger, 
in the examination of numerous samples of wax tested also chemically bleached was 
which bleaching took place by means of sulphurous acid. In this sample of wax the 
specific gravity was 0.966, the acid number 20.2, the ether number 76.7, the saponifi- 
cation number 96.9, and the ratio 3.79. Two samples designated as "pure wax! 
wire purchased in open market and on analysis they yielded the following numbers, 
showing that they were highly adulterated. 





I. 


II. 




29.7 

87.5 

117.2 

2.9 


31.46 

67.66 

99.10 

2.14 




Saponification number 

Ratio 





AXALYSIS«OK WHITE hKESWAX/ 

I stated two years ago that bleached beeswax would show occasionally higher acid 
and saponification numbers than have been accepted for white wax. alike whether 
bleaching had been done chemically or in the natural way. I made the statement in 
order to warn chemists against hastily concluding that because a wax gave these 
figures somewhat high that it was necessarily adulterated, inasmuch as I had 
obtained similar figures in analyzing undoubtedly pure wax. I did not intend to 
convey the idea that a bleached wax must necessarily show higher numbers, but that 
this was occasionally the case. My views were not corroborated by some investiga- 
tions published in the Helfeuberger Annaleu (1883), and Dr. Rottger obtained num- 
bers from chemically bleached wax not agreeing with mine, whence Dr. Rottger 
doubted my having worked with pure wax. I have not since had occasion to pursue 
this investigation farther, but I have recently read a very interesting article, t by 
A. & P. Buisine, confirming my statements, as they also found higher numbers in 
bleached wax. 

To repeat, analytical chemists should not condemn a white wax showing up to 20 
or 30 acid number and as high as 100 saponification number on that account. All 
samples of bleached wax do not necessarily show these high numbers, but this is of 
frequent occurrence. 

WHITE WAX. \ 

In a paper read before the Versammlung bayerischer Vertreter der angewandten 
Chemie, R. Kayser stated that from the results of numerous investigations he had 
oome to tin- conclusion thai tin- bleaching of wax by the various processes made no 
material difference in its composition. The add number varies only between 19.1 and 

90, 1, t In- tt her mi in Iter between 74 and ?('»..">, t he ratio between :'>.<>1 and 3.81. He con- 
firmed the results arrived ;»t by Rottger. $ The detection of the commoner adulters* 

tions ol white wax with Japan wax, paraffin, ceivsin, tallow, stearic acid, etc., 

i> and oertainly arrived si bj this method. Ifedioas states that wax coming 
from southern countries was very frequently adulterated with vegetable wax. Rott- 
ger remarks thai Latelj v.tv Little pure wai was to be had. Borgmann ascribes this 
to the f;n t th.it among bee-keepers the use "i artificial oomb was becoming general. 



» Q. Bachner, Chem. Zeit., 1888, 12, 1276; ibid., 1890,101,1707. 

rChem. Zeit., 1800, 1 1, 319. 

: i,\ Kayser, Chem. Zeit., i-'.»". 43, I 

J Chem. Zeit., 1889, L3. L375, 



SUGAK, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 851 

COMPOSITION OF BEESWAX.* 

Beeswax is formed chiefly of two immediate principles, which can be separated, 
owing to the difference of their solubility in alcohol into cerin and myricin. Bro- 
die, in his classic work on the constitution of beeswax, has shown that ceriu, the 
parts of beeswax soluble in hot alcohol, is formed essentially of a high fatty acid, 
viz, cerotic, and that the insoluble part, myricin is the palmitic ether of melissic 
alcohol. 

Nafzger and Schwalb have shown that the wax contaius small quantities of acids 
related to cerotic, such as melissic acid, as well as some nousaturated acids of the 
oleic series, and of alcohols related to cerylic alcohol, such as melissic alcohol, etc., 
and also some saturated hydrocarbons, such as heptacosane (C^ 7 H50) and hentriacon- 
tane (C 3 j H^). 

Hiibl, Becker,' and Hehnerhave pointed out methods of estimating the free acids 
and combined acids in wax. They have thus established two particular numbers for 
wax, which, according to them, characterize it. 

MM. Buisinehave sought many methods for determining the other classes of bodies 
in wax, notably the nonsaturated acids of the oleic series, the fatty alcohols, and the 
hydrocarbons. They did not seek to find methods of determining each one of these 
bodies separately, which would have been a very difficult thing, and of very little 
practical value; but only for reactions, which would permit each class of bodies to 
be estimated as a whole and by simple processes, based upon reactions easy to pro- 
duce, and which could be applied to the practical examination of the wax of com- 
merce. The methods are as follows: 

Determination of free adds. — HUM was the first who indicated a practical process 
for the estimation of free acids in wax, and of fatty bodies in general. It consists 
in treating the bodies in solution in alcohol by a standard solution of soda, with 
pheuolphtalein as indicator. It is found that I gram of wax requires from 19 to 21 
milligrams of potash to saturate the free acids which it contains. This number cor- 
responds to a content of from 13.22 to 15.71 percent, of cerotic acid. The authors 
applied this process to numerous samples of pure French beeswax, and found a vari- 
ation of from 13.5 to l.">.r> per cent in cerotic acid. 

Estimation of all t)ie acids and of the combined acids of wax. — Becker has Known that 
the potash required for the complete neutralization of the acids contained in 1 gram 
of yellow wax is from 97 to 107 milligrams. 

Hiibl, operating in the same manner as Becker upon wax prepared in the labora- 
tory and perfectly washed, has found somewhat smaller numbers, viz, 92 to i>7 milli- 
grams of potash for 1 gram of wax. It is believed thai this difference is due to the 
fact that Becker worked upon wax imperfectly washed and retaining traces of honey. 
If from the above onmber be subtracted the number representing the free acids (19 to 

21 milligrams of potash ) the number found for the combined acids varies from Til to 
7l> milligrams of potash for 1 gram of wax. 

Hiibl takes the proportion of the two numbers thus found and shows thai the pro- 
portion should be 1 : '•'>.<• and 1 

Qehner translates the results of the titration of the free acids into cerotic acid and 
the quantity of combined acids into palmitate of myrioj le. Wa\ of English origin 
examined by Qehner, contained from L3.12 to l-V.'l per cent of cerotn- acid and from 

BGt.95 to 92.08 per cent of palmitate of myricyle. The aothon ha\ e made this deter- 
mination up.m a certain number of samples of yellow French wax, and the results 

obtained am given in the following table : 

• MM. A. a P. Bnisine, Bnll. de Is Boo. Chim. de Tans, r. ;,. 1- 



852 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Free and combined acids of yellow wax. 



Free acids. 


Total acids 

in milli- 
grams for 1 
gram of 
wax. 


Combined acids. 


Ratio of 

free and 

combined 

acids. 


Milligrams 

KHO for 

1 gram of 

wax. 


Per cent of 

cerotic 

acid in the 

wax. 


Milligrams 

KHO for 

1 gram of 

wax. 


Per cent 
myricin 
in wax. 


Per cent 

palmitic 

acid in wax. 


19 
21 


13.50 
15.50 


91 
97 


72 
76 


86.76 
91.58 


32.85 
34.67 


3.5 
3.8 



These results agreed with those of Hiibl aud Hehner, but the means obtained by the 
French chemist are somewhat lower than those obtained by the other authors. They 
found some few samples indicating a total acid content corresponding to 91 to 92 mil- 
ligrams of potash for 1 gram of wax, although the lowest limit given by them is 92. 
On the other side they did not find a quantity of fatty acids corresponding to a num- 
ber above 94.7 milligrams of potash for 1 gram of wax. The greater part of the 
samples examined by them contained a quantity of fatty acids corresponding to 92 to 
95 potash for 1 gram of wax. The ratio of the two u umbers representing the free and 
combined acids was also found somewhat lower than that indicated by Hiibl. The 
wax which is the least rich in fatty acids is always found to be that which is the 
most colored, and in proportion as the color of the wax grows faint it is noticed that 
the content of fatty acids increases. 

Estimation of non saturated acids of the oleic series. — The method of Hiibl for the ab- 
sorption of iodine was applied for this determination. It must not be supposed, 
however, that the acids of the oleic series present are the only compounds in wax which 
are capable of absorbing iodine. The authors have shown that the hydrocarbons of wax 
contain a certain number of bodies nousaturated which are capable of fixing iodine. 
However this may be, it must be allowed that by a treatment with iodine a new 
number is obtained for beeswax, which is of considerable value for analytical pur- 
poses. From 1 to 2 gram of wax are taken for each determination, and the method is 
the same as that ordinarily used. The French yellow waxes are capable of absorbing 
from 8.2 to 11 per cent of iodine ; that is to say, they contain from 9 to 12 per eeut of 
nonsaturated acids calculated as oleic acid. The difference in the amount of iodine 
absorbed by the different samples examined did not exceed 3 per cent. 

Determination of the alcohols. — The alcohols belong to the same series and possess 
consequently the same chemical properties. The authors determined them t n bloc by 
submitting them to a reaction which is common to them and which ie easily 
measured. This is the important reaction of fatty alcohols described by Dumas and 
Stat, viz, the reaction which they give when heated to a moderate temperature with 
hydrate of potash. Under these conditions these alcohols are transformed into the 
corresponding acids and at the same time they disengage hydrogen. The other 
principles of wax, viz, the fatty acids, oleic acids, hydrocarbons, etc., are not changed 
in the above operation, and by measuring the volume <>t" hydrogen set free the pro- 
portion of alcohol contained in the wax can he approximately determined. The 
operation is carried on as follows: 

Prom 2 to 10 grams of the wax are melted in a porcelain capsule and mixed with 
an eqnal weight of caustic potash finely pulverised. The mass is afterward treated 

with three or four timet its weigh( of potash, pulverized. The mixture is introduced 
into a small flash or into a test tube, which is heated on a mercury hath to 250 for 
two hours. Thereaotion begins at ahout 180 , ami alter two hours of heating at 250° 
tin- evolution of hydrogen is completed. The gas is received in an apparatus invented 

by M. Dnpre. The evolution tube, fixed by a stopper in the aeofc of the tlask, con- 
ducts the gas to the upper part of the receiving fiask, and another tube joined to this 

conducts the gas to the Inferior tubulure in the same way. These two tubes are each 

furnished with a stopcock. 1'hc apparatus being thus disposed, ami containing air 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AXD HONEY. OOO 

at atmospheric pressure, the two stopcocks are closed and the receiving flask is filled 
with water. The stopcock is then opened which connects the flask with the interior 
tubulure of the receiving flask and heatiug takes place. The gas is collected in the 
superior part of this flask. When the evolution of hydrogen stops the heating of the 
flask ceases, and it is left to cool by opening the cock by which the flask communi- 
cates with the upper part of the vessel and by closing the other. When the tempera- 
ture has reached that at which the operation was commenced, the stopcock is closed 
and the gas evolved is driven out into a graduated tube, its volume and temperature 
noted, and likewise the barometric pressure. One lias thus exactly the volume 
disengaged in the reactiou and it is not necessary to take count of the air remaining in 
the apparatus, its volume being the same as before the operation. The volume of 
hydrogen, calculated to zero at a pressure of 760 millimeters, is then calculated for 1 
gram of wax. Afterward the result is calculated into teruis of melissic alcohol by 
means of the equation, C/<H ; /i +: 0-f KOH=4II+KC'hH : » — tO_>. Tbe proportion of 
the melissic alcohol first found is then calculated to the amount of palmitic 
previously determined. The following table indicates between what limits the re- 
mits vary : 



Volume,, l.y p Ratio of the 

fiJJSK'i bolinth* hoi to the 

'^n w s ~ palmitic acid. 



53.5 to 57.5 



. 5G 5 






In the palmitate of myricyle, the proportion of melissic alcohol to palmitic acid is 
1.71. 

Determination of hydrocarbons. — This determination is made very easily and very 
rapidly upon the product of the action of the potash andjofthe potash lime upon the 
wax: that is to say, upon the residue from the preceding operation. In this onera- 
tion, indeed, all of the acids of the wax and the alcohols themselves are transformed 
into acids and are fixed in the state of alkaline salt*. The hydrocarbons of the wax 
■lone remain free. To remove them, it is sufficient to treat the resulting mass from 
the above reaction by an appropriate solvent — ordinary ether or rectified petroleum 
ether of a low boiling point. There i^ found m wax an altnos! constant quantity of 
hydrocarbons. The different samples examined contained from 12.72 t" I3.7d per 
cent. These numbers are in all cases very much above those indicated by Schwalb; 
according to him, wax contains only about 5 to 6 per cent of hydrocarbons : neverthe- 
less the hydrocarbons thus isolated are pure. They present themselves nnder the 
form of a waw mass, scarcely colored, fusible at 19 .5; they are soluble in ether and 
petroleum spirit, benzine, chloroform, etc. These solutions are neutral and allow the 
product to be deposited in the form of a crystalline mass. Treated by potash lime, 
they evolve onl> a trace of hydrogen, which indicates the complete absent I 
holie products. The hydrocarbons of was are not wholly formed from saturated 
hydrocarbons as Schwalb has said. Those examined by the authors were capable of 
absorbing bromine and iodine; 100 parts of the hydrocarbon in ■ solution of chloro- 
form were capable of absorbing 22.05 parts of iodine. 

| '// CDIH III - 

Pure beeswax, melting point. 63 to M j entirely soluble in hot chloroform. 

AtMU "/" tin ii<ir. 

Free acids correspond to from 19 to 21 milligrams potash fiw l gram of wax, or to 
i:?.."> to 15.5 per cent oerot ic acid. 
Total aeids correspond to from '.M to 97 milligrams potash i<u l gram "t m 
L8808— No. 13 L5 



854 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



Combined acids correspond to 71 to 72 milligrams potash for 1 gram of wax. equiva- 
lent to 32.85 to 34.67 per cent palmitic acid in the wax. Ratio between the free and 
combined acids, 3.5 to 3.8. Percentage of iodine absorbed by wax, 8.3 to 11 ; corre- 
sponding to oleic acid, [) to 12 per cent. 

Alcohols of wax. 

Hydrogen evolved for 1 gram of wax, under the influence of potash, 53.5 to 57.5 
cc; corresponding to per cent of melissic alcohol, 52.5 to 56.5; ratio of melissic alco- 
hol to palmitic acid, 1.58 to 1.65. 

Hydrocarbons of wax. 

Per cent, 12.5 to 14. Melting point, 4 ( J- .5. Percentage iodine absorbed by the hydro- 
carbons, 2'2.05. 

MM. A. and P. Buisine* state further that besides these two processes (Hehner and 
Hiibl.)they are in the habit of using three others. They take the iodine number and 
determine the alcohols and hydrocarbons. The results it is true vary within certain 
limits, but, on the whole, these methods permit the detection of fraud, both quali- 
tatively and quantitatively, provided the numbers corresponding to the various 
adulterants are once determined. 

With this end in view they have studied the substauces ofteuest employed in adul- 
teration, using a method already described, for yellowt and whitef wax. Having 
found a series of numbers peculiar to these bodies and representing quantitatively 
their composition, we determined their variance from those given by pure wax and 
the degree in which they modify the results when added to it. The following table 
shows the results : 



Japan wax 

China irax. 

. i. 1*1*- wax — 

Camanbo wax 

Mineral wax 

Paraffin 

Snint wax 

Waxy acidaof anlnl 
Tallow 

Stearic, aoid 

K- -in 

wiImu beetwai 
White bi es* ax ... 



Melting 
point. 



1 , i i . 'i l 

53. 5 

17 t of, I 

83 to 84 
CO to 80 
38 to 74 
62 to 60 
50 to 62 
12 to SO. 5 
53.5 
53.5 

02 to 64 
08 to 64 



Mg. of KHO for 1 gram of sub- 
stance. 



Acids 

soluble 

in 

water. 



2 
2 








to l 
o to 2 



Free acids. 



18 to 28 

22 

17 to 19 

4 to G 





95 to 115 

155 to 185 

2. 75 to 5 

201 

1 69 

19 to 21 

20 to 28 



Total acids. 



216 to 223 

218 

218 to 220 

79 to 82 





102 to mi 

159 to 189 

196 to 213 

209 

ITS 

91 to 97 



Volume of tt„j„„„„„ 
Iodine fixed H at 0° and "> dr, f ! c f 
760 mm. l>»ns fiora 



bv 1 gram 
of the wax. 



to 7. 55 
C.85 
to 8,1 

to 9 
to 0.6 
to 3.1 
to 18. 5 
to 2.8 
to 40 

4 
135.6 
to 11 
tO 7 



{iivcn by 
1 gram wax. 



Oc. 
69 to 71 

72.3 
73 to" 74 
73 to 70 





52 to 60 


35 

53 to 57. 6 
53 tO 57 



l gram 
of the wax. 






1.6 
100 
100 
to 18 




12. 5 to 14. 5 
11 to 13. 5 



14 



Comparing these o ambers Lo those given by pare wax. it Is apparent that the in- 
troduction "i" any foreign body modifies more <»r less the results, andainoe different 
waxes give \ arying figures I li«' nature of the impurity can be detected. 

(1) The melting point of beeswax is lowered by the addition of Japan or China 
wax, bj certain kinds of paraffin, bj stearic aoid and 'allow. On the contrary, it 



•Bull. Boo. Chim., L891, 3d ser., i. 5, p. 864. 
t Bull. Boc. Chim., 3d Ur. t t.;{, i>. 867. 
! Bull. Boo, Chim., 3d ser., t. 4, i». lt>0. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 855 

is raised by carnauba wax and certain mineral waxes. Again, tbe addition of some 
mineral waxes, of suint wax, and of various mixtures does not change the melting 
point. 

(2) The addition of mineral waxes, paraffin, tallow, and carnauba wax diminish 
the free acids, which, on the other hand, increase with the addition of suint wax, 
suint acids, resin, and stearic acid. With China and Japan wax they do not pass 
the prescribed limits. 

(3) The entire quantity of acids is diminished by mineral wax, paraffin, and some- 
what by carnauba wax. They increase slightly with suint wax, and in a greater de- 
glee with the waxy acids of suint, with resin, tallow, stearic acid, and vegetable 
waxes. 

VON hlbl's method for examining WAX*. 

v. HUbl's method possesses many advantages, but is attended with the disadvantage 
that many kinds of wax saponify with difficulty. Half an hour's boiling under the 
inverted condenser seldom suffices, and it is generally necessary to heat the sample 
in an open flask on the water bath until the alcohol is nearly completely expelled. 
Waxes containing ceresin almost invariably give saponification numbers much too low. 
The method gives good results only after long practice. Indeed the commercial 
chemists using it have often adjudged waxes as adulterated which more carefully 
examined have been found genuine. For this reason we propose the following altera- 
tions in it : First, determine the acid number in the usual way with aqueous semi- 
normal potash. It seems, however, desirable to take 7 to 10 grams, requiring 5 to 7 
cc seminormal potash ; for with only 3 or 4 grams, the quantity prescribed by v. Iliibl, 
errors in titration have too great an influence. 

Instead of determining the " saponification number," we estimate the " total acid 
number,"' or, in other words, the amount of potash (calculated as tenths per cents) re- 
quired by 1 gram of a mixture of fat acids and alcohols obtained by first saponifying 
a wax with potash and then decomposing the soap with hydrochloric acid. We call 
this mixture " opened wax" ("aofgeschlossenes Wach*» w ). Tin* detailed procedure 
is : Dissolve about 20 grams potash in a hemispherical porcelain dish of 350 to 500 re. 
capacity, in 15 cc. of water, heat oyer a Bunsen burner to incipient boiling, add 20 
grams of the wax sample, which shonld have been fused over a water bath, and stir. 
Continue heating over a low flame, stirring constantly, for ten minutes. Dilute with 
200 cc. water, beat and acidify with 40 ^<\ hydrochloric acid, previously diluted 
slightly. Boil till the floating layer is completely clear; cool and purify the cake by 
thrice boiling with water, adding a little hydrochloric acid the first time. Finally 
lift the cake, wipe with filter paper, dry in the air bath and filter. The filtered wax 
while still fused is to be poured into a cover glass and after cooling broken in frag- 
ments. Six to 8 grams of this "opened wax" sre heated with neutral alcohol and 
titrated, using pheuolphtalein as ;ui indicator. The saponification, even with sam- 
ples containing much eeresin, is complete. Tbe "total acid number " is somewhat 
lower than v. Httbl's "saponification number." Calling the Mid number *. the total 

acid number 8 and the ether number u, a -f a represents the saponification number 
of Iliibl, and : 

56100 8 

56100 l-\ 



(1). 



„ 56100 (o + s). ,. t) 

56150 + 1- a. ' ' ^ } ' 



K. Benedikl n. K. Mangold, Chem. Zeit, 1891, 28, H I 



856 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTER AM s. 






For the average acid number (s=20) for example the saponification number (a -f- «) 
and the total acid number (S) have the following values: 



« 


a + i 


S 


S 


a 


a + s 


69 


39 


87.07 


87 


68.91 


88.91 


70 


00 


88.02 


88 


69.96 


89.96 


71 


91 


88.97 


89 


71.02 


91. OS 


72 


92 


89.92 


90 


72.08 


92.08 


73 


93 


90.87 


91 


73.14 


93.14 


74 


94 


91.82 


92 


74.19 


94.19 


75 


95 


92.77 


93 


75.25 


95.25 


76 


96 


93.72 


94 


76.30 


96.30 


77 


97 


94.67 


95 


77.36 


97.36 


78 


98 


95.61 


96 


78.41 


98.41 



If the proportions are not taken from the ether and acid numbers (v. Hiibl), but 
from the acid and total acid numbers, a value is obtained for v. Hiibl's normal wax, 
and the saponification number 95, of £ — s : s = 72.77 : 20 = 3.04. 

Still these proportions are not as constant for pure wax as v. Hiibl assumes. Accord- 
ing to our own results a wax of 18 acid number and 90 saponification number ran not 
be pronounced adulterated. A large number of samples of yellow wax of different 
origins gave values between 88 and 93 for the total acid number. 

Determination of ceresin and paraffin in wax. — Calculating the wax content of a 
ceresin mixture from the total acid number S according to the formula 



W = 



100S 
92.8 



(3) 



in which 92.8 represents the average total acid number (corresponding to the saponi- 
fication number 95) a small error is encountered from the fact that the wax has laken 
up --J . : J : i parts of water in saponifying. Therefore it is more exact to calculate, 



H' = 



lUUirN 



92.72 



92.75 _ s ( I — w) 92.75 — 0.02285 



(4) 



r hence 



W= 100 : 102.33 = .D772. 



However, as the error at moxt amounts to only .7 per cent, it may be neglected, 

especial); when the saponification number of the wax contained in the mixture is 

unkiiow ii. 

The results of lour mixtures made from ceresin and was are given below in tabu- 
lar form : 



No 

l 


100 

-n 

N 

1(1 

•-•II 






10 
80 

Lid 


Total 

aoid ii ii in 

ber. 

93. 8 

74. :i 

87. l 

ia i 


W ;i\ Rooordiug to 
formula 


too 

88 i 

10.0 
10. 1 



» 

LOO 
70, 7 

in. l 




SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 857 

As the saponification numbers vary between 90 and 07, neither the original v Hiibl 
method nor this modification can certainly distinguish the addition of less than per 
cent of ceresin. This can, however, be done by the method of Boisine, which has 
been thoroughly tried by Mangold. 

Additions of resin or stearic acid can be distinguished by the increased acid num- 
ber. If R be the known average acid number of the adulterant, s the acid number 
of the sample, the amount of addition can be obtained from the known formula, 

g __ 100(* — 20 ) . . . (5) 
R — 20 

using for commercial stearic acid R =200, the per cent «f added stearic acid is 

K = 10j8-20) . . . (6) 

lb 

Determination of fats. — If s equals total acid number as obtained by titration, 
Sw the number 92.8 (taken as the average total acid number of purr wax), Sf, 
the total acid number of the fats, and further, if A parts of wax give 1 gram of 
" opened wax " and B parts of fat 1 gram of insoluble fatty acids, then approxi- 
mately, 



r _10ii (8— Sw) 



(<) 



or more exactly 



w== 100(Sf-S)a , , 

(Sf— 8) a + | 8 8u>) b 



For example, with tallow, £/ = 20r>, b = 1.05, and with wax Sic averaged 92.8 and 
A = .9772, in consequence of which in a mixture of tallow and wax the latter can be 
gotten from the equation, 



or more exactly 



w 1 00(3-92.8) fQ . 



103.20 -f .073 8 



The difference between the formula' 9 and in amounts at the maximum to ahoiit 2 
per cent. 

ANALYSIS OF BEXBW \\ ' 
An adulteration of beeswax with [689 than 6 pel COnl oi paraffin can be det< 

neither by Httbl's method not by the modification of \\ proposed by Benedikt ami 
myself, I for the reason that acid and ether numbers and their ratio \ ary w ithin wide 
limits even wit h yellow wa\ . The detection of small amounts of paraffin is only 
practicable by direct determinatibn of the amount of hydrocarbons present in the wax. 
A. and P, Boisine described some time since] a method foi this purpose which has 
appeared to me so important for the technical investigation of wax that I have sub- 
jected it to a cartful trial. C. Hell, $ and his pupils Storoke | and 8ehwalb,1 deter- 

* Karl Mangold, Chem. Zeit . 1-:»1. 46, 799. 

tChem. /.it., 1891, 15, 474, 

! Bull. Soe. chim., 1890, .'■ Sn. ::. 56? ; Chem. Zeit. Report, 1890, l I, 

$Lieb. Ann. chem., 1884,893; chem. Zeit., 1884,8, 

|Lieb. Ann. Chem., 1881,223,895; Chem. Zeit., L884, 3, 9 

f Lieb. Ann. Chem.. 1886, 835, 106. 



858 



FOODS AND FOOD ADULTER ANTS. 



mined the fatty alcohols aDd hydrocarbons in beeswax in an essentially similar way 
long before MM. Buisine, whose principal service consists in having amplified the 
apparatus and accurately studied the conditions of success. The principle of the 
method lies in the fact that fatty alcohols are converted into fatty acids on fusion 
with caustic potash, hydrogen being evolved. Saponified wax is heated with potash 
lime and the liberated hydrogen measured. The melt is pulverized, the hydrocar- 
bons extracted by solvents and weighed. 

I have estimated the hydrogen by this method on several samples and have gotten 
numbers somewhat lower than those of Buisine. As, however, the estimation of the 
hydrocarbons was of more interest to me, I did not follow the matter farther. 1 have 
however observed that the gas evolved does not reach a constant volume until after 
three hours' heating, instead of the two prescribed by Buisine. On the completion of 
the operation the 11 ask is taken from the apparatus, allowed to cool, broken, the sin- 
tered mass powdered and, with the fragments of the flask, placed in a Soxhlet ex- 
tractor, extracted for several hours with petroleum ether, the excess of ether distilled 
from the extract, and the latter dried at 110° and weighed. Unadulterated beeswax 
always contains hydrocarbons. Schwalb * claimed the amount of these to be about 
6 per cent. Buisiue found between 12.5 and 14, and the numbers which I have ob- 
tained, excepting for two samples (Nos. 15 and 21 in the following table), fall be- 
tween these. 

The numbers obtained are found in the following table: 



No. 



Kind of wax. 



Domestic wax 

do 

Dalmatian 

Hungarian 

Bosnian (Banjaluka).. 

Slavonian 

Krain 

Bosnian (Dolna-Tozla) 

Lower Btyria 

Lower Austria 

Ifosamb* sk 

ri.il,. 

Montr Cl IstO 

Morocco 

Bombay 

wear 

Baffl 

Oran 

;i 

•i 



Hydro- 
carbons. 


Acid 
No, 9. 


Total acid 
No. & 


S-8. 


Ratio !-.' 


13.61 


19.79 


92. 30 


75.51 


3.66 


18.75 


20.44 


91.09 


70.65 


3.46 


14.72 


20.42 


88.26 


67.84 


3.32 


14. r>i 


18.81 


90.80 


71.99 


3.83 


14.60 


23.04 


89.59 


66.55 


2.89 


14.27 


19.31 
20.95 








13. 70 


91.18 


70.23 


3.35 


13.64 


20.08 


89.70 


69.62 


3.46 


13.32 


20. 02 


89.39 


70.37 


3.45 


14.34 


18.26 


90.76 


72.50 


3.97 


13.72 


20.58 


88.41 


07. S3 


8 89 


13.37 


19.42 


91.20 


71.78 


:t. 7o 


13.35 


19.99 


90.00 


70.01 


3.50 


13. 60 


20.24 


87.69 


67.45 


:i. 88 


11.02 


21. CO 


98.68 


77. 02 




14.04 










11.77 


20.03 


92.88 


72. 85 


3. 64 


12.20 


19.92 


98. 10 


73. 48 


3.72 


11.65 


19. N 


99.90 


78 99 


4.02 


12.80 


21.11 


90 60 


69.49 


3.29 


11.40 




96.40 




8 62 



IT 



On inspection of the above it will be seen that, with exception of Nos, L5and91 

the hydrocarbons vary only between 12.6 and 1 t per cent. Taking these results as ■ 

standard, it follows thai this method permits determination of added hydrocarbons 

when in anion nt greater than - percent, Using the average figure, IJ.60, the amount 

resin added to :■ beeswax can be obtained according to the forarala 



C = 



L00 (K h) 



loo— K 

lack Ann. Chcm.. 1886, 235, 14i>. 



859 

in which K represents the amount of hydrocarbons found, k the amount natural to 
wax (13.50) and C the ceresin or paraffin. Using the average figure 1:5.50 the equa- 
tion becomes 

„ 100 #—1350 



DO. 5 

A specimen of wax from Siebenburgen gave an acid number of 16.66, and a total 
acid number of 72.68, being evidently adulterated with paraffin, Direct estimation 

of the hydrocarbons gave 28.12 per cent, which, calculated according To the second 
formula, is equivalent to an addition of 17 per cent of ceresin. 

Some samples of white wax were also tried. Two were purely white and showed 
normal numbers, being probably bleached in the natural ways. According to Kott- 
ger,* Valenta, t and Dieterich, X white wax. should not differ from yellow if the 
bleaching is not done chemically. The two samples gave the following number-, : 



Smyrna . 
Egyptian 



Hydrocar- 
bons. 



Acid 



10. 03 20. 87 

11.35 20.04 



Total arid 






8— s. , Ratio v. 



69.01 



3.28 
3.49 



1 Bull. Soc. Chim., 1F90, 3 hot., 46."> ; Cbem. Zeit. Seper^ 189 ', 14. 320. 

A. &. P. Bnisinety also found somewhat lower pel cents of hydrocarbons in white 
waxes than in the yellow. 
Two more white samples, probably chemically bleached and not perfectly pore, _ 







Sydx 

bona. 


Acid 


Total arid 
N.i. 8. 


S-$. 


Ratio r. 1 


1 




1361 
15.48 


24.68 






2 




102. :.4 


74. 49 


3.45 









! 



ANALYSIS OP A MIXTURE OF WW. P v RAI II V. STRARIX. \ S I > STEARIC A4 I 



(1) Determination of ttearie acid. — Introduce into a flask :> or i grains of the 
wax and GO oc of 96 per cent alcohol and boil. Allow to cool and titrate with a 
seminormal solution of alkali, nsing phenolphtalein as indicator. Wai is very 
slightly soluble in cold alcohol and it is unnecessary to take into acoonnl its acidity. 
7.8 cc of semtnormal alkali eqoal 1 gram of commercial stearic add. 

(2) Determination of paraffin.— Add to the neutralized solotion in the flask 3 or i 
cc of a 50 per cent solotion of caustic soda. Attach a reflax condenser and heat t he 

solution for an hoar to saponify the fats and waxes. Distil off the bolk t^i' the 

alcohol and transfer the reside >sal ntaining a mixture of dried silica and 

short asbestos. Dryal 100. Pulverise and exhansl with warm chloroform (or po- 
trolenm ether), which dissolves the whole <d* the paraffin and the myricyl alcohol of 

the wax. 

For the separation of invricvl alcohol and paraffin, Horn lias suggested acetj 
tion and the solution of the resnltanl ether in ^\ icial acetic acid, in which paraffin 

• Cbem. X :t . 1889, I I, ' 

ICentr. Org. ftirWaarenk a Teohnol., 1801, LIS. 

: Helfenberger Ann.. 188 '. 21 

1 P.Jean, Boll. Boo. Chim., 1801, p. 3. 



860 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

oble. According to him, wax after saponification yields 50 per cent of matter 
soluble in glacial acid (uiyricyl alcohol). In following bis directions we have not 
been able to separate the paraffin nor to obtain a constant quantity for the part of 
the wax soluble in chloroform. 

Our method is to distil off most of the chloroform, transfer the residue to a tared 
capsule, evaporate, dry at 100, and weigh A weighed portion of this dried residue 
i> to he transferred to a snail flask (with a reflux condenser attached), together with 
4 or 5 cc of anhydrous acetic acid to etherify the myricyl alcohol, which becomes 
soluble in it on warming, and the whole heated for an hour. After the completion 
ot the reaction the product is transferred to a glass tube marked for 10 cc, and 
graduated to tenths. Rinse the flask with a little boiling acid, and add to the pre- 
ceding. The total volume should be aboutO cc. Close the tube with a cork, place in 
a water bath kept at 90% aud shake till complete emulsification is effected. Let it 
remain qniet in the bath till it becomes clear again, and then read of the volume of 
paraffin floating on the surface' of the acid. Reemulsify, allow to become clear, aud 
read, and so on till the readings give concur bant results. One gram of paraffin equals 
1.:!.", to 1.40 cc. On deducting the weight of the paraffin from the total weight of 
the chloroform extract, the residue represents the portion of the wax dissolved in the 
chloroform i uiyricyl alcohol). 

(3) I) termination of the stearin. — The portion of the saponified product insoluble 
in chloroform is composed of the soaps formed from the stearin and stearic acids, and 
from the cerotic acid. To determine the first, dissolve this residue in boiling water, 
filter to separate tin; silica and asbestos, and decompose the filtrate by a slight ■ 
of dilute nitric acid to Bel free the fatty acids. Again filter, and in the filtrate titrate 
the glycerine, after neutralization and precipitation by acetate of lead, by means <>f 
potassic bichromate. Live grams of glycerine are equivalent to 95 grams of stearin. 
In cases where the percentage of stearin is but slight, it would be preferable to sa- 
ponify 10 to 'J.', grains, and determine glycerine in the product by the bichromate 
method. 

By the above method can be determined : 

CI) Stearic acid by alkalimetry. 

(2) Paraffin by volume of matter insoluble in glacial acetic acid. 

('.\) Part of the wax by deducting the paraffin from the weight of the residue solu- 
ble in chloroform. 

Stearine by titrating tin; glycerin. 

(7)j The residual portion of the wax fcerotie acid) by difference. 



PATENTS RELATING TO THE MANUFACTURE OF ARTIFICIAL COMB 

FOUNDATION. 

Fifteen patents have been issued for the manufacture of artificial comb 
and comb foundation. Arranged chronologically follows a brief de- 
scription of them : 

No. 32258, ISSUED MAY ;. 1881. 

This being" the first one on record it is given almost in full. 

SAMUEL WAGNBR. — ARTIFICIAL HONSYCOMB. 

Specification forming pari of Letters Patent) No. 1254. fFkole No. 32258, dated May 7, 

L861. 

To all whom it may concent : 

Bo it known that I, Samuel Wagner, of fork, in tbe county of York, and State of 
Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful article of manufacture : and [do hereby 
declare that the following, taken in connection with the drawings which accompany 
and form pari of this specification, is a description of my invention so full and exact 
as to enable those skilled in the art to practice it. 

My new manufacture consists in a substitute for the central division or foundation 
of thecomb built by bees, either with or without the whole, or any portion of the 
walls forming the hexagonal cells projecting from tin division, which substitute is 
artificially and suitably formed upon both sides or faces, and of auy suitable material 
which is snsceptihle of receiving the desired and necessary configuration. 

A mold is prepared, similarly to those used in the production of printers' type, in 

which solids are cas which will accurately till the interior of a newly-formed cell of 
a natural comb of the kind of which it is desired to form the central division. Num- 
bers of type or solids being produced t hey are " locked together " into a •• form " like 
printers' type, ami facsimiles of the assemblage are produced by either of the well 
known processes of stereotyping <>r electrotyping. 
Two of these stereotypes or electrotypes are made to act, by means of a press oi 

otherwise, ui)on thr opposite sides or faces of an inter posed sheet of Suitable material, 

which action gives tbe sheet the configuration desired. It is l»csi to obtain in this 
division or foundation sheet a an iform degree of tenuity, which can only be done by 
closely imitating the natural waxen comb, which is effected i>\ so placing the dies 
that the apici a formed at the juncture of the three rhomboidal fa< 
shall be exactly opposite the juncture of the sides of t luce fa. ets ofadja* ent hexagons 
form i n^ the reverse side. The angles of the rhomboidal facets should be as nearly as 
possible 109 ami 7 1 , and the dies should not be permitted to approach each other so 
nearly as to reduce the thickness ot the interposed material much less than the one- 
hundredth part of an inch, should it be deemed desirable to form the bexi 
walls of the ells, or any portion of them, t he type or solids should be formed with ■ 

hand or projection around them of about the one t wo hundred! h part of an inch in 

thiokness, and some taper may be given to the type from tbe band toward the rhom< 
boidal facets. If the walls of the cells are to be extended to any considerable distance 
from the central web or division provision should be made for the admission of air into 

861 



862 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

the spaces left vacant by the withdrawal of the dies from the material beiug formed, 
which can be accomplished by making a cavity in each hexagonal projection of the 
die, and with a removable valve in one of the facets of each hexagon, or at the apex 
formed by the juncture of the facets. Amongst the many materials which may be 
used may be mentioned compounds of which wax forms a part — rubber and gutta- 
percha, and compounds of which they or either of them are components, papier- 
mache", etc. Thin sheets of metal, reduced to the tenuity of foils, may bo used, 
though I prefer good nonconductors of heat improved by being rendered waterproof 
if not so. 

Very many materials and compounds not mentioned may be used, but it is unneces- 
sary herein to attempt to specify them, as my invention is not confined to, and is in- 
dependent of any particular material. It may be mentioned that with some materials 
heat as well as pressure may be used in shaping the artificial comb foundation. Many 
variations may be made in my invention which, though not improvements upon it, 
embody its essence. Forexample the relative arrangement of the impressing dies may 
be varied so as to produce a different arrangement of cells on the obverse and reverse 
sides of the comb foundation from that shown ia the drawings, in which case the 
thickness of the division plate would have to be increased provided the pyramidal 
depressions made by the three rhomboidal facets terminating each hexagon were re- 
tained. Such depressions might be dispensed with and the foundation sheet might be 
impressed so as to leave slightly projecting ridges of the material from which the sides 
of the cells can bo extended on each side of the sheet. But I do not recommend any 
departure from the closest imitation possible of the natural central sheet of the comb 
as formed by bees. To render the artificial comb foundation acceptable to the bees it 
is not requisite that any portion of the sides of the cells should be formed thereon as 
the salient angles on either side formed at the edges of the described depressions' are 
a sufficient guide to the bees, and from them they will commence the waxen sides of 
their hexagonal cells. By the employment of my invention in beehives perfect regu- 
larity of combs and their kind is insured, and the production of drones prevented to 
any extent desired. I propose to take honey from store combs built upon my artificial 
foundations by removing the full combs from the hives and by slicing off the natural 
waxen superstructure; the artificial central portion of (he comb being then replaced 
in the hive will bo again built upon by the bees, saving to them always the elaboration 
of wax and the time required for the construction of this part of t lie eomb which con- 
sumes more time in its natural construction than other parts of the comb of equal 
weight, because fewer laborers can be engaged upon it at one time than on other por- 
tions. 

I claim as a new article of manufacture, an artificial snbsi itute for the central divi- 
sion of comb built by bees, which presents to tliem, on both sides thereof, guides for 
the construction or continuation of the sides of the comb cells whether the same is 
constructed with or without the whole or any portion of the sides of the cells. 

s.\m. Wacjnkr. 

Witnesses : 

I). S. Wa«;ni:i{, 
John a. Urlmbn. 

No. 116066, ISSUED MAY v>:5, L871 

Homer a. King, of New fork, olaimsa machine for making a eomb, having about 
one-third of the cell ready for completion by the bees. To prevent the dies from 
sticking to the wax, they an kept moistened with vinegar. 

So. 134411, issi ED DECEMBER 31, 1872. 

Joseph Williams, Of Bean Station, Tenn., claims B device for making artificial comb, 
in which the cells, instead of standing perpendicular to t lit- foundation, are inclined 






SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HOXEY. 863 

toward the center of the comb, as is the case with the natural product. His appa- 
ratus was designed to produce a comb in every respect resembling the natural comb 
built by bees. 

When the dies described in the drawings have been properly adjusted the " honey- 
comb is produced by pouring through an opening in the top of the die casings and 
frame melted beeswax. This fills the dies, and when the latter are separated a per- 
fect comb appears. 

"This comb may then be placed in the hive and will bo used by the bees, thus 
saving the insects the labor of building combs, and causing them to spend the time 
otherwise appropriated to the above work in the gathering and storing of honey." 

No. 198648, ISSUED DECEMBER 25, 1877. 

A. E. McConnell, of New Orleans, claims an invention for supplying thin strips of 
wax, at certain distances apart in the hive, whereby bees are enabled to econom- 
ically and rapidly construct their combs. This device is hardly to be considered as 
an artificial comb or foundation, but is so classed by the Patent Office. 

No. '200549, ISSUED FEBRUARY 19, 1878. 

This is the invention of Alfred B. Lawther, of Chicago. The object of the inven- 
tion is to "provide combs of suitable form and mat ••rial, ready-made, for honej bees 
to store their honey in, thus saving them the labor of preparing the wax and ((in- 
structing combs in the usual manner, thereby greatly increasing their power to 
gather honey." 

The comb is made complete of a web of paper, cloth, or suitable material, which 
after molding is sat orated with melted wax. The c\c<ss of coating is thrown off by 
a centrifugal machine. The "advantage arising from my invention is that combe 
constructed accordingly can be filled and emptied repeatedly without breaking, the 
honey being extracted by means of a centrifugal machine, or as commonly done with 
other honeycombs when it is desired to use them a second time." 

No. 207057, ISSUED A.UGU8T 13, 1-7- 

Martin Metcalf, of Battle Creek, Mich. The foundation is made of cloth sat mated 
with starch, so that when stamped it will retain the impression of the dies. The 
whole is then coated with wax. 

"The ordinary wax foundation now used frequently softens with heat and will sag 
fey reason thereof, and its own weight added to that of the gathering beee causing 
an elongation of the indentations and consequent enlargement of the completed bee 
cells. Such enlarged cells are totally unfit for the cradles of working bees, and the 
nueen will bnl seldom deposit her eggs in them, and when she does drones onlj batch 
therefrom." This defect, it is claimed, this invention will avoid. 

No. 906696, issi ED OCTOBEB l. I- 

In favor of John E. I letherington, of ( 'heriy Valley. N. V. This invention eat 
in the " eombinat ion with a comb foundation of wires which piss through the founda- 
tion and prevent it from sagging and stretching and also strengthen it. making it 
less liable to breakage while being bandied. 11 

So. 216336, ISSUED MAI 13, L« 

By John V. Dot wiler, of Toledo, Ohio This patent claims an improvement in artifi- 
cial bases for honeycombs. The object of the Invention ll to overcome the dithcul- 

ties which pertain to foundations marie wholly of I s«-:i\. The base of metallic 

foil is OOated <»u both sides with beeswax, -'ind this tonus t h> Um comh. It is 

claimed that only a minimum quantity of wai Is required by this kind of foundation 



864 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

and that it is uot subject to the serious objections that arise in using an interposed 
textile fabric or paper. When these substances are used the bees spend most of their 
time endeavoring to pull out the threads or particles of paper, or in cutting the 
threads, as they can easily do. The indentations of a hexagonal shape for the cells 
are made with the usual machinery. 

No. 234226, ISSUED NOVEMBER 9, 1880. 

By Andrew F. Bonham, of Seven Mile Ford, Va. This invention employs two 
semimolds, made preferably of plasterof Paris, and provided upon their faces with 
triangular pyramidal projections fitting together nicely, so as to produce the impres- 
sions required. The molds are first soaked in water till they are thoroughly moist 
and their faces are then dipped in melted wax, which will adhere without sticking, 
owing to the faces having been soaked. Next, the molds are closed together and some 
pressure exerted, so as to form of the wax adhering to the mold a single sheet or cake, 
After permitting these to cool for a short time the apparatus is dipped into cold water 
and cautiously opened, when the foundation sheet may be readily removed and the 
operation repeated. It is claimed that the foundation sheet produced in this manner 
is stronger, more easily handled, and freer of defects than those made by other pro- 
cesses. 

No. 246049, ISSUED AUGUST 23, 1831. 

By Frances A. Dunham, of De Pere, Wis. The material for the foundation, bees- 
wax, is fed to the rolls of a machine, which is described, and of such a nature that, 
after passing through, the result is a sheet of beeswax impressed with a series of 
(•••lis having cylindrical wails and three-sided or triangular bottoms, those on one side 
breaking joints with the bottoms of the cells on the other, and the tops of the walls 
of the cells lying in one and the same horizontal plane, at right angles to the sides of 
the cells. By making the cells complete it is claimed that the time of the bees is 
saved and they at once begin to secrete honey without taking up the time for forming 
comb, as is usually the case. It is claimed that the base of the foundation requires 
very little tilling, as the queen will immediately deposit eggs, and that the work of 
feeding the larvae and lengthening up the walls of the cells goes on together, without 
interfering with the gathering of the main honey crop. It is also claimed that the 
comb can b" finished without generating so great a heat in the hives that tli«' bees 
are forced into swarming. 

No. 258251, ISSUED MAY 23, 1882. 

By Wm. C. Pelham, of Maysville, Ky. This is a machine for manufacturing honey- 
comb foundations. The dies are arranged as rolls upon a oy Under. The dies are 

made <«f type metal, although any hard metal may be used. The dies are not set per- 
pendicular, 1 m t slightly inclined, SO thai they may be more readily withdrawn from the 

wax after the impressions are made. The dies are bo arranged as t«> leave a portion 

of the cell wall complete, at leasl one-tenth of an inch in height, and more i f possible. 
The cells made are of the regular hexagonal shape. 

\<.. 283442, ISSUED AUGUST 21, L883. 

By E. Beverlj Weed, of Detroit, Mich. The inventor claims thai bj a peculiar 
construction and arrangement of die rolls he is able to make a comb foundation with 
cells of any desired depth and in anj state of perfection. Sit improvement in the 

machine consists In constructing dies with anOUl cell formers and in covering them 

with a substance adhesive to water, which prevents the wax from sticking to the 
dies. The substance used Is dental rubber and the die rolls are so arranged as to 
have both of them immersed In water. He claims thai he can make comb found at ion 
with high walls and still have it discharge freely from the dies. 



SUGAK, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 865 

No. 397046, ISSUED JANUARY 29, 1889. 
By Lewis Augs. Aspinwall, of Three Rivers, Mich. The inventor claims that efforts 
have been made to produce artificial honeycombs, but difficulties have arisen pre- 
venting such combs being fully available. If the artificial comb is of wax it is liable 
to become too soft in hot weather for handling, and can not be used a second time. 
If made of tin, celluloid, hard rubber, or similar material, it is expensive and not ac- 
ceptable to the bees, which require a surface of wax upon whieh to deposit their 
honey, and where efforts have been made to coat sueh combs with wax the comb was 
liable to scale and become injured. When papei hus been formed into a comb, the 
same has not the strength necessary for handling, and where such artificial combs 
have been placed in centrifugal separators for removing the honey, they have col- 
lapsed and become unfit for further use. The inventor finds that a strong comb, 
adapted to repeated use, can be made of a slab of end-grain wood, with holes bond 
into the same parallel to the grain of the wood. These can be coated with wax by 
dipping into the melted material and the excess thrown off with a centrifugal ma- 
chine. The inventor prefers bass wood, but docs not limit himself to this particular 
kind. The slab is about the usual thickness of a honeycomb, and the holes are bored 
into the same of about tin- .same size and in about tin- position of those in the natural 
honeycomb. In all instances the holes are parallel to the grain or fiber of the wood 
so that the partitions between the cells may be as thin as possible and the walls 
smooth. After the holes are bored the prepared slab is introduced into the melted 
wax and the wax penetrates and tills the pores of the wood, and the whole of it will 
be coated with a thin film of wax. A combination of beeswax with rosin or other 
gums, which is less expensive, may be employed instead of natural wax— this com- 
pound being acceptable to the bees and accomplishing the same result, 

METALLIC COMB. 

A honeycomb made wholly from metals and afterwards coated with 

wax, is described in Quinby'a Bee Keeping by L. C. Boot, edition of 

1884, page 103. The author of the book also say s, speaking of artificial 

comb, " That cells of full depth with such comb have not yet been 

offered for commercial purposes." He expresses 1'is belief that such 
artificial comb will yet be made, and says that as long ago as 1870 Mr. 
Duiuby made extensive experiments in this direction. 

Comb was made out of tin plate by crimping it and placed in the 
center of a piece of worker comb, when "the queen occupied it, filling 
it with eggS, just as she did the natural cells adjoining, and in due time 
the young bees matured equally well. * * * Sheet iron was also 

used. * * * The bees would lengthen the artificial cells with wax." 

The American lice Journal of duly 25, 1888, however, Bays that ar- 
tificial comb was made at that time with cells one half inch m depth, 
which is the lull depth and a little more, of the natural Cell. Ii is 

therefore seen that Mr. Quinby's anticipations have been realized at an 

earlier date, even, than he ant leipated. 

LIS! OF mam i H rURERfl 01 COMB am> COMB FOUNDATION 

.1. v. Caldwell, ( lambridge, 111. 

Charles Dadant A Son, Hamilton, Hancock County, 111.; 1-*'.'. production 59 
pounds: L890, product 35,000 pouinK 

P. C. Brkel, Le Saenr, Minn. 

W. T, Falconer Man.nfaoto.ring Company, Jamestown, V Y. 

Willuir (i. Pish, [thaea, V Y. ; 10 and .'><> cents per pound. 

M. II. Hunt, Bell Branch, Mich, 



866 POODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

EL Kietchmar, Red Oak, Iowa. 

1. <.. Newman A Son, xi40 Easl Madison street, Chicago, 111. 

Novelty Company, Rock Falls, 111. 

Smith & Smith, Kenton, Ohio. 

E. B. Weed, Grand River avenue, Detroit, Mich. 

Jacoh Wollerskeim, Kaukanua, Wis. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF BEESWAX- ARRANGED BY YEARS. 

1848. 
Composition of beeswax. Brodie, Phil. Trans., 1.848, 1. 159. 

1858. 
Detection of stearic acid in beeswax. Fehling, Dingl. polyt. Jour., L858, 117, l'l'7. 

L860. 
Detection of adnlterants in beeswax. Rabineand, Jour, de pharm. d'Anvers, l< s t>0, 
531: Wittstein's Vier^eljahreschrift, 1861, x»!': Free. Zeit. f. a. Chem., L862, 
115: Dingl. polyt. Jonr., 1862, 163, 80. 
Adulterations of beeswax. II. Eager, Pharm. Centralhalle, 1862, 3, 207. 
Detection of paraffin in beeswax. Landolt, Dingl. polyt. Jonr., 1862, L60, 224; Freal 
/ait. f. a. Chem., 1862, 116. 

L863. 
Detection of adulterants of beeswax. Dullo, Wagner's Jahresber., 1863, 670j Fres. 
/ait. f. a. Chem., 1864,510. 

186-1. 
Detection of vegetable wax in beeswax. Dingl. polyt. .Jour., 1864, 172, 156. 
Detection of paraffin in beeswax. Payen, Jonr. de pharm. ft de chim., t. 2, i. 2:1:;; 
Fr.-s. Zeit. f. a. Chem., L865, 490. 

L866. 
Determination of paraffin in beeswax Lies-Bodart, Comptes rend., 1866,62,749] 

Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1866, 252; Jonrde chim. med., t. 2. .see. :.. 297. 
I u 1. 1 minat ion of paraffin in beeswax. R. Wagner, Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem.. L866, 279. 

L867. 
Detection of paraffin in wax. R. Wagner, Dingl. polyt. Jour., 1867, L85, 72. 
Bleaching beeswax. .). !•'. Babcock, Proc. Amer. Pharm. Lssoc, L867, 96 and 372. 

L869. 
Adulteration of beeswax. II. BZager, Pharm. Centralhalle, 1869, l<>. 19; Polyt. Cem^ 
tralblatt, 1869, 1 !<»•;: Chem. NewB, L869, 19,310; Fres.Zeit, f. a. Chem., 1870, 
138 and 419. 

L870. 
A« l n 1 1 « 1 ;i t ion of beeswax. B. Davies, Pharm. Jour. Trans., Sept., l s 7<>; amer. Jour. 

Pharm., Nov., L870; Proc. amer, Pharm. Assoc, 1871,312. 
Adulteration «»i beeswax with Japan wax. II. Hager, Pharm. Centralhalle, L870} 
1 1, 209; Jour, de pharm. «t de chim., Maj , 1870; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 
1871,311. 
Detection «'i resin In beeswax, Pharm. Jour. Trans.. Sept., 1*70. 

L871. 
Optical analysis of beeswax. II. Poeklington, Pharm. Jour. Trans., 1871,2, si. 

L872. 
I detection ofceresin in beeswax. Pharm. I Centralhalle, 1872, ::7i ; Amer. Jonr. Pharm., 

1873, 1 1 : Proc. \m« 1. Pharm. Unoo., L878, i v 7. 
Formation of beeswax. W. \. Schneider, Ann. Chem. Pharm., 162, 235; Jonr. 
( hem. Boo., L872, 25, •-::'.»; Bienen Zeitung, L872, 281, 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 867 

1-7:;. 
Detection of adulterants in beeswax. H. Eiager,< omnient. Pharm. Germ., 1873, 135. 
Specific gravity of waxes used as adulterants. E. Dieterich, Arch. Pharm., 1873,20, 

Tests for adulterants of beeswax. E. Donath, Dingl. polyt. Jour.,— ,205, 131; Jour. 

Chem. Soc., 1873, 26, 194; Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1873, 325; Apoth. Zeit., 

1873, No. 1; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., L873, 367. 

L874. 
Adulteration of beeswax. Amer. Jour. Pnarm., 1874,510; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Ae 

1875, 232. 
Detection of Japan wax iii beeswax. Ch. Mene, Comptes rend.. 1874, 78, 1544; 

Dingl. polyt. Jour., 1874, 214, 87; Jour. Chem. Soc., 1874, 27. L026. 
Wax adulterated with paraffin. Rep. de Pharm., Nov., 1874; Amer. .Jour. Pharm., 

1875,66; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1875, 198. 

1-7:.. 
Adulteration of beeswax with paraffin. A. W. Miller, Zeit. d. osterr. Apoth. Ver., 

is?:., in; Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1875, 200. 

1876. 
Crystalline structure iu beeswax. R. Rottger, Jahresber. d. phys. Ver. /. Frank- 
furt a. M.. 1876, 77. 23; (hem. Centralblatt, 1878,575; Jour. Chem. Soc., 

1879, 36, 171. 
Composition of beeswax. Schalfejeflf, Ber. d. chem. Gesell., 1876, 9, 278, and 1688. 
Detection of resin in beeswax, ('hem. Centralblatt, l*7i». 151; Jour. Chem. 8 

L877, 365. 
Manufacture of.artiflcial wax. Chem. Centralblatt, l v 7'.. 

1877. 
Adulteration of beeswax. Bedford, 1'mr. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., i v 77. 144 and 543; 

Pharm. Jour. Trans., 1*77, 316, 
Action of iodine <>n beeswax. T. A. Edison, \nier. Chemist, 1877; Chem. NVws, 

1x77. 36, L38. 
Detection of paraffin in beeswax. II. Hager, Pharm. Centralhalle, 1*77. L8, ill. 
Detection of rosin in beeswax. E. Schmidt, Ber. d. chem. Gesell., 1877, 10, v ^7; 

Jour. Chem. Soc. 1*77. 642; do." 1879, 283; Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem., L878, 509; 

Ai.h.f. Pharm. 1878,212; Proc, Amer. Pnarm. Lssoc., L879, 134. 

L878. 
Estimation of paraffin in beeswax. W. T. Thompson, Chem. News, 38, L67; Jour. 

(hem. SOC, 1*7*, 1010. 

1879. 
Analysis of wax. F. Becker, Corr. Blatt. Ver.analyt (hem.. :.'. 57; Chem. Zeit., l v 7:'. 

No. 12; Amer. Join-. Pharm., 1879, 556; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1880, 292; 

fres. Zeit. f. a. chem.. L880, 241. 
Detection of paraffin in wax. M. Buchner, Sohweiz. Wochenschrift f. Pharm., Ma\ 

2, 1879, 149; Zeit d. beterr. Apoth. Ver., 1879,154; imer. Jour. Pharm., 1879 

Dingl. polyt. Jour., 1879, 281, 272; Chem. Centr ilblatt, L879, 267; Jour. chem. 

Boo., 1879, 36, 675; Free. Zeit f. a. Chem., 1880, 240. 
Electrical properties of beeswax. W. I.. Ayrton, Phil. Mag. [5], •'•. L32; Jour. 

Chem. Soc., L879, 36, 127. 
Is beeswax a rancid fat 1 Pharm. Zeit., 1879,229; Lmer. Jour. Pharm., 1879,902. 

L880. 
Examination of \\;>\. II. Eiager, Pharm. Centralhalle, L880, 119; lmer, Jour. 

Pharm., L880, 147; Dingl. polyt Jour., L880, Jour. Chem. - 

1**1. H>. 316. 

1881. 
Determination of hydrocarbons in beeswax. \. ll. Allen ami \\ . I. rhomson, 

Chem. News, 1881, L3, 267. 
Detection of resin Ln beeswax. Jean, Chem Zeit., L881, 303; Lmer, Jonr. Pharm., 

1881, 907. 



868 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

1882. 
Constitution of beeswax. E. Zatzeck, Monatsh. f. Chem. — . :>. t>77: Chem. Central- 
blatt, 1882, 626; Free, Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1883, 618. 
Detection of paraffin in beeswax. E. Dieterich, Wagner's Jahresber., L882, 1028. 
Detection of ceresin in beeswax. Peltz, .lour, de pharm. etdechim [5], 5,154; Arch. 

d. Pharm., 1882, 471; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1882, 363* 
Manufacture of wax by the bees. Hutchinson, Pharm, Jour. Trans., 1882, 24. 

L883. 
Adulteration of beeswax. Amer. Bee Jour., May 25, i vx :; 
Analysis of beeswax. O. Hehner, Analyst, 1883, 16; Jour. Chem. See., 1884, 779; 

Dingl. polyt. Jour., 1884, 251, 168; Free., Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1886, ill. 
Analysis of beeswax. P. Hub], Dingl. polyt. Jour.. 1883, 249, 338 : Amer. Jour. 

Pharm., 1884, 479; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1885,200; Jour. Chem. Soc, 

1884, 46, 506. 
Detection of tallow in beeswax. Amer. Bee Jour., 1883, 298. 
Determination of carnauba wax in beeswax. E. Valenta, Pharm. Centralhalle, L883, 

24, 117: Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1884, 257. 
Microscopic examination of wax. E. Dieterich, Geschaftsber. d. Papier a, Chem. 

Fabrik in Helfenberg, bei Dresden. 1883; Fres. Zeit. t a. (hem.. 1884, 567. 
Tests for purity of beeswax. P. F. Resell, Bienenvater, — ; Amer. Bee Jour., i vs : ; . 

211. 

1884. 
Acid constituents of beeswax. F. Nafzger, Lieb. Ann., 1884, 224, 225; (hem. Central- 

blatt, 1884,886; Jour. Chem. Soc, 1884. It!, 297. 
Analysis of beeswax. Stiiroke, Lieb. Ann., 1884, 283, 295; Chem. Zeit., 1884, 8, 860. 
Composition of beeswax. C. Bell, Lieb. Ann., 1884, 22:5, 269; Chem. Zeit., 1884, 8, s ."»!». 
Non-acid constituents of beeswax. F. Schwalb, Lnaug. Diss., Stuttgart, 1884; Chem. 

Centralblatt, 1885, 16, 354; Jour. (hem. Soc, L885, 18,962. 
Testfi for purity in beeswax, ('has. Dadant, Amer. Pee Jour., 1SS4, SI. 

1885. 
Bleaching of wax. M. II. Barnouvin, Rep. <lc pharm., 1885, 6; Pharm. .lour. Trans., 

1885,616; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1885,201. 
Detection of anima] fat in beeswax. Amer, Bee Join-.. L885, i!> and 298. 

Purification of beeswax. I 'harm. .lour. Trail 8. . 1885, 148. 

1886. 

Analysis <>(' w ax. Pharm. Commission d. deut. Apoth.Ver., Arch. f. Pharm., 1886,24, 
190. 

\n;il\ se der I •■(•! be a. Wachsarten. Benedikt, published in Berlin, L886. 

Composition of beeswax. • P. Schwalb, Lieb. Ann., L886, 235, L06; .lour. Chem. Soc, 
1887, 124; Proc Amer. Pharm. Assoc, L887, 182. 

Das Wachs u. seine technische Verwendung. Louis Sedna, Vienna, A. Hartleben, 
L886. 

Detection of adulterations in beeswax. A. Clarency, Jour, de Pharm. el de (him. 
[6], 13,27; Chem. Centralblatt, L886, 17. L74. 

Determination of purity of beeswax. C. L. Lochman, I'roc. Penna. Pharm. Assoc, 
1886, 204. 

Feeding of was to bees. N. W. McLain, Rep. of Entomologist, U. 8. Dept. of Agri- 
culture; Amer. Bee Jour., L886, 296, 

is sT. 

Determination of specific gravity of waxes, p. Dieterich, Pharm. Zeit., 1887, 32, 37; 
Iron. d. Pharm., 1887, 132; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1887,183; Pharm. Rec- 
ord, Feb. 15, 1887; Pharm. .lour. Trans., Mar. 19, L887, 770. 

Dimethylamidoazobenzol tor ooloring beeswax. Ires. Zeit. f. a. Chem v 1887, 106. 

1888. 

Acetyl number in waxes. Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1888, 528. 

Adulteration of beeswax. Amer, Bee .1 Vug. l. 1888, 199. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 869 

Analysis of beeswax. Buchner, Chem. Zeit., 1888, 1276. 

Analysis of beeswax. F. HiibL Chem. Zeit., 1888, 1277; Pharm. Zeit. f. Russl., 1888, 

579; Proc. Anier. Pharni. Assoc., 1888, 6£ \ Amer. Jour. Pharm.. 1888, 561. 
Analysis of beeswax. C. M. Morse, Thesis for Mass. College of Pharmacy, 1 vxv . 

1889. 
Analysis of beeswax. E. Dieterich, Helfenberger Annalen, 1889, 21. 
Detection of paraffin in beeswax. H. Hager, Pharm. Centralhalle, li Amer. 

Jour. Pharm., 1889, 561; (hem. Centralblatt, L5; Free. Zeit. f. a. 

Chem., 1889, 480; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 1890, 505; Jour. Chem. Soc., L891, 

122. 
Analysis of beeswax. Rottger, Chem. Zeit.. 1889, 1375. 
Apparatus for the investigation of fats, waxes, etc. Schadler, Chem. Centralblatt, 

1889, 2, 861. 

1890. 

Analysis of beeswax. Buchner, Chem. Zeit., 1890, 1707. 

Analysis of beeswax. A. and P. Buisine, Bull. Soc. chim., Par., 1890, 3 ser., t. 3, 567; 

Chem. Zeit. Repert., 1890, 226. 
Analysis of beeswax. A. and P. Buisine, Bull. Soc. chim., Par., L890, 3 ser.. t. 

do. t. -1, 465; Chem. Zeit. Report., 1890, 320. 
Analysis of beeswax. R. Kayser, Chem. Zeit., 1890, 686. 

Analysis of beeswax. Rottger, Chem. Zeit.. 1890, 606; do., 1112; do.. 1473. 
Bleaching of wax. I". S. patent, 421,904, Feb. 25, 1890. 
Detection of rosin in beeswax. Chem. Zeit., 1890, 1171. 
Determination of specific gravity of waxes. A. Gawalowski,Oe] a. Fett. Industrie; 

Chem. Centralblatt, 1890, 2, 502. 
Test for specific gravity of beeswax. Amer. Bee Jour.. 1890, 629. 

1891. 
Analysis of beeswax. Benediki u. Mangold, ( hem. Zeit., 1891, 171. 
Analysis of beeswax. A. and P. Buisine, Bull. Soc. chim. Par., 1891, 3 ser., t. 5 

Chem. Centralblatt, 1891,2, L0; Jour.SocJ hem.Ind., L891, 10,729. 
Analysis of beeswax. Valenta, Centr. Org., f. Waarenknnde, 1891, 112. 
Analysis of beeswax. P.Jean, Bull, |3oc. chim. Par.. 1891, 3 ser., t. 5, No. 1. 
Analysis of beeswax. K. Mangold, (hem. Zeit., 1891, 7'.".'. 

Bleaching of wax. A. and P. Buisine, .lour, de pharm. etde chim., May 15, 1891, 526. 
Bleaching of wax. M. II. Barnouvin, Jour.de pharm. et <!<• chim., Jnlj 1. 1891, t>. 
Determination of paraffin in waxes. F. M. Horn, Zeit. f. angew. Chem. 63; Chem. 

News, L891, 63, L65. 
DetectioD <>f paraffin in beeswax. Phar. Jour. Trans., 1891, 851. 
Detection <>i rosin in beeswax. Rottger, Chem. Zeit., 1891, 15. 
Petroleum benzine asareagenl for waxes. II. Hager, Central Org. f. Waarenknnde, 

1891, l. 239; Chem. Zeit., L891, 307. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF WAXES USED IN ADULTERATING BEESWAX- 
ARRANGED BY YEARS. 

Melting points <>f variouu waxes r> S. Proctor, Chem. and Dro Uner. 

.lour. Pharm., 35, 527. 

1865. 
Sumach wax. J. Batka, Free, Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1865, 191; Chem. Centralblatt, 
L865, 12. 

1868 
Adulteration of Japan wax with water. ArcL f. Pharm., Jan. and I - ill; 

Hoc. Amer. Pharm. Aj 179. 

18808— So. 13 1G 



870 FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

Black \\ax from Madras. Chem. News, May 22, L868; Proc Amer. Phann. Assoc, 
- % 6. 

1860. 
Carnauba wax. X. S. Maskelyne, Chem. News, March, I860. 145. 

1870. 
Carnauba wax. .lour. f. prakt. Chem., 1860; Arch. d. Phann., April, L870; Proc 
Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1871. 308. 

1ST I. 
Collection of Japan wax. Pharm. .lour. Trans., L874, 125; Proc. Amer. Pharm. 
Lssoc, L875, 218. 

L876. 
Collection of Japan wax. <iehe*> Handelsber., Arch. Phann.. ls7t'>. :;7!: Pharm. 

.lour. Trans., 1876, i»h>:'.: Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, L876, L93. 
Reactions of Carnauba wax. Etep.de pharm.. L876, 710; New Remedies, ISTT. I09j 
Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 1*77. 283. 

1877. 
Collection of Japan wax. Amer. Jour. Pharm., Sept., 1*77. 152; Proc Amer, 
Pharm. Assoc. 1878, 295. 

1S78. 

Wax contained in the leaves of Ilex paraguayen8t8. P. X. Arata, Gazzeta chimioa 
italiana, 7. 366; Jour. Chem. Soc, 1878, l\ 324. 

L879. 

Japan wax. E. Buri, Arch. d. Pharm., May, 1870 (3). 11. 103; Proc Amer. Pharm. 
Usoc.,1879, 136; Amer. .lour. Pharm.. 1879, 361; .lour. Chem. Soc. L879, 36, 
L037. 
table wax. A. Meyer, Arch. d. Pharm.. 1879, !»7. 1L".»; Amer. Jour. Pharm., 
Dec, 1S7!». 606; Proc Amer. Pharm. ASSOC, 1880, -J'X\. 

L880. 

Collection of Chinese insect wax. Gardener's ( 'hron., ( >ct . 2, L880; Pharm. .lonr. 

Trans., Oct. 16, L880; Proc Amer. Pharm. Assoc. L881, 305. 
Qualitative reactions of various waxes. E. Birschsohn, Zeit. d. osterr. Apoth. 

Vereins, 1.8,306; Pharm. Jmir. Trans., L880,749; Proc Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 

L880, 291; Amer. .lonr. Pharm., L880, 303. 

1882. 

Specific gravity of waxes. E. Dieterich, Arch. d. Pharm.. June, 1882, L55; Proc 

Amer. Pharm. ASSOC, L882, 363. 
Myrtle wax. Pharm. .four. Trans.. L883, 61. 

L884. 
( onstitnents of carnauba wax. II. Stiircke, Lieb. Ann.. L884, 223,225. 
Egyptian wax. K. Labler, Rundschau, L0, 289; Chem. Centralblatt, L884, 497, 
Specific gravity of paraffin. E. Sauerlandt, Chem. Zeit., L884, 7, - vv . 
Specific gravity of paraffin. Free., Zeit. f. a. Chem., L884, 256. 
stable wax. M. Baehner, Chem. Centralblatt, L884, 257. 

1885. 
Chinese insect wax. Muth-Rasmussen, Amer. Bee Jour., 1885, 50, 787, 
Ocotilla wax, from Fonqaieria tplendens. II. <'. !»<• S. Abbott, Amer. .lonr. Pharm., 
L885, 81; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, L885, 17!». 

White inseel wax. Pharm. .lonr. T'iiic., Mai'. II, L885, 755; Proc Amer. Phann. 

Issoc, 1885, 201. 

L886. 
taclepias wa < , Kassner, DieOel u. Fett-Industrie, 22 86; Chem. Zeit., 1886, 390. 
Chinese inseel wax. C. Theilmann, Amer, Bee Jour., 1886,24. 
Glycerine, determination in waxes bj permanganate. Wanklyn and Fox, Chem, 
N.u I 15. 



SUGAR, MOLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 871 

1888. 
Composition of Japan wax. Eberhard, Rundschau, 1888, 844; Proc. Amer. Pharm. 
Assoc, 1889, 654. 

1890. 
African insect wax. ( hem. and 1 hrug., May 17. 1890, m;7 : Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 

1890, 506. 
Japan wax. O. Kleinstiick, Chem. Zeit., L890, 1303; Jour. Chem. Soc., L890, 9, 1072. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF HONEY— ARRANGED BY YEARS. 

1867. 
Adulteration of honey. Proc Amer. Pharm. Assoc., (.867,61,341. 

1868. 
Adulteration of honey. Pharm. Jour. Trans., Sept., 1868; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 
1869, 186. 

1870. 
Honey trade of the United States. P>. F. Stacey, Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1*7<», 

141. 
Tinted honey. Pharm. Jour. Trans., Dec., 1870; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1871,313. 

1871. 
Tinted honey. Pharm. Jour. Trans., Jan. 7, 1871; Amer. Jour. Pharm., L871, vv 

L872. 
Adulteration of honey. 1'. Molitor. Bienen Zeitung, 1872, 
Artificial honey. C. T. V. Si. -hold. Bienen Zeitung, 1872, 280. 
Artificial honey and honey substitutes. Dzierzon, Bienen Zeitung, Jan., L872, 1. 
Fermentation of honeys. .!. Boussingault, Ann. de chim. et de phys. [4 j, 26, 362; 

.lour. Chem. Soc., L872, 25, 906. 
M ehring's artificial homy. W. B. Schuller, Bienen Zeitung, 1872, 7f>. 

L873. 
Use of locust flowers for flavoring artificial honey. Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., i x 7:;, 
180. 

L874, 
Constituents of honey. E. Erlenmeyer and A. v. Planta, X. Report. Pharm., 
610; Chem. Cenualblatt, 1874, 5, 790. 

L875. 
Adulteration of honey. Srhw.it/. Wochenschrift, Jan. 15, 1875 : Amer. Jour. Pharm., 

L875, 346; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1875, 232. 
Boxwood-flower honey (artificial). J. If. France, Pharmacist, 1875, 322; Proc, 

Amer. Pharm. Lssoc., L876, 105. 
Colloida and crystalloids in honey. E, Dieterich, chem. Centralhalle, i s T7 
Amer. Jour. Pharm., i v 77, 11 s ; Pro.. liner. Pharm. Lssoc., i v > 

Homy dew. H. Hohman, l.amlw. Wimu'Iis. Stat. . I'D, til ; al». .lour. Ch.n 

1877, 2, i'ii i. 
Poisonous honej in Armenia. Pharm. Jour. Trans., i s 77. 184; Pro.-. Amer. Pharm. 

Lssoc., 1878, 529. 
Prosecution for adulterating honey. | England. | Analyst, i v 77. 2, 167. 

1878. 
Adulterated honey. Amer. Bee Jour., 1878,29. 
Composition of honey. J.C. Brown, Analyst, I v 7^. 8, 267 : Jour. < Ihem. So< .. i v 

969. 



872 



FOODS AXD FOOD ADULTERANTS. 



1879. 
American honey. Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1879, 102. 
California honey. Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1879,320. 
Ethiopian honey. E. Villiers, Comptes rend., 1879, ss . 292; Her. d. chem. GreselL, 

1-7!'. 12, 671; Jour. Chem. Soc,, 1879, 36, 450. 
Fennel honey. Pharm. Zeit., L879, 719; Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1880, 132; Proc. Amer. 

Pharm. Assoc., 1880, 60. 

1880. 
Adulteration of honey. v. Blanta. Dirigl. polyt. Jour., 1880, 238, 356; aba. Jour. 

Chem. Soc., 1881, 10, 310. 
Use of glucose for adulterating honey. Amer. Bee .lour.. 1880, L0. 

L881. 
Artificial honey. Prof. A. J. Cook, Amer. Bee Jour., 1881, 315. 
Artificial honey. Amer. Bee Jour., 1881, 244. 
Teal for adulteration in honeys. Amer. Bee Jour., 1881, 13. 
I r&e of glucose lor mixing honeys. Amer. Bee Jour., 1881, 393. 

1882. 
Adulteration of honey, v. Planta, Zucker Iud., 1882, 388; Bied. Centralblatt, 188% 

575; Jour. Chem. Soc, 1882, 42, 1327; Chem. Centralblatt, 1883, 10. 

L883. 
Adulteration ol' honey. Amer. Bee Join.. 1n v :>, 526. 

Artificial comb honeys. Century, Oct., 1883; Amer. Bee Jour., 1881, 211. 
Canadian homy. Canad. Pharm. Jour., Sept.. iss;; ; Pharm. Jour, Trans.. Nov. l<», 

1883,305; Broe. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, L884,203. 
Detection of glucose. Amer. Bee Jour.. L883, 377. 
Aconite flower honey. Pharm. Jour. Trans.. Sept. 29, ins:;. 212. 
Orange-blossom honey. Amer. Bee Jour., 1883,377; Ibid., 1883, 121. 
Poisonous honev. Pharm. Jour. Trans., 1 >ec. 29, 1883, 504. 

1884. 
Adulteration of honey. Amer. Bee Jour., L884, 51. 
Adulteration ol' honey. Amer. Bee Jour.. 1884,229. 

Analysis ol' honey. < ). llehner. Analyst, 1884,9,64; Jour. Chem. Soc.. 18,444. 
Analytical methods for honey. J. Sielxn. 1'ivs. Zeit. 1". a. ( 'hem.. 1884, 21. 137. 

Anal} thai methods for honey. \Y. Leu/. Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1884, 21. 135. 
Formic acid in honey. Pharm. Jour. Trans.. Nov. 1, 1884, 343. 
Gallisin. E.Schmidt, Ber. d. chem. GeselL, L884, 17, I000and2456. 

Lecture on t he adulteration of homy. ( >. llehner. Analyst. 1884,9, 181. 

Poison of the hymenoptera. Carlet, Comptes rend., 1884, 1550. 

Spurious California honey. Stearns and Smith, Amer. Bee Jour., L884, 339. 

Test tor punt y of homy. Prof, w . ( . Preston, Amer. Bee Jour., 1884,36. 

L885. 
Adulteration of honey. H. Hager, Pharm. < lentralhalle, L885, 26, 327 ; Chem. < lentral- 

hlatt. L885, 764 : Jour. Chem. Soc . 1886,50,282. 
Adulterations of honey. Doo.surles falsifications des matieres alimentaires, 1885^ 

Adulteration of honey. II. W. Wiley, Amer 
Analysis of honey, w Bishop, J. Pharm., 

18,111. 

Artificial honey. Imer. Bee Jour., 1885, 123; Ibid., 627. 

Analytical methods for honey . If. Barthe, Pharm. Centralhalle, 1886,26,87. 

Ash of honey. <>. Behner, Analyst, L885, L0, 217. 

Composition and adulteration of honey. J. Sieben, Bied. Centralblatt, 1885, 

Jour. Chem. Soc., 1885, 18,698; Analyst, L885, L0, 34. 
Detection of glucose in honeys. Rev, J. <;. Teeter, Lmer. Bee Jour., L885, Aug. 26 j 

ibid., 1886j Oct. 27. 



Apiculturist, 1885,3, No. 12. 
— [5], L0, 159; Jour. Chem 



1 885, 



134: 



SUGAR, MoLASSES, CONFECTIONS, AND HONEY. 873 

Dextro-rotary honeys. Amthor. Eepert. anal. Chem., 1885, 163. 

Estimation of water in honeys. H. W. Wiley and F. V. Broadbent, Chem. News, 

1885, 52, 280; Jour. Chem. Soc., 1886, 50. 282. 
Fermentation of honey. E. Dieterich, Gesehaftsber. d. Papier n. Chem. Fabrik in 

Helfenberg, bei Dresden, 1885-'86; Helfenberger Annalen, 1886-'87; Fres. 

Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1888, 231. 
Poisonous honey from gelseminm. Pharm. Jour. Trans., Ang. 29, 1885, 188; ibid., 

448; Lancet, Aug. 22, 370; Pharm. Zeit., Nov. 25, 18* 
Proper time to harvesl honey. K. Zwilling, Bied. Centralblatt, 1885, o 7 : Jour. 

chem. Soc., 1885, 18, 590. 

L886. 
Adulterated honeys. Amer. Pee Jour., lssti, 216. 
Artificial honeys. Amer. Bee .lour.. 1886, :!07. 
Characteristics of honeys from different sources. C. S. Commings., Amer. Jour. 

Pharm., L886, 539; Proc. Amer. Pharm. kssoc, Inst. 182. 
Detection of artificial honey. (;. Ambnhl, Schweitz. WochenschrirH f. Pharm., , 

IT. 85; Chem. Zeit., 1886, To. 
Fermentation of honey. R. Kayser, Ber. aber d Vers. bayr. Vertretr. <1. angew 

(hem.. 1886, 91; Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem.. 1888, 231. 
Nectar of Mow ers. A. v. Planta, Zeit. f. physiol. ( 'hem.. 1886, 10, 227 : Chem. ( 'entral- 

blatt, 1886, IT. 367. 
Poisonous. Chem. Zeit., L886, 27. 

Adulterated honeys. Report od adulteration of food. Ottawa. Canada. 1887, 58. 
Eucalyptus honey. Thomas Caraman, Progres medicale, April it;. 1887; Pharm. 

.lour. Trans., L887, 1016; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Ase 7, 1x2. 

Examination of honey. R. Kayser, Fres. Zeit. f. a. (hem.. 1887, 27, 2; (hem. News, 

1888, Lug. 24, 97; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., 1889, 199. 

Poisonous constituents of Trebizonde honeys. Pharm. Jour. Trans., 1887, :*!'T; ibid, 
540; Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc, 1888, 411. 

L888. 
Adulterations of honey. Amer. Bee Jour., 1888, 682, ibid., 810. 
Analytical method- for honeys. Fres. Zeit. f. a. Chem., 1888, 28, 231. 
Artificial English honey. Amer. Bee Jour., 1888, 691. 
History of adulteration of honey. Chas. Dadant, Amer. Bee Jour., 1888,537. 

Composition of lioiie\. I»en>einann. .lour, de ehim. et de pharm., l vvv 

Honey-canning factory | A. ( ihristie, Smithland, low a |, Amer. Bee Jour., 1888, LOO. 

Food juice of bees. A. v. Planta, (hem. Centralblatt, 1888, 673. 

Examination of honey. R. Kayser, Fres. Zeit. f.a. Chem., 1888,231. 

Production ofl -\ m California. Amer. .lour. Pharm., 1888, 126; Proc. Amer. 

Pharm. Assa .. 1888, HO. 
Artificial honey. Amer. Bee Jour., 1888,709. 
Protection wanted againsl adulteration. Aiimt. Bee 
Strained honey, purity, adulteration, etc. Amer. Bee 
i if oleomargarine for adult* rating honey. Amer. !'•< 

1889. 
Analysis of honey, v. Raumer, Zeit. f. angew, Chem. 
Eucalyptus honey. Arch. d. Pharm., 1889, ^7:;: Proc. 
Eucalyptus honey. Maquennb, Ann. de chim. ei de i 

r l of bees. A. v. Planta, chem. Centralblatt, 1889, i". 1 '. 1 . 

Right-rotarj honeys, v. Lippman, Zeit. f. angew. Chem., 1889, No. 20; taalysl 

14,20. 
Right-rotarj honeys. Unthor and Stern, Zeit. f. angew. Chem., i vv ''. 575; Inalyst, 

1889, li. 238; \ r Jour. Pharm., 1890,13; Proc. Lmer. Pharm. Lssoc., 1890, 



Jour., 1888, 265. 




.lour.. 




]'.< . Jour., i sv ^ 




607. 




Amer. Pharm. Assoc. 


. 1890,506 


hys., 1889, 1. 17 





874 FOODS AND FOOD ADULTERANTS. 

1890. 
Action of phenols on honey. A. Ihle. Chem. Zeit., 1890, 14,3; Chem. Centralblatt, 

1890, 1, 390. 
Adulterated honey. Anier. Bee Jour., 1890, 211. 
Adulterated extracted honey. Auier. Bee Jour., 1890, 214. 
Bogus honey. C. C. Miller, Amer. Bee Jour., 1890, 505. 
Examination of honey. Chem. Zeit., 1890, 42, 686. 

Honey. Vierteljahreschrift f. Chem. d. Nahr. u. Genussmittel, 1890, 2, 188. 
Orange blossom honey not likely to be pure. Amer. Bee Jour., 1890. 580. 

1891. 

Presence of dextrin in pure honey. W. Mader, Arch. Hyg., 1S90, 399; Vierteljahre- 
schrift fiber Nahrungs. u. Genussmittel, 1890, 311. 

Date honey (date sirup). Karl Gaab, Chem. Zeit., 1891, 118. 

Dextro-rotary honeys. O. Haenle, Analyst, 1891, 79. 

Examination of honeys. Mansfeld, Vers. d. Nahrungs Chem. u. Mikroskopiker in 
Wien, Oct. 13, 1891; Chem. Zeit.. 1891, 1053 and 1541. 

Eucalyptus honey. Pharm. Era. Feb. 15. 1891, 107. 



INDEX. 



A. 

Page. 

Adulterants used for houey 807 

Adulterations of confections 736 

Affidavit honeys, description of 796 

Affidavits as to purity of certain honey samples 7!»7 

Apparatus and chemicals, tests of (>.')8 

Artificial comb and comb foundation 814 

Ash of honey 648, 745, 748, 792 

Aspinwall, Lewis Augs., patent for comb foundation 865 

B. 

Bamouvin, If. H.. bleaching of wax 

Batka, J. B., Japan wax 824 

Becker, F., quantitative analysis of wax 844 

Beeswax (see also wax) 814 

methods adopted for analysis of 817 

of guaranteed purity 816 

Benedikt and Mangold on \ . Htibl'a method for examining wax 

detection of stearic acid iu wax 

Bensemann, B., right- rotary honey 

Bibliography of honey v Ti 

wax 

Bluing of sugars 674 

Bonham, Andrew 1'.. patenl for comb foundation 

Buchner, detection of ceresin in wax 

examination of bleached wax 

vegetable \wix 

Buisine, A. and P., bleaching of wax 821 

composition of beeswax 851 

Hun. E., composition of Japan wax 

< 

( landies. (Seei infections. 

Cane sugar. Sm sugar. | 

I i i. -in Sa Paraffin. 

< Iharactei and scope of the work 

Clarenoy, A., detection of adulterants In wax 

Coloring mattei for candies 

found in candies 743 

of confeel ions. ii. \. Weber r40 

test for, l <.. Wiechmanu 

i 



ir INDEX. 

Page. 

Comb, artificial M4 

foundation 81 1 

description of samples analyzed 815 

manufacturers 865 

metallic 865 

patents relative to 861 

Confections, absence of mineral coloring matter in 739 

adulterations of 736 

analysis of, by Department of Agriculture 714,734 

H. A. Huston 720,736 

H. H. Nicholson 721,737 

W. B. Rising 723,737 

M. A. Scovell 724,738 

S. P. Sharpies 726, 738 

W. C. Stubbs 728,739 

Shippen Wallace 730,738 

II. A. Weber 731,740 

F. G. Wiechmanu 733. 710 

analysis of ti;'. I 

coloring matter of 738, 740, 71 - 

composition of insoluble residue of 7:24 

mineral coloring matter in 736 

presence of starch in 737 

remarks on analysis of 736 

Copper and tin. detection of. in molasses and syrups 718 

presence of. in confections 739 

D. 

Dadant, Charles, history of honey adulteration 71ti 

Daily. Josiah, patent for manufacture of mapleine 712 

Date honey 71!' 

1 tomerara crystals, manufacture of in 

Detwiler, .John V.. patent lor comb foundation 869 

I '• no-rotary honey 809 

Dialysis of honey 809 

Dieterich, E., crystalloids and colloids of honey 810 

cific gravity of waxes 824 

Donath, E., qualitative examination of wax v -'~> 

Dullo, detection of Japan wax 834 

Dunham, Frances A., patenl for comb foundation s »;i 

E. 

Ethiopian honey 750 

r. 

Fehling, detection of stearic acid in wax v -' s 

Fennel honej 

I'ci mental Ion of honey 811,812 

Franchimont, A. P. N. . Bnmatran hone} 750 

I .. 

Qaab, Karl, date honey 749 

rmentation of honej ' s ii 

Gawalowski, A., determination of the specific gravitj of wax 842 

Qeith, l... detection of stearic acid in irax 827 



INDEX. Ill 

Page. 

Glucose, commercial, ose of, for adulterating honey 807 

detection of, in honey 813 

presence of, in molasses and sirups 711 

test lor 645 

11. 

Haenle, O., a new method of testing honey 809 

polarization of honeys •- 

Hager, H.. detection of adulterants in wax 826 

cane and starch sugar in honey 812 

Japan wax in beeswax 

paraffin in wax 83 

ric arid in wax v - v 

on the production of artificial honey 747 

petroleum benzine as a qualitative reagent for waxes 

11. -liner. 0., analysis of honey 748 

Hetherington, John K., patent for comb foundation 863 

Hirschsohn, E., qualitative examination of various waxes 839 

Honey, action of phenols on 811 

adulterants used in • 807 

adulteration, letter from C. < >. Perrine relative to 746 

affidavits a- t<» purity of certain samples 797 

• analyses, bj I department of Agriculture 779, 802 

II. A. Huston 751, 7m; 

i I. II. Nicholson 755,786 

W. B. Rising 7r»7. 7*7 

M A. Scovell H 

S. l'. Sharpies H 

W. ( . Stubbs 769,790 

Shippen Wallace 771. 790 

II. A. Weber 773.792 

. Wiechmann 77»".. 792 

analysis of methods prescribed 634 

anah tical methods used bj tin- 1 department of Agriculture 7: , ."'> 

analyzed in Inn:. - a 

and its adulterations, by 11. W. Wiley 744. NOl 

artificial, manufacture of 717. 7 18 

ash of 745,748 

bibliography of ,s7t 

classification of samples examined by Shippen Wall act- 791 

color of 717' 

crystalloids and colloids of 810 

date 

detection of cane augarin Mi 

glucose in M2. M3 

dextro-rotary samples 

dialysis of 

Ethiopian 

eucalyptus, analyses of 7i;> 

and n - expose' 748 

examination of B10 

fennel 

fermentation of 811,819 

biston of adulteration of. bi Charles Dadanl . 7it> 



IV INDEX. 

Page. 

Honey, inverted sucrose as an adulterant 748 

labels of Department Bamples 781 

methods of judging parity 745, 809 

notes, relative to right-handed rotation of 809 

poisonous 749, 750 

polarization of 745, 809 

pollen in 740 

propert Lea of pure 715 

pure, analyses of by I Jepartnient 7!»0 

F. G. Wiechmann 7!»3 

reducing sugar in 746 

sucrose in Tlti 

Sumatran 750 

tinted 750 

use of cane sugar for adulterating 807 

glucose for adulterating 807 

inverted cane sugar for adulterating 808 

Hiil.l, analysis of wax 848,849 

Huston, II. A., analyses of confections 720, 736 

honey .■ 751. 786 

molasses and syrups 683, 713 

Bugars 650, 675 

Letter of transmittal 636 

I. 

Ihle, A., action of phenols on honey 811 

Instructions to chemists, letter of 633 

Iodine number in waxes, method of determining 818 

J. 

Jean, analysis of wax 859 

K. 

Kassner, C, new source of wax 825 

Kayser, ('., analysis of white wax 850 

fermentatj f honey si l 

Kmg, Homer A., patent for making comb foundation 862 

L. 

Labels, on Department hone] samples 7X1 

Labler, K., Egyptian wan 820 

Landolt, detection of paraffin in wax 829 

Lawther, Alfred B., patent foroomb foundation 869 

Letter of transmittal, II. A. Huston 636 

II. H. Nicholson 688 

W. B. Rising 638 

M. A. Bcovell 638 

s. P. Sharpies 636 

W. C.Stubba 639 

Bhippen Wallace 649 

II. A. Webei 644 

l Q. Wiechmann 646 

II. W. Wiley 631 

I. N i-Bodart, detection of paraffin in was .- 830 

Lippman, v., right-rotary honey * ,,!> 



INDEX. V 

M. 

Page. 

McConnell, A. E., patent for comb foundation 863 

Mangold, analysis of wax by 857 

and Benedikt, on v. HiibPs method for examining wax 855 

Mansfeld, examination of honey 810 

Manufacturers of comb foundation 865 

Mapleine, an imitation of maple syrup 712 

patent of Josiah Daily, for the manufacture of 712 

Maple syrup, adulteration of 712, 713 

sugar, notes on 673, 675 

Melting point of waxes, methods of determining 818, 838 

Metallic comb foundation 865 

Metealf, Martin, patent for comb foundation 863 

Meyer, A., vegetable waxes 824 

Miller, A. W., determination of paraffin in beeswax 842 

Molasses, agents used in bleaching of 713 

and sirups, adulterations of, denned 711 

analyses of, by Department of Agriculture 707, 718 

H. A. Huston 683, 713 

H. H. Nicholson 6m, 714 

W. B. Rising 688, 715 

M. A.Scovell 6!U. 715 

S. P. Sharpies 604, 716 

W. ('. Stubbs 698,716 

Shippen Wallace 701, 717 

II. A. Weber 703,717 

F. (i. Wieehmann 705, 717 

popular idea of adulterations of 710 

presence of glucose in 711 

chief points to be considered in the examination of 635 

definition of : 710 

presence of copper in 711 

tin in 711 

Ifone, ( . M.. methods of anah Bis of wax 835 

N. 

Nicholson, II. 1 1., analyses of confections 721,737 

honeys 755, 786 

molasses and sirups 686,714 

sugars 662, 676 

letter of transmittal 696 

Notes on honey analyses 7 v 'i 

relating to right-handed polarization of honey 80S 

o. 

( >]>en-kettle Bugars. descripl ion of 676 

met hod of manufa. 1 uie of o7l< 

Ozokerite, detection of) in wax 

P. 

I'm ratlin ami ceivsin, determination ot. in wax 

detection of, In wax 

determination of, in wax 832,841,841 

specific gravity of MS 



VI INDEX. 

Page. 

Patents relative to comb foundation 861 

mapleine 712 

raven, detection of paraffin in wax 829 

I VI ham. Wm. C, patent for comb foundation Mil 

JYltz. detection of eeresin and paraffin in wax 832 

Perrine, C. 0., letter from, relative to honey adulteration 746 

Tine-tree honey and pine-tree dew, H. W. Wiley 798 

Planta, v.. adulteration of honey, with glucose Nil' 

Plngge, P. C., on poisonous honey 749 

Poisonous honey 7-U), 750 

Polariscopes, comparison of 649 

Polarization of honey 745,809 

preparation oi' solutions for, Wiechmann *>17 

R. 

Rabineaud, detection of vegetable wax in beeswax 834 

Raumer, E. v., fermentation of honey 812 

Reducing sugar, determination of 648 

Regnard, detection of stearic acid in wax 827 

Right-rotary honey 809 

Rising, W. B., analyses of confections 72.S. I'M 

honey 7.">7. 7S7 

molasses and sirup 6SS. 71;"> 

sugar 654, 677 

letter of transmittal 638 

Root, L. C, metallic comb foundation Mi.") 

Rosin, detecl ion of, in beeswax 833 

Rottger. R.. crystalline structure of wax 821 

detection of" rosin in wax 833 

vegetable wax in beeswax 834 

specific gravity of waxes. 827 

S. 

Samples, collection of 646 

Banerlandt, E., specific gravity of paraffin 843 

Schmidt, E., detection of rosin in beeswax *^> 

SeovHl. M. A., analyses of confections 721. 7:;* 

honey 760, 788 

molasses andsirup 691,715 

sugar W>. 677 

l<i t . i of transmittal « i:; ' s 

Sedna, detection of rosin in wax < s:!: > 

determination of paraffin in wen 842 

Sharpies, 8. P., analyses of confections 726, 738 

honey 764,789 

molasses ami Birnp 694, 716 

sugar 660,678 

Letter of transmittal 689 

Shutt, I rank 'I .. correspondence with regarding certain wax samples 814 

Strap '!'■ batU He, method of manufacturing 716 

Simp, definition of 710 

Specific gravity, determination of, in was 841,842 

of paraffin ,s,:; 

w :in«h - 824, 828 

method of determining 819,838 



INDEX, VII 

Page. 

Starch, presence of, in confections 737 

Stearic acid, detection of, in wax 827, 828 

determination of, in wax 859 

Stearin, determination of, in wax . 860 

Stubbs, W. C. analyses of confections 7_' v . 7:.'.' 

honey 769, 790 

molasses and sirup 6!* s . 716 

sugar 662. 679 

letter of transmittal 639 

Sucrose, determination of 646 

Sumatran honey 750 

Sugar, analyses of, by Department of Agriculture 671, 681 

H. A. Huston 650, 675 

H. H. Nicholson 652. 675 

W. B. Rising 654,677 

M. A. Scovell 656,677 

S. P. Sharpies 660. 678 

W. C.Stubbs 662,679 

Shippen Wallace 664,680 

H. A. Weber 666 

P. G. Wiechmann 669 

bluing of f>71 

definition of terms used in describing, in Louisiana <'"7!» 

examination of a fcesl sample of 649 

•• extra ( ." low polarization of (576 

genera] notes on analyses of 673 

high polarizing 676 

inverted, as a honey adulterant 748 

method of inversion of, in analytical work 682 

the coloring of n7l 

T. 

Tallow, detection of 828 

determination of, in wax • 

Teeter. J. <;., detection of glucose in honey ml' 

Tin and copper, presence of, in molasses and simps 719 

chloride, use of, in coloring sugars 674 

detection of, in molasses ami Birups 648,718 

Tinted hone\ 7;,o 

V. 

Yalent.i. 1... detenu mat ion of earnanl>a wax v|.; 

Vegetable « ax 

Villiers, A.. Ethiopian honej 750 

w. 

Wagner, Samuel, artificial hone^ comb gffl 

Wagner, b'., detection of paraffin and ceresin in wax 

determination of paraffin in wax Ml 

Wallace, shippen. analyses of confections 

honey 771. 790 

molasses and sirups 701.717 

sugar 

letter of transmittal Gil 



VIII INDEX. 

rage. 
Water, determination of, in confections, sugars, honeys, and molasses (Wiech- 

mann) 648 

in honey 745 

Wax, abstracts of papers relating to 819 

acetyl number, determination of, in 843 

adulterants of 846 

analysis of 857, 859 

analytical data by MM. Buisino 852 

Benedikt and Mangold 856 

Mangold 85* 

regarding various kinds of, by MM. Buisine 822, 823 

artificial, manufacture of 821 

bibliography of 866,869 

bleaching of 821. 823 

carnauba, determination of 843 

case of adulteration of, with paraffin 831 

crystalline, structure of 821 

Chinese insect 825 

composition of 851 

constitution of 821 

detection of adulterants in 820, 827, 830, 835 

ceresin in 831 

Japan wax in 834 

ozokerite in 832 

paraffin and ceresin in 828 

in 829, 830, 832 

rosin in 833 

tallow or animal fat in S28 

vegetable wax in 834 

determination of acid number in 818, 851 

alcohols in 852 

ceresin and para Hi m in 856 

ether number in 851 

hydrocarbons in 853 

iodine number in 852 

melting point in 818. 838 

paraffin in 841,842,859 

specific gravity of 819,838,841,842 

stearic acid in 859 

stearin in 860 

f:ill«>\\ in 857 

Egyptian 820 

\. Hiiitl's method for examining s ".r> 

Japan 82 I 

composition of 825 

kinds and properties of 820 

methods <>(' analj sis of, used In I department 835 

microscopic examination of s .' ; "> 

new source <•! 

petroleum benzine as s qualitative reagenl foi < s 27 

qualitative examination of 825 

various kinds of x'.N 

quantitative analysis of 84d 

methods for 841 

specific gravity of 824, 827, 828 



I 



INDEX. IX 

Page. 

Wax, trial of qualitative tests by the Department 839 

vegetable 820, 824 

white, analysis of 849, 850 

Weber, H. A., analyses of confections 731, 740 

honey 773, 792 

molasses and syrup 7<>:;. 717 

sugar 661 

letter of transmittal 6 U 

Weed, E. Beverly, patent for comb foundation 864 

Wiechmann, F. ('>., analyses of confections 73:;. 7b» 

honey 776, 7 l Ji' 

molasses and syrups 7< 15, 7 1 7 

sugar 669,680 

Letter of transmittal 646 

Wiley, H. W., honey and its adulterations 80] 

letter of instructions 631 

transmittal 631 

to Frank T. Sbutt, regarding certain wax samples 814 

pine-tree honey dew and pine-tree honey 798 

Williams, Joseph, patent for making comb foundation 862 

Y. 

Yellow clarified Bugars, coloring of <>~i 

Z. 

Zatzeck, E., constitution of wax >_'l 

O 



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INIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 






3 1262 09216 6270 



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